Hyperthermia with mild electrical stimulation protects pancreatic ?-cells from cell stresses and apoptosis.
ABSTRACT: Induction of heat shock protein (HSP) 72 improves metabolic profiles in diabetic model mice. However, its effect on pancreatic ?-cells is not known. The current study investigated whether HSP72 induction can reduce ?-cell stress signaling and apoptosis and preserve ?-cell mass. MIN6 cells and db/db mice were sham-treated or treated with heat shock (HS) and mild electrical stimulation (MES) (HS+MES) to induce HSP72. Several cellular markers, metabolic parameters, and ?-cell mass were evaluated. HS+MES treatment or HSP72 overexpression increased HSP72 protein levels and decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-induced Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and proapoptotic signal in MIN6 cells. In db/db mice, HS+MES treatment for 12 weeks significantly improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Upon glucose challenge, a significant increase in insulin secretion was observed in vivo. Compared with sham treatment, levels of HSP72, insulin, pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1, GLUT2, and insulin receptor substrate-2 were upregulated in the pancreatic islets of HS+MES-treated mice, whereas JNK phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of forkhead box class O-1, and nuclear factor-?B p65 were reduced. Apoptotic signals, ER stress, and oxidative stress markers were attenuated. Thus, HSP72 induction by HS+MES treatment protects ?-cells from apoptosis by attenuating JNK activation and cell stresses. HS+MES combination therapy may preserve pancreatic ?-cell volume to ameliorate glucose homeostasis in diabetes.
Project description:Low-intensity electrical current (or mild electrical stimulation; MES) influences signal transduction and activates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Because insulin resistance is characterized by a marked reduction in insulin-stimulated PI3K-mediated activation of Akt, we asked whether MES could increase Akt phosphorylation and ameliorate insulin resistance. In addition, it was also previously reported that heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) alleviates hyperglycemia. Thus, we applied MES in combination with heat shock (HS) to in vitro and in vivo models of insulin resistance. Here we show that 10-min treatment with MES at 5 V (0.1 ms pulse duration) together with HS at 42 degrees C increased the phosphorylation of insulin signaling molecules such as insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and Akt in HepG2 cells maintained in high-glucose medium. MES (12 V)+mild HS treatment of high fat-fed mice also increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta subunit (IRbeta) and Akt in mice liver. In high fat-fed mice and db/db mice, MES+HS treatment for 10 min applied twice a week for 12-15 weeks significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and insulin levels and improved insulin sensitivity. The treated mice showed significantly lower weight of visceral and subcutaneous fat, a markedly improved fatty liver and decreased size of adipocytes. Our findings indicated that the combination of MES and HS alleviated insulin resistance and improved fat metabolism in diabetes mouse models, in part, by enhancing the insulin signaling pathway.
Project description:Astaxanthin, an antioxidant agent, can protect pancreatic ?-cells of db/db mice from glucotoxicity and resolve chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. Nonetheless, the effects of astaxanthin on free-fatty-acid-induced inflammation and cellular stress in ?-cells remain to be demonstrated. Meanwhile, palmitate enhances the secretion of pro-inflammatory adipokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and VEGF120 (vascular endothelial growth factor). We therefore investigated the influence of astaxanthin on palmitate-stimulated MCP-1 and VEGF120 secretion in mouse insulinoma (MIN6) pancreatic ?-cells. Furthermore, whether astaxanthin prevents cellular stress in MIN6 cells was also assessed. Pre-treatment with astaxanthin or with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) which is an antioxidant drug, significantly attenuated the palmitate-induced MCP-1 release through downregulation of phosphorylated c-Jun NH?-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathways, and suppressed VEGF120 through the PI3K/Akt pathways relative to the cells stimulated with palmitate alone. In addition, palmitate significantly upregulated homologous protein (CHOP) and anti-glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), which are endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, in MIN6 cells. On the other hand, astaxanthin attenuated the increased CHOP content, but further up-regulated palmitate-stimulated GRP78 protein expression. By contrast, NAC had no effects on either CHOP or GRP78 enhancement induced by palmitate in MIN6 cells. In conclusion, astaxanthin diminishes the palmitate-stimulated increase in MCP-1 secretion via the downregulation of JNK pathways in MIN6 cells, and affects VEGF120 secretion through PI3K/Akt pathways. Moreover, astaxanthin can prevent not only oxidative stress caused endogenously by palmitate but also ER stress, which NAC fails to attenuate, via upregulation of GRP78, an ER chaperon.
