ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the colon and rectum are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs of the colon and rectum constitute ~5% of all cases. Although colorectal GISTs can be small and found incidentally, the majority appear to be high risk and carry a significant likelihood of recurrent and metastatic disease. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for primary disease. There is now considerable interest in GISTs because they can be treated effectively with targeted molecular therapies, specifically tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as imatinib mesylate and sunitinib malate. GISTs are best treated by a multidisciplinary team comprised of the surgeon, medical oncologist, pathologist, and radiologist in the initial evaluation, management, and in continued follow-up. Increasing the number of resectable cases through pharmacologic debulking, optimizing the timing of surgery and organ preservation, reducing recurrence and surgical morbidity, prolonging survival, and possibly enhancing response to imatinib through surgical cytoreduction are all potential benefits of multidisciplinary management.
Project description:The prognosis of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) was dramatically improved in the era of imatinib. Cytoreduction surgery was advocated as an additional treatment for advanced GISTs, especially when patients having poor response to imatinib or developing resistance to it. However, the efficacy and benefit of cytoreduction were still controversial. Likewise, the sequence between cytoreduction surgery and imatinib still need evaluation. In this study, we tried to assess the feasibility and efficiency of cytoreduction in advanced GISTs. Furthermore, we analyzed the impact of timing of the cytoreduction surgery on the prognosis of advanced GISTs. We conducted a prospective collecting retrospective review of patients with advanced GISTs (metastatic, unresectable, and recurrent GISTs) treated in Chang Gung memorial hospital (CGMH) since 2001 to 2013. We analyzed the impact of cytoreduction surgery to response to imatinib, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced GISTs. Moreover, by the timing of cytoreduction to imatinib, we divided the surgical patients who had surgery before imatinib use into early group and those who had surgery after imatinib into late. We compared the clinical response to imatinib, PFS and OS between early and late cytoreduction surgical groups. Totally, 182 patients were enrolled into this study. Seventy-six patients underwent cytoreduction surgery. The demographic characteristics and tumor presentation were similar between surgical and non-surgical groups. The surgical group showed better complete response rate (P < .001) and partial response rate (P = 0.008) than non-surgical group. The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year PFS were significantly superior in surgical group (P = 0.003). The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year OS were superior in surgical group, but without statistical significance (P = 0.088). Dividing by cytoreduction surgical timing, the demographic characteristics and tumor presentation were comparable in early and late groups. The late cytoreduction group presented higher R0 resection rate (59.1% vs 31.5%, P = 0.025). However, the PFS and OS were comparable in both groups.Combining imatinib with cytoreduction increased the response rate to imatinib and prolonged PFS in patients with advanced GISTs. Moreover, early and late cytoreduction surgery was comparable in prognosis, although late cytoreduction revealed higher complete resection rate.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neoadjuvant imatinib therapy has been proposed for routine practice with favorable long-term results for patients with locally advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). However, clarification of the optimal duration, safety, and oncological outcomes of neoadjuvant imatinib use before surgical intervention remains necessary. METHODS:We prospectively analyzed the treatment outcomes of 51 patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic GISTs treated with neoadjuvant imatinib followed by surgery. The optimal duration was defined as the timepoint when there was a <10% change in the treatment response or a size decrease of less than 5 mm between two consecutive computed tomography scans. RESULTS:Primary tumors were located in the stomach (23/51; 45%), followed by the rectum (17/51; 33%), ileum/jejunum (9/51; 18%), and esophagus (2/51; 4%). The median maximal shrinkage time was 6.1 months, beyond which further treatment may not be beneficial. However, the maximal shrinkage time was 4.3 months for the stomach, 8.6 months for the small bowel and 6.9 months for the rectum. The R0 tumor resection rate in 27 patients after neoadjuvant imatinib and surgery was 81.5%, and 70.4% of resection procedures succeeded in organ preservation. However, 10 of 51 patients (19.6%) had complications following neoadjuvant imatinib use (six from imatinib and four from surgery). CONCLUSION:Our analysis supports treating GIST patients with neoadjuvant imatinib, which demonstrated favorable long-term results of combined therapy. However, careful monitoring of complications is necessary. The optimal duration of neoadjuvant imatinib use before surgical intervention is, on average, 6.1 months.