Novel sequences of subgroup J avian leukosis viruses associated with hemangioma in Chinese layer hens.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) preferentially induces myeloid leukosis (ML) in meat-type birds. Since 2008, many clinical cases of hemangioma rather than ML have frequently been reported in association with ALV-J infection in Chinese layer flocks. RESULTS: Three ALV-J strains associated with hemangioma were isolated and their proviral genomic sequences were determined. The three isolates, JL093-1, SD09DP03 and HLJ09MDJ-1, were 7,670, 7,670, and 7,633 nt in length. Their gag and pol genes were well conserved, with identities of 94.5-98.6% and 97.1-99.5%, respectively, with other ALV-J strains at the amino acid level (aa), while the env genes of the three isolates shared a higher aa identity with the env genes of other hemangioma strains than with those of ML strains. Interestingly, two novel 19-bp insertions in the U3 region in the LTR and 5' UTR, most likely derived from other retroviruses, were found in all the three isolates, thereby separately introducing one E2BP binding site in the U3 region in the LTR and RNA polymerase II transcription factor IIB and core promoter motif ten elements in the 5' UTR. Meanwhile, two binding sites in the U3 LTRs of the three isolates for NFAP-1 and AIB REP1 were lost, and a 1-base deletion in the E element of the 3' UTR of JL093-1 and SD09DP03 introduced a binding site for c-Ets-1. In addition to the changes listed above, the rTM of the 3' UTR was deleted in each of the three isolates. CONCLUSION: Our study is the first to discovery the coexistence of two novel insertions in the U3 region in the LTR and the 5' UTR of ALV-J associated with hemangioma symptoms, and the transcriptional regulatory elements introduced should be taken into consideration in the occurrence of hemangioma.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Avian Leukosis virus (ALV) of subgroup J (ALV-J) belong to retroviruses, which could induce tumors in domestic and wild birds. Myelocytomatosis was the most common neoplasma observed in infected flocks; however, few cases of hemangioma caused by ALV-J were reported in recent year. RESULTS: An ALV-J strain SCDY1 associated with hemangioma was isolated and its proviral genomic sequences were determined. The full proviral sequence of SCDY1 was 7489 nt long. Homology analysis of the env, pol and gag gene between SCDY1 and other strains in GenBank were 90.3-94.2%, 96.6-97.6%, and 94.3-96.5% at nucleotide level, respectively; while 85.1-90.7%, 97.4-98.7%, and 96.2-98.4% at amino acid level, respectively. Alignment analysis of the genomic sequence of ALV-J strains by using HPRS-103 as reference showed that a special 11 bp deletion was observed in U3 region of 3'UTR of SCDY1 and another ALV-J strain NHH isolated from case of hemangioma, and the non-functional TM and E element were absent in the genome of SCDY1, but the transcriptional regulatory elements including C/EBP, E2BP, NFAP-1, CArG box and Y box were highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all analyzed ALV-J strains could be separated into four groups, and SCDY1 as well as another strain NHH were included in the same cluster. CONCLUSION: The variation in envelope glycoprotein was higher than other genes. The genome sequence of SCDY1 has a close relationship with that of another ALV-J strain NHH isolated from case of hemangioma. A 11 bp deletion observed in U3 region of 3'UTR of genome of ALV-J isolated from case of hemangioma is interesting, which may be associated with the occurrence of hemangioma.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was first isolated from meat-type chickens in 1988. No field cases of ALV-J infection or tumors in layer chickens were observed worldwide until 2004. However, layer flocks in China have experienced outbreaks of this virus in recent years. The molecular epidemiology of ALV-J strains isolated from layer flocks was investigated. The env genes of 77.8% (21/27) of the ALV-J layer isolates with a high degree of genetic variation were significantly different from the env genes of the prototype strain of ALV-J (HPRS-103) and American and Chinese strains from meat-type chickens (designated ALV-J broiler isolates). A total of 205 nucleotides were deleted from the 3' untranslated region of 89.5% (17/19) of the ALV-J layer isolates. Approximately 94.7% (16/17) of the layer isolates contained a complete E element of 146 to 149 residues. The U3 sequences of 84.2% (16/19) of the ALV-J layer isolates displayed less than 92.5% sequence homology to those of the ALV-J broiler isolates, although the transcriptional regulatory elements that are typical of avian retroviruses were highly conserved. Several unique nucleotide substitutions in the env gene, the U3 region, and the E element of most of the ALV-J layer isolates were detected. These results suggested that the env gene, E element, and U3 region in the ALV-J layer isolates have evolved rapidly and were significantly different from those of the ALV-J broiler isolates. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of layer tumor diseases induced by ALV-J.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>As a typical retrovirus, the evolution of Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) in different infectious ecosystems is not characterized, what we know is there are a cloud of diverse variants, namely quasispecies with considerable genetic diversity. This study is to explore the selection of infectious ecosystems on dominant variants and their evolutionary dynamics of ALV-J between DF1 cells and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. High-throughput sequencing platforms provide an approach for detecting quasispecies diversity more fully.<h4>Results</h4>An average of about 20,000 valid reads were obtained from two variable regions of gp85 gene and LTR-U3 region from each sample in different infectious ecosystems. The top 10 dominant variants among ALV-J from chicken plasmas, DF1 cells and liver tumor were completely different from each other. Also there was a difference of shannon entropy and global selection pressure values (?) in different infectious ecosystems. In the plasmas of two chickens, a large portion of quasispecies contained a 3-peptides "LSD" repeat insertion that was only less than 0.01% in DF1 cell culture supernatants. In parallel studies, the LTR-U3 region of ALV-J from the chicken plasmas demonstrated more variants with mutations in their transcription regulatory elements than those from DF1 cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data taken together suggest that the molecular epidemiology based on isolated ALV-J in cell culture may not represent the true evolution of virus in chicken flocks in the field. The biological significance of the "LSD" insert and mutations in LTR-U3 needs to be further studied.