Project description:The cJun N-terminal Kinases (JNK) emerged as a major link between obesity and insulin resistance, but their role in the loss of pancreatic ?-cell mass and function driving the progression from insulin resistance to type-2 diabetes and in the complications of diabetes was not investigated to the same extent. Furthermore, it was shown that pan-JNK inhibition exacerbates kidney damage in the db/db model of obesity-driven diabetes. Here we investigate the role of JNK1 in the db/db model of obesity-driven type-2 diabetes. Mice with systemic ablation of JNK1 (JNK1<sup>-/-</sup>) were backcrossed for more than 10 generations in db/+ C57BL/KS mice to generate db/db-JNK1<sup>-/-</sup> mice and db/db control mice. To define the role of JNK1 in the loss of ?-cell mass and function occurring during obesity-driven diabetes we performed comprehensive metabolic phenotyping, evaluated steatosis and metabolic inflammation, performed morphometric and cellular composition analysis of pancreatic islets, and evaluated kidney function in db/db-JNK1<sup>-/-</sup> mice and db/db controls. db/db-JNK1<sup>-/-</sup> mice and db/db control mice developed insulin resistance, fatty liver, and metabolic inflammation to a similar extent. However, db/db-JNK1<sup>-/-</sup> mice displayed better glucose tolerance and improved insulin levels during glucose tolerance test, higher pancreatic insulin content, and larger pancreatic islets with more ?-cells than db/db mice. Finally, albuminuria, kidney histopathology, kidney inflammation and oxidative stress in db/db-JNK1<sup>-/-</sup> mice and in db/db mice were similar. Our data indicate that selective JNK1 ablation improves glucose tolerance in db/db mice by reducing the loss of functional ?-cells occurring in the db/db mouse model of obesity-driven diabetes, without significantly affecting metabolic inflammation, steatosis, and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, we have found that, differently from what previously reported for pan-JNK inhibitors, selective JNK1 ablation does not exacerbate kidney dysfunction in db/db mice. We conclude that selective JNK1 inactivation may have a superior therapeutic index than pan-JNK inhibition in obesity-driven diabetes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The induction of heat shock protein (HSP) 72 by mild electrical stimulation with heat shock (MES + HS), which improves visceral adiposity and insulin resistance in mice, may be beneficial in treating metabolic syndrome (MS) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).<h4>Methods</h4>Using open-label crossover trials, 40 subjects with MS or T2DM were randomly assigned using computer-generated random numbers to 12 weeks of therapeutic MES + HS followed by 12 weeks of no treatment, or vice versa. During the intervention period, physical and biochemical markers were measured.<h4>Findings</h4>Compared to no treatment, MES + HS treatment was associated with a significant decrease in visceral adiposity (- 7.54 cm(2) (- 8.61%), 95% CI - 8.55 to - 6.53 (p = 0.037) in MS, - 19.73 cm(2) (- 10.89%), 95% CI - 20.97 to - 18.49 (p = 0.003) in T2DM). Fasting plasma glucose levels were decreased by 3.74 mg/dL (- 5.28%: 95% CI - 4.37 to - 3.09 mg/dL, p = 0.029) in MS and by 14.97 mg/dL (10.40%: 95% CI - 15.79 to 14.15 mg/dL, p < 0.001) in T2DM, and insulin levels were also reduced by 10.39% and 25.93%, respectively. HbA1c levels showed a trend toward reduction (- 0.06%) in MS, and was significantly declined by - 0.43% (95% CI - 0.55 to - 0.31%, p = 0.009) in T2DM. HbA1c level of less than 7.0% was achieved in 52.5% of the MES + HS-treated T2DM patients in contrast to 15% of the non-treated period. Several insulin resistance indices, inflammatory cytokines or adipokines, including C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-?, were all improved in both groups. In isolated monocytes, HSP72 expression was increased and cytokine expression was reduced following MES + HS treatment. Glucose excursions on meal tolerance test were lower after using MES + HS in T2DM.<h4>Interpretation</h4>This combination therapy has beneficial impacts on body composition, metabolic abnormalities, and inflammation in subjects with MS or T2DM. Activation of the heat shock response by MES + HS may provide a novel approach for the treatment of lifestyle-related diseases.<h4>Funding</h4>Funding for this research was provided by MEXT KAKENHI (Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan).
