Structure-function relations in the NTPase domain of the antiviral tRNA ribotoxin Escherichia coli PrrC.
ABSTRACT: Breakage of tRNA by Escherichia coli anticodon nuclease PrrC (EcoPrrC) underlies a host antiviral response to phage T4 infection. Expression of EcoPrrC is cytocidal in yeast, signifying that PrrC ribotoxicity crosses phylogenetic domain boundaries. EcoPrrC consists of an N-terminal NTPase module that resembles ABC transporters and a C-terminal nuclease module that is sui generis. PrrC homologs are prevalent in many other bacteria. Here we report that Haemophilus influenzae PrrC is toxic in E. coli and yeast. To illuminate structure-activity relations, we conducted a new round of mutational analysis of EcoPrrC guided by primary structure conservation among toxic PrrC homologs. We indentify 17 candidate active site residues in the NTPase module that are essential for toxicity in yeast when EcoPrrC is expressed at high gene dosage. Their functions could be educed by integrating mutational data with the atomic structure of the transition-state complex of a homologous ABC protein.
Project description:tRNA damage inflicted by the Escherichia coli anticodon nuclease PrrC (EcoPrrC) underlies an antiviral response to phage T4 infection. PrrC homologs are present in many bacterial proteomes, though their biological activities are uncharted. PrrCs consist of two domains: an N-terminal NTPase module related to the ABC family and a distinctive C-terminal ribonuclease module. In this article, we report that the expression of EcoPrrC in budding yeast is fungicidal, signifying that PrrC is toxic in a eukaryon in the absence of other bacterial or viral proteins. Whereas Streptococcus PrrC is also toxic in yeast, Neisseria and Xanthomonas PrrCs are not. Via analysis of the effects of 118 mutations on EcoPrrC toxicity in yeast, we identified 22 essential residues in the NTPase domain and 11 in the nuclease domain. Overexpressing PrrCs with mutations in the NTPase active site ameliorated the toxicity of wild-type EcoPrrC. Our findings support a model in which EcoPrrC toxicity is contingent on head-to-tail dimerization of the NTPase domains to form two composite NTP phosphohydrolase sites. Comparisons of EcoPrrC activity in a variety of yeast genetic backgrounds, and the rescuing effects of tRNA overexpression, implicate tRNA(Lys(UUU)) as a target of EcoPrrC toxicity in yeast.
Project description:<h4>Summary</h4>The conserved bacterial protein RloC, a distant homologue of the tRNA(Lys) anticodon nuclease (ACNase) PrrC, is shown here to act as a wobble nucleotide-excising and Zn(++)-responsive tRNase. The more familiar PrrC is silenced by a genetically linked type I DNA restriction-modification (R-M) enzyme, activated by a phage anti-DNA restriction factor and counteracted by phage tRNA repair enzymes. RloC shares PrrC's ABC ATPase motifs and catalytic ACNase triad but features a distinct zinc-hook/coiled-coil insert that renders its ATPase domain similar to Rad50 and related DNA repair proteins. Geobacillus kaustophilus RloC expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited ACNase activity that differed from PrrC's in substrate preference and ability to excise the wobble nucleotide. The latter specificity could impede reversal by phage tRNA repair enzymes and account perhaps for RloC's more frequent occurrence. Mutagenesis and functional assays confirmed RloC's catalytic triad assignment and implicated its zinc hook in regulating the ACNase function. Unlike PrrC, RloC is rarely linked to a type I R-M system but other genomic attributes suggest their possible interaction in trans. As DNA damage alleviates type I DNA restriction, we further propose that these related perturbations prompt RloC to disable translation and thus ward off phage escaping DNA restriction during the recovery from DNA damage.