Project description:To assess the status of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) in wild ducks in China, we examined samples from 528 wild ducks, representing 17 species, which were collected in China over the past 3 years. Virus isolation and PCR showed that 7 ALV-J strains were isolated from wild ducks. The env genes and the 3'UTRs from these isolates were cloned and sequenced. The env genes of all 7 wild duck isolates were significantly different from those in the prototype strain HPRS-103, American strains, broiler ALV-J isolates and Chinese local chicken isolates, but showed close homology with those found in some layer chicken ALV-J isolates and belonged to the same group. The 3'UTRs of 7 ALV-J wild ducks isolates showed close homology with the prototype strain HPRS-103 and no obvious deletion was found in the 3'UTR except for a 1 bp deletion in the E element that introduced a binding site for c-Ets-1. Our study demonstrated the presence of ALV-J in wild ducks and investigated the molecular characterization of ALV-J in wild ducks isolates.
Project description:The existence of novel endogenous retrovirus elements in the chicken genome, designated EAV-HP, with close sequence identity to the env gene of avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroup J has been reported (L. M. Smith, A. A. Toye, K. Howes, N. Bumstead, L. N. Payne, and K. Venugopal, J. Gen. Virol. 80:261-268, 1999). To resolve the genome structure of these retroviral elements, we have determined the complete sequence of two proviral clones of EAV-HP from a line N chicken genomic DNA yeast artificial chromosome library and from a meat-type chicken line 21 lambda library. The EAV-HP sequences from the two lines were 98% identical and had a typical provirus structure. The two EAV-HP clones showed identical large deletions spanning part of the gag, the entire pol, and part of the env genes. The env region of the EAV-HP clones was 97% identical to the env sequence of HPRS-103, the prototype subgroup J ALV. The 5' region of EAV-HP comprising the R and U5 regions of the long terminal repeat (LTR), the untranslated leader, and the 5' end of the putative gag region were 97% identical to the avian retrotransposon sequence, ART-CH. The remaining gag sequence shared less than 60% identity with other ALV sequences. The U3 region of the LTR was distinct from those of other retroviruses but contained some of the conserved motifs required for functioning as a promoter. To examine the ability of this endogenous retroviral LTR to function as a transcriptional promoter, the EAV-HP and HPRS-103 LTR U3 regions were compared in a luciferase reporter gene assay. The low luciferase activity detected with the EAV-HP LTR U3 constructs, at levels close to those observed for a control vector lacking the promoter or enhancer elements, suggested that these elements function as a weak promoter, possibly accounting for their low expression levels in chicken embryos.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Endogenous viruses integrate into host genomes and can recombine with exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV). In this study, we analyzed the interaction of endogenous retrovirus 21 (ev21) with the ALV-J in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken. Two ALV-J strains M180 and K243 were isolated from late-feathering and fast-feathering Chinese yellow chicken flocks, respectively. The env gene of the two strains showed 94.2-94.8% nucleotide identity with reference ALV-J strains. Compared with the env gene and the LTR of ev21 and M180, the nucleotide identity of LTR was 69.7% and env gene was 58.4%, respectively, especially the amino acid identity of env gene as low as 14.2%. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the env gene and the 3'LTR showed that M180 was closely related to ALV-J, and was located in a distinct group with ev21 in the phylogenetic tree. Using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), we next demonstrate that the envelope protein of ev21 does not interact with the M180 envelope protein. We further show that the envelope protein of ev21 cannot activate ALV-J LTR promoter activity using luciferase-reporter assays. qPCR and western blot analysis revealed that envelope protein of endogenous ev21 can facilitate the expression of PKR at 6h post ALV-J infection (hpi) and facilitate the expression of ISG12 and CH25H at 24 hpi. However, the expression of the env gene of M180 strain was not significantly at 6 and 24 hpi. We conclude that there is no evidence of recombination between endogenous retrovirus ev21 and ALV-J strain M180 in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken, and envelope protein of ev21 can affect the expression of host ISGs, but appears not to influence the replication of ALV-J strain M180. This is the first report of interaction among the endogenous retrovirus ev21, ALV-J and the late-feathering chicken.