Project description:Alport syndrome is a hereditary glomerulopathy with proteinuria and nephritis caused by defects in genes encoding type IV collagen in the glomerular basement membrane. All male and most female patients develop end-stage renal disease. Effective treatment to stop or decelerate the progression of proteinuria and nephritis is still under investigation. Here we showed that combination treatment of mild electrical stress (MES) and heat stress (HS) ameliorated progressive proteinuria and renal injury in mouse model of Alport syndrome. The expressions of kidney injury marker neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? were suppressed by MES+HS treatment. The anti-proteinuric effect of MES+HS treatment is mediated by podocytic activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3K)-Akt and heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72)-dependent pathways in vitro and in vivo. The anti-inflammatory effect of MES+HS was mediated by glomerular activation of c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and p38-dependent pathways ex vivo. Collectively, our studies show that combination treatment of MES and HS confers anti-proteinuric and anti-inflammatory effects on Alport mice likely through the activation of multiple signaling pathways including PI3K-Akt, Hsp72, JNK1/2, and p38 pathways, providing a novel candidate therapeutic strategy to decelerate the progression of patho-phenotypes in Alport syndrome.
Project description:It has been well established that glucotoxicity induces pancreatic β-cells dysfunction; however, the precise mechanism remains unclear. Our previous studies demonstrated that high glucose concentrations are associated with decreased hepcidin expression, which inhibits insulin synthesis. In this study, we focused on the role of low hepcidin level-induced increased iron deposition in β-cells and the relationship between abnormal iron metabolism and β-cell dysfunction. Decreased hepcidin expression increased iron absorption by upregulating transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression, resulting in iron accumulation within cells. Prussia blue stain and calcein-AM assays revealed greater iron accumulation in the cytoplasm of pancreatic tissue isolated from db/db mice, cultured islets and Min6 cells in response to high glucose stimulation. Increased cytosolic iron deposition was associated with greater Fe2+ influx into the mitochondria, which depolarized the mitochondria membrane potential, inhibited ATP synthesis, generated excessive ROS and induced oxidative stress. The toxic effect of excessive iron on mitochondrial function eventually resulted in impaired insulin secretion. The restricted iron content in db/db mice via reduced iron intake or accelerated iron clearance improved blood glucose levels with decreased fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin (FIns), HbA1c level, as well as improved intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) results. Thus, our study may reveal the mechanism involved in the role of hepcidin in the glucotoxcity impaired pancreatic β cell function pathway.
Project description:Activation of the prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> receptor EP4 alters polarization of adipose tissue macrophages towards the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype to suppress chronic inflammation. However, the role of EP4 signalling in pancreatic macrophages that affect insulin secretion is unclear. We examined the role of EP4 signalling in islet inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Obese diabetic <i>db/db</i> mice were treated with an EP4-selective agonist or vehicle for 4?weeks. Islet morphology did not significantly differ and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased, whereas the pancreatic M1/M2 ratio was decreased in the EP4 agonist-treated group compared to the vehicle group. Because EP4 activation in MIN6 cells did not affect insulin secretion, we used a MIN6/macrophage co-culture system to evaluate the role of EP4 signalling in islet inflammation and subsequent inhibition of insulin release. Co-culture with M1-polarized macrophages markedly suppressed insulin expression in MIN6 cells; however, modulation of M1 polarization by the EP4 agonist significantly reversed the negative impact of co-cultivation on insulin production. The enhanced expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in co-cultured MIN6 cells were markedly inhibited by EP4 agonist treatment of M1 macrophages. Thus, EP4 activation may suppress islet inflammation and protect ?-cell function by altering inflammatory macrophages in the diabetic pancreas.