Project description:GmrSD is a modification-dependent restriction endonuclease that specifically targets and cleaves glucosylated hydroxymethylcytosine (glc-HMC) modified DNA. It is encoded either as two separate single-domain GmrS and GmrD proteins or as a single protein carrying both domains. Previous studies suggested that GmrS acts as endonuclease and NTPase whereas GmrD binds DNA.In this work we applied homology detection, sequence conservation analysis, fold recognition and homology modeling methods to study sequence-structure-function relationships in the GmrSD restriction endonucleases family. We also analyzed the phylogeny and genomic context of the family members.Results of our comparative genomics study show that GmrS exhibits similarity to proteins from the ParB/Srx fold which can have both NTPase and nuclease activity. In contrast to the previous studies though, we attribute the nuclease activity also to GmrD as we found it to contain the HNH endonuclease motif. We revealed residues potentially important for structure and function in both domains. Moreover, we found that GmrSD systems exist predominantly as a fused, double-domain form rather than as a heterodimer and that their homologs are often encoded in regions enriched in defense and gene mobility-related elements. Finally, phylogenetic reconstructions of GmrS and GmrD domains revealed that they coevolved and only few GmrSD systems appear to be assembled from distantly related GmrS and GmrD components.Our study provides insight into sequence-structure-function relationships in the yet poorly characterized family of Type IV restriction enzymes. Comparative genomics allowed to propose possible role of GmrD domain in the function of the GmrSD enzyme and possible active sites of both GmrS and GmrD domains. Presented results can guide further experimental characterization of these enzymes.
Project description:OLD family nucleases contain an N-terminal ATPase domain and a C-terminal Toprim domain. Homologs segregate into two classes based on primary sequence length and the presence/absence of a unique UvrD/PcrA/Rep-like helicase gene immediately downstream in the genome. Although we previously defined the catalytic machinery controlling Class 2 nuclease cleavage, degenerate conservation of the C-termini between classes precludes pinpointing the analogous residues in Class 1 enzymes by sequence alignment alone. Our Class 2 structures also provide no information on ATPase domain architecture and ATP hydrolysis. Here we present the full-length structure of the Class 1 OLD nuclease from Thermus scotoductus (Ts) at 2.20 Å resolution, which reveals a dimerization domain inserted into an N-terminal ABC ATPase fold and a C-terminal Toprim domain. Structural homology with genome maintenance proteins identifies conserved residues responsible for Ts OLD ATPase activity. Ts OLD lacks the C-terminal helical domain present in Class 2 OLD homologs yet preserves the spatial organization of the nuclease active site, arguing that OLD proteins use a conserved catalytic mechanism for DNA cleavage. We also demonstrate that mutants perturbing ATP hydrolysis or DNA cleavage in vitro impair P2 OLD-mediated killing of recBC-Escherichia coli hosts, indicating that both the ATPase and nuclease activities are required for OLD function in vivo.
Project description:Endoribonuclease toxins (ribotoxins) are produced by bacteria and fungi to respond to stress, eliminate non-self competitor species, or interdict virus infection. PrrC is a bacterial ribotoxin that targets and cleaves tRNA<sup>Lys</sup><sub>UUU</sub> in the anticodon loop. In vitro studies suggested that the post-transcriptional modification threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t<sup>6</sup>A) is required for PrrC activity but this prediction had never been validated in vivo. Here, by using t<sup>6</sup>A-deficient yeast derivatives, it is shown that t<sup>6</sup>A is a positive determinant for PrrC proteins from various bacterial species. Streptococcus mutans is one of the few bacteria where the t<sup>6</sup>A synthesis gene tsaE (brpB) is dispensable and its genome encodes a PrrC toxin. We had previously shown using an HPLC-based assay that the S. mutans tsaE mutant was devoid of t<sup>6</sup>A. However, we describe here a novel and a more sensitive hybridization-based t<sup>6</sup>A detection method (compared to HPLC) that showed t<sup>6</sup>A was still present in the S. mutans ?tsaE, albeit at greatly reduced levels (93% reduced compared with WT). Moreover, mutants in 2 other S. mutans t<sup>6</sup>A synthesis genes (tsaB and tsaC) were shown to be totally devoid of the modification thus confirming its dispensability in this organism. Furthermore, analysis of t<sup>6</sup>A modification ratios and of t<sup>6</sup>A synthesis genes mRNA levels in S. mutans suggest they may be regulated by growth phase.
Project description:The P-loop NTPases are involved in diverse cellular functions. Members of the P-loop NTPase superfamily are characterized by presence of a highly conserved sequence pattern GxxxxGKS/T, known as Walker A motif. This motif adopts an archetypal P-loop conformation which allows accommodation of the triphosphate moiety of a bound nucleotide. Despite the presence of Walker A as a common sequence motif, P-loop NTPases exhibit extreme sequence divergence which hampers their phylogenetic or evolutionary classification. Here, we show that P-loop and its flanking region subsequence (termed as "extended-WalkerA motif") contain distinct signatures that can be utilized to classify NTPase domain of functionally diverse proteins. We find a clearly classified group of diverse NTPases of Conserved Domain Database such as G-proteins, Ylqf, RecA like, DExDc, AAA, CPT, NK, ABC transporter and NifH proteins.