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Five isolates (JS09GY2, JS09GY3, JS09GY4, JS09GY5, and JS09GY6) of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) were isolated from six infected commercial layer flocks displaying both hemangioma and myeloid leukosis (ML), which shared the same parental line, in China in 2009. RESULTS: All six of the commercial layer chickens examined showed hemangiomas on their body surface or feet. Some developed hemangiomas in their internal organs, causing hepatorrhexis and blood loss. Histopathologically different stages of hemangiomas with ML in the liver, heart, and spleen, were observed. Five viral isolates were obtained from infected DF1 cells incubated with the spleen tissue or serum of the birds from the six flocks. By full genome sequences analysis, a 19-nucleotide repeat sequence was identified in the primer binding site (PBS)-leader region of isolates JS09GY3 and JS09GY6, located between sites 249 and 250 according to the sequence of reference strain HPRS103, and also present in Rous sarcoma virus strain Schmidt-Ruppin B (RSV-SRB), Rous associated virus type 1 (RAV-1), and Rous associated virus type 2 (RAV-2). The predicted Gp85 proteins of isolates JS09GY2, JS09GY3, JS09GY5, and JS09GY6 were highly variable. Interestingly, the E elements of these four examined isolates showed a key deletion at site 30, which produced a new c-Ets-1 binding site. An 11-bp insertion was also found in the E element of isolate JS09GY3 located between bp 66 and 67 according to the sequence of reference strain HPRS103, while almost all previously reported Chinese strains showed an almost identical deletion of 127 bp in the same region. CONCLUSIONS: Five ALV-J isolates were obtained from six field infected commercial layer chickens. Coexistence of hemangioma and ML were observed in these infected cases both macro- and microscopically. Complete proviral genome sequences of two isolates (JS09GY3 and JS09GY6) and the partial sequences of the other two isolates (JS09GY2 and JS09GY5) were determined. The isolates were found to be recombinants of ALV-J with a PBS-leader sequence originating from other retroviruses. The Gp85 protein with an amino acid deletion, a contiguous 11-bp insertion mutation in the E element, and a novel binding site, were noted in the proviral genomes.
Project description:Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) was first isolated from meat-type chickens that developed myeloid leukosis (ML). In recent years, field cases of hemangioma (HE) or HE and ML, rather than ML alone, have been reported in commercial layer flocks exposed to ALV-J with a high incidence in China. Here we report the complete genomic sequence of an ALV-J isolate that caused both HE and ML in egg-type and meat-type chickens in China. These findings will provide additional insights into the molecular characteristics in genomes, host range, and pathogenicity of ALV-J.
Project description:One natural recombinant avian leukosis virus (ALV) strain GX14DJ3-18 was isolated from a native gamecock by DF-1 cell culture and identified with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence assay and the viral genome's nucleotide sequencing. This strain was revealed as a novel recombinant virus with nucleotide sequence similarities of 95.4% Long Terminal Repeated (LTR), 95.8% 5', UTR, 97.9% gag, and 92.9% 3'untranslated regions (UTR) in ALV-J. Also we found sequence similarities of 99.3% pol and 99.0% gp37 in ALV-E, and 89.9% gp85 in ALV-A. The simulated congenital infection with GX14DJ3-18 in Three-Yellow chickens exhibited a significant negative effect on the development of immune organs (P < 0.05). Also, lower antibody responses were found to vaccinations with the commercial vaccines of Newcastle disease virus and with subtypes H5 and H9 of avian influenza virus (P < 0.05). The incidence of tumor or tumor-like lesions in the challenged birds was 14.28% (5/35), while none were observed in the un-challenged control group (0/35). These results suggested that GX14DJ3-18 is a novel recombinant ALV that can induce pathogenicity in the commercial Three-Yellow chickens. We speculated that cross-provincial sales of gamecocks in which ALVs have not been eradicated thoroughly might be a potential route for the transmission of ALVs to commercial chickens.
Project description:In spite of the purification of the laying hens and broilers of avian leukosis virus (ALV) has made remarkable achievements, the infection of ALV was still serious in Chinese indigenous chickens.In order to assess the epidemic state of avian leukosis virus in indigenous chickens in China, 10 novel strains of ALV subgroup J (ALV-J), named JS16JH01 to JS16JH10, were isolated and identified by virus isolation and immunofluorescence antibody assays from a Chinese local breed farm with a sporadic incidence of tumors. To understand their virological characteristics further, the proviral genome of ENV-LTR was sequenced and compared with the reference strains.The homology of the gp85 gene between the ten ALV-J strains and NX0101 was in the range from 89.7-94.8% at the nuclear acid level. In addition, their gp85 genes were quite varied, with identities of 92-98% with themselves at the nuclear acid level. There were several snp and indel sites in the amino acid sequence of gp85 genes after comparison with other reference strains of ALV. Interestingly, a novel insertion in the gp85 region was found in two strains, JS16JH01 and JS16JH07, compared with NX0101 and HPRS-103.At present, owing to the large-scale purification of ALV in China, laying hens and broiler chickens with ALV infection are rarely detected, but ALVs are still frequently detected in the local chickens, which suggests that more efforts should be applied to the purification of ALV from indigenous chickens.