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most frequently diagnosed mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite their biological and clinical heterogeneity, the majority of these tumors are positive for the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT and are driven by KIT- or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA)-activating mutations. There are still uncertainties regarding their clinical and molecular characterization and the optimal treatment regimens, making it difficult to establish a universal treatment algorithm for these tumors. SUMMARY:From a clinical perspective, the main difference between GISTs and other gastrointestinal neoplasms is that the benign or malignant behavior of GISTs cannot be predicted from histopathology, but instead relies on empirically established scoring systems. Clinical data suggest that malignant potential may be an inherent quality of some GISTs rather than a feature acquired by the tumor during disease progression. Thus, some patients may require prolonged anti-tumor treatment even after complete surgical removal of the tumor. KEY MESSAGE:Although GISTs are the most frequently occurring mesenchymal neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract, no universal treatment algorithms exist. This paper reviews the current evidence that guides the management of GISTs. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS:The management of localized GISTs involves the use of surgical resection, with the inclusion of preoperative tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment for locally advanced, primarily unresectable tumors and for resectable cases requiring extensive surgery. Imatinib is also indicated as adjuvant therapy after complete surgical removal of GISTs with a high estimated risk of recurrence unless specific mutations conferring imatinib resistance are present. The optimal duration of adjuvant treatment is still controversial. For patients with metastatic imatinib-sensitive GISTs, imatinib constitutes the first-line standard treatment. Molecular characterization of the tumor (with respect to the PDGFRA and KIT genes) is mandatory prior to imatinib therapy. Sunitinib and regorafenib are established as alternative treatments for patients demonstrating generalized disease progression on imatinib. New tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as ponatinib and crenolanib as well as drugs targeting alternative pathways are currently under investigation. Surgery and locally ablative treatments may be indicated in some metastatic patients.
Project description:The discovery of activating KIT and PDGFRα mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) represented a milestone as it allowed clinicians to use tyrosine kinase inhibitors, like imatinib, to treat this sarcoma. Although surgery remains the only potentially curative treatment, patients who undergo complete resection may still experience local recurrence or distant metastases. Therapeutic strategies that combine surgical resection and adjuvant imatinib may represent the best treatment to maximize patient outcomes. In addition to the use of imatinib in the adjuvant and metastatic settings, neoadjuvant imatinib, employed as a cytoreductive therapy, can decrease tumor volume, increase the probability of complete resection, and may reduce surgery-related morbidities. Thus, selected patients with metastatic disease may be treated with a combination of preoperative imatinib and metastasectomy. However, it is critical that patients with GIST be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team to coordinate surgery and targeted therapy in order to maximize clinical outcomes.Following a systematic literature review, we describe the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of GIST, with a discussion of the risk assessment for imatinib therapy. The application of surgical options, combined with adjuvant/neoadjuvant or perioperative imatinib, and their potential impact on survival for patients with primary, recurrent, or metastatic GIST are discussed.