Project description:Yeast 25S rRNA was reported to contain a single cytosine methylation (m(5)C). In the present study using a combination of RP-HPLC, mung bean nuclease assay and rRNA mutagenesis, we discovered that instead of one, yeast contains two m(5)C residues at position 2278 and 2870. Furthermore, we identified and characterized two putative methyltransferases, Rcm1 and Nop2 to be responsible for these two cytosine methylations, respectively. Both proteins are highly conserved, which correlates with the presence of two m(5)C residues at identical positions in higher eukaryotes, including humans. The human homolog of yeast Nop2, p120 has been discovered to be upregulated in various cancer tissues, whereas the human homolog of Rcm1, NSUN5 is completely deleted in the William's-Beuren Syndrome. The substrates and function of both human homologs remained unknown. In the present study, we also provide insights into the significance of these two m(5)C residues. The loss of m(5)C2278 results in anisomycin hypersensitivity, whereas the loss of m(5)C2870 affects ribosome synthesis and processing. Establishing the locations and enzymes in yeast will not only help identifying the function of their homologs in higher organisms, but will also enable understanding the role of these modifications in ribosome function and architecture.
Project description:With the identification of eight new polypeptides, we here complete the subunit characterization of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. The complex contains homologs to all 10 essential gene products present in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mediator, but lacks clear homologs to any of the 10 S. cerevisiae components encoded by nonessential genes. S. pombe Mediator instead contains three unique components (Pmc2, -3, and -6), which lack homologs in other cell types. Presently, pmc2(+) and pmc3(+) have been shown to be nonessential genes. The data suggest that S. pombe and S. cerevisiae share an essential protein module, which associates with nonessential speciesspecific subunits. In support of this view, sequence analysis of the conserved yeast Mediator components Med4 and Med8 reveals sequence homology to the metazoan Mediator components Trap36 and Arc32. Therefore, 8 of 10 essential genes conserved between S. pombe and S. cerevisiae also have a metazoan homolog, indicating that an evolutionary conserved Mediator core is present in all eukaryotic cells. Our data suggest a closer functional relationship between yeast and metazoan Mediator than previously anticipated.
Project description:ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play pivotal physiological roles in substrate transport across membranes, and defective assembly of these proteins can cause severe disease associated with improper drug or ion flux. The yeast protein Yor1p is a useful model to study the biogenesis of ABC transporters; deletion of a phenylalanine residue in the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) causes misassembly and retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the resulting protein Yor1p-?F670, similar to the predominant disease-causing allele in humans, CFTR-?F508. Here we describe two novel Yor1p mutants, G278R and I1084P, which fail to assemble and traffic similar to Yor1p-?F670. These mutations are located in the two intracellular loops (ICLs) that interface directly with NBD1, and thus disrupt a functionally important structural module. We isolated 2 second-site mutations, F270S and R1168M, which partially correct the folding injuries associated with the G278R, I1084P, and ?F670 mutants and reinstate their trafficking. The position of both corrective mutations at the cytoplasmic face of a transmembrane helix suggests that they restore biogenesis by influencing the behavior of the transmembrane domains rather than by direct restoration of the ICL1-ICL4-NBD1 structural module. Given the conserved topology of many ABC transporters, our findings provide new understanding of functionally important inter-domain interactions and suggest new potential avenues for correcting folding defects caused by abrogation of those domain interfaces.
Project description:Double-stranded DNA breaks (DSB) cause bacteria to augment expression of DNA repair and various stress response proteins. A puzzling exception educes the anticodon nuclease (ACNase) RloC, which resembles the DSB responder Rad50 and the antiviral, translation-disabling ACNase PrrC. While PrrC's ACNase is regulated by a DNA restriction-modification (R-M) protein and a phage anti-DNA restriction peptide, RloC has an internal ACNase switch comprising a putative DSB sensor and coupled ATPase. Further exploration of RloC's controls revealed, first, that its ACNase is stabilized by the activating DNA and hydrolysed nucleotide. Second, DSB inducers activated RloC's ACNase in heterologous contexts as well as in a natural host, even when R-M deficient. Third, the DSB-induced activation of the indigenous RloC led to partial and temporary disruption of tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Gln). Lastly, accumulation of CRISPR-derived RNA that occurred in parallel raises the possibility that the adaptive immunity and RloC provide the genotoxicated host with complementary protection from impending infections.