Project description:The herb dwarf lilyturf tuber (Maidong, <i>Ophiopogonis Radix</i>) is widely used in Chinese traditional medicine to manage diabetes and its complications. However, the role of Maidong polysaccharide extract (MPE) in pancreatic β-cell function is unclear. Here, we investigated whether MPE protects β-cell function and studied the underlying mechanisms. We treated <i>db/db</i> and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice with 800 or 400 mg/kg MPE or water for 4 weeks, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Pancreas and blood were collected for molecular analyses, and clonal MIN6 β-cells and primary islets from HFD-induced obese mice and normal chow diet-fed mice were used in additional analyses. <i>In vivo</i>, MPE both increased insulin secretion and reduced blood glucose in the <i>db/db</i> mice but increased only insulin secretion in the HFD-induced obese mice. MPE substantially increased the β-cell area in both models (3-fold and 2-fold, <i>p</i> < 0.01, for <i>db/db</i> and HFD mice, respectively). We observed reduced nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB in islets of MPE-treated db/db mice, coinciding with enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). <i>In vitro</i>, MPE potentiated GSIS and decreased interleukin 1β (IL-1β) secretion in MIN6 β-cells. Incubation of MIN6 cells with tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interferon-γ, and IL-1β amplified IL-1β secretion and inhibited GSIS. These effects were partially reversed with MPE or the IκB kinase β inhibitor PS1145, coinciding with reduced activation of p65 and p-IκB in the NF-κB pathway. We conclude that MPE may have potential for therapeutic development for β-cell protection.
Project description:Aims/Introduction:? Heparan sulfate (HS) mediates a variety of molecular recognition events that are essential for differentiation, morphogenesis and homeostasis through various HS forms that result from differential sulfate modification. Recently, we found that HS is localized exclusively around ?ß-cells in islets of adult mice and is required for insulin secretion. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of HS sulfate groups to insulin secretion.? Glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) was examined in mouse pancreatic islets, the mouse pancreatic ?-cell line MIN6 cells and its derivative MIN6T3 cells after removal of sulfate groups by sodium chlorate, a competitive inhibitor of glycosaminoglycan sulfation. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used for analyzing messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of HS modification enzymes. Expression of HS 3-O-sulfotransferase isoform-1 (Hs3st1) was silenced and GIIS was examined.? Impaired insulin secretion by islets, MIN6 cells and MIN6T3 cells was observed after treatment with sodium chlorate. Sodium chlorate-treatment upregulated the mRNA expression of sulfotransferases expressed in MIN6T3 cells. Expression of the Hs3st1 was strongly upregulated by sodium chlorate-treatment, and its silencing by RNA interference reduced GIIS in MIN6T3 cells.? Our data suggest that the 3-O-sulfate group of HS that is modified by Hs3st1 plays a significant role(s) in the insulin secretory pathway, selectively through an interaction with factor(s) upstream of membrane depolarization in ?-cells. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2012.00205.x, 2012).
Project description:Patients with type 2 diabetes have reduced gene expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 72, which correlates with reduced insulin sensitivity. Heat therapy, which activates HSP72, improves clinical parameters in these patients. Activation of several inflammatory signaling proteins such as c-jun amino terminal kinase (JNK), inhibitor of kappaB kinase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, can induce insulin resistance, but HSP 72 can block the induction of these molecules in vitro. Accordingly, we examined whether activation of HSP72 can protect against the development of insulin resistance. First, we show that obese, insulin resistant humans have reduced HSP72 protein expression and increased JNK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. We next used heat shock therapy, transgenic overexpression, and pharmacologic means to overexpress HSP72 either specifically in skeletal muscle or globally in mice. Herein, we show that regardless of the means used to achieve an elevation in HSP72 protein, protection against diet- or obesity-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance was observed. This protection was tightly associated with the prevention of JNK phosphorylation. These findings identify an essential role for HSP72 in blocking inflammation and preventing insulin resistance in the context of genetic obesity or high-fat feeding.