Project description:Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) express the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT. Most GISTs have mutations in the KIT or PDGFRA gene, causing activation of tyrosine kinase. Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is the first-line palliative treatment for advanced GISTs. Sunitinib was introduced for patients with mutations not responsive to imatinib. The aim was to compare the survival of patients with high-risk resected GISTs treated with TKI prior to surgery with historical controls and to determine if organ-preserving surgery was facilitated.Ten high-risk GIST-patients had downsizing/adjuvant TKI treatment: nine with imatinib and one with sunitinib. The patients were matched with historical controls (n = 89) treated with surgery alone, from our population-based series (n = 259). Mutational analysis of KIT and PDGFRA was performed in all cases. The progression-free survival was calculated.The primary tumors decreased in mean diameter from 20.4 cm to 10.5 cm on downsizing imatinib. Four patients with R0 resection and a period of adjuvant imatinib had no recurrences versus 67% in the historical control group. Four patients with residual liver metastases have stable disease on continuous imatinib treatment after surgery. One patient has undergone reoperation with liver resection. The downsizing treatment led to organ-preserving surgery in nine patients and improved preoperative nutritional status in one patient.Downsizing TKI is recommended for patients with bulky tumors with invasion of adjacent organs. Sunitinib can be used for patients in case of imatinib resistance (e.g., wild-type GISTs), underlining the importance of mutational analysis for optimal surgical planning.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) with different types of mutations exhibit different clinical characteristics and prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of mutations in KIT and PDGFRA in a large-scale cohort of GIST patients with current therapy including surgery and imatinib. METHODS:A total of 1163 patients diagnosed with GISTs between January 2006 and December 2018 were enrolled in this study. Mutation analysis was performed for exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 of KIT and exons 12 and 18 of PDGFRA. Mutations were grouped into 12 categories according to the gene, exon, and involved codons; they were analyzed considering the clinical characteristics, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) of patients with GISTs. RESULTS:In low-risk GISTs, we identified two predictors of worse DFS: tumor origin in the rectum and KIT exon 11 deletion involving two or more codons. In high-risk GISTs treated with R0 resection and imatinib, patients with KIT exon 11 homozygous mutations and KIT intron 10/exon 11 junction deletions demonstrated the highest recurrence rate, indicating that these mutations can be independent prognostic factors of DFS. The presence of KIT exon 11 homozygous mutations also independently influenced OS. CONCLUSION:Low-incidence mutations such as KIT exon 11 homozygous mutations or intron 10/exon 11 junction deletions in GISTs should be carefully evaluated to explore novel treatment strategies, as tumors with these mutations have a high recurrence rate and a very poor prognosis after surgery followed by imatinib adjuvant treatment.
Project description:Approximately 5% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) originate in the rectum, and historically, radical resection was commonly performed. Little is known about the outcome for rectal GIST in the era of imatinib.Using a prospectively maintained database, this study retrospectively analyzed 47 localized primary rectal GISTs treated at our center from 1982 to 2016, stratified by when imatinib became available in 2000. Overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method.Rectal GISTs represented 7.1% of 663 primary GISTs. The findings showed 17 patients in the pre-imatinib era and 30 patients in the imatinib era. The two groups had similar follow-up evaluation, age, gender, Miettinen risk, and distance to the anal verge. In the imatinib era, tumors were smaller at diagnosis (median 4 vs. 5 cm; p = 0.029), and 24 of the 30 patients received perioperative imatinib. In the high-risk patients, organ preservation and negative margins were more common among the 13 patients treated with neoadjuvant imatinib than among the 21 patients treated directly with surgery. High-risk patients who received perioperative imatinib (n = 15) had greater (or nearly significantly greater) 5-year OS, DSS, local RFS, and distant RFS than those who did not (n = 19) (91, 100, 100, and 71% vs. 47, 65, 74, and 41%; p = 0.049, 0.052, 0.077, 0.051, respectively). In the imatinib era, no patient has had a local recurrence or death due to GIST.The use of imatinib is associated with organ preservation and improved oncologic outcome for patients with rectal GIST.
Project description:Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors located in the alimentary tract. Its usual manifestation is gastrointestinal bleeding. However, small asymptomatic lesions are frequently detected as incidental finding. Characteristically, most GISTs (> 95%) are positive for the KIT protein (CD117) by IHC staining and approximately 80%-90% of GISTs carry a mutation in the c-KIT or PDGFRA genes. Mutational analysis should be performed when planning adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy, due to its possible resistance to conventional treatment. The arise of tyrosine kinase inhibitor has supposed a revolution in GISTs treatment being useful as adjuvant, neoadjuvant or recurrence disease treatment. That is why a multidisciplinary approach to this disease is required. The correct characterization of the tumor at diagnosis (the diagnosis of recurrences and the evaluation of the response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors) is fundamental for facing these tumors and requires specialized Endoscopist, Radiologists and Nuclear Medicine Physician. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment for suspected resectable GIST. In the case of high risk GISTs, surgery plus adjuvant Imatinib-Mesylate for 3 years is the standard treatment. Neoadjuvant imatinib-mesylate should be considered to shrink the tumor in case of locally advanced primary or recurrence disease, unresectable or potentially resectable metastasic tumors, and potentially resectable disease in complex anatomic locations to decrease the related morbidity. In the case of Metastatic GIST under Neoadjuvant treatment, when there are complete response, stable disease or limited disease progression, complete cytoreductive surgery could be a therapeutic option if feasible.
Project description:BACKGROUND: To investigate the incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in Taiwan and the impact of imatinib on the overall survival (OS) of GIST patients. METHODS: GISTs were identified from the Taiwan Cancer Registry (TCR) from 1998 to 2008. The age-adjusted incidence rates and the observed OS rates were calculated. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to examine the mortality risk in three time periods (1998-2001, 2002-2004, 2005-2008) according to the application and availability of imatinib. RESULTS: From 1998 to 2008, 2,986 GISTs were diagnosed in Taiwan. The incidence increased from 1.13 per 100,000 in 1998 to 1.97 per 100,000 in 2008. The most common sites were stomach (47-59%), small intestine (31-38%), and colon/rectum (6-9%). The 5-year observed OS was 66.5% (60.3% for men, 74.2% for women, P <?.0001). GISTs in the stomach had a better 5-year observed OS (69.4%) than those in the small intestine (65.1%) (P <?.0001). The outcome of GIST improved significantly after the more widespread use of imatinib; the 5-year observed OS increased from 58.9% during 1998-2001 to 70.2% during 2005-2008 (P <?.0001). Younger age, female sex, stomach location, and later diagnostic years were independent predictors of a better survival. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of GIST has been increasing in Taiwan, partially due to the advancement of diagnostic technology/method and the increased awareness by physicians. The outcome of GIST has improved significantly with the availability and the wider use of imatinib.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preoperative imatinib mesylate therapy for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is controversial. This study aimed to explore the clinical efficacy and optimal duration of preoperative imatinib mesylate (IM) therapy in patients with locally advanced and recurrent/metastatic GISTs. METHODS:We retrospectively examined patients who received preoperative imatinib mesylate therapy from January 2013 to December 2018 at Xiangya Hospital, Central South University and the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, China. Clinical data, including the results of tests for mutations in KIT and PDGFR, findings from regularly conducted re-examinations, abdominal-enhanced computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging data, responses to imatinib, progression-free survival, and overall cancer-specific survival, were recorded. RESULTS:A total of 25 patients were enrolled in our study, including 18 with a locally advanced GIST and 7 with recurrent or metastatic GISTs. Their ages ranged from 22 to 70?years (M:F = 1.6:0.9), with a mean age of 50.48 ± 12.51?years. The tumor locations included the stomach (56.0%), rectum (16.0%), enterocoelic/retroperitoneal sites (12.0%), and the small intestine (12.0%). Based on testing for mutations in KIT and PDGFR, 22 patients received 400?mg/day KIT, and 3 patients received 600?mg/day PDGFR. The median duration of preoperative IM therapy was 8.96 ± 4.81?months, ranging from 3 to 26?months. According to the Choi criteria, 24 patients achieved a partial response (PR), and 1 patient had stable disease (SD). All patients underwent surgery after preoperative IM therapy, and no postoperative complications appeared. The 2-year PFS and 5-year PFS were 92% and 60%, respectively, and the total 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) was 92%. CONCLUSION:Preoperative imatinib therapy is feasible for locally advanced and recurrent/metastatic GISTs and can effectively shrink the tumor size, allow organ sparing, and avoid extensive organ resection. Moreover, the optimal duration of preoperative IM therapy in patients with locally advanced and recurrent/metastatic GISTs was 8.96 ± 4.81?months, ranging from 3 to 26?months, and gastric GISTs had a better response to preoperative IM therapy than did non-gastric GISTs.