Characterization of molecular interactions between ACP and halogenase domains in the Curacin A polyketide synthase.
ABSTRACT: Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are large multidomain proteins present in microorganisms that produce bioactive compounds. Curacin A is such a bioactive compound with potent anti-proliferative activity. During its biosynthesis the growing substrate is bound covalently to an acyl carrier protein (ACP) that is able to access catalytic sites of neighboring domains for chain elongation and modification. While ACP domains usually occur as monomers, the curacin A cluster codes for a triplet ACP (ACP(I)-ACP(II)-ACP(III)) within the CurA PKS module. We have determined the structure of the isolated holo-ACP(I) and show that the ACPs are independent of each other within this tridomain system. In addition, we have determined the structure of the 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-loaded holo-ACP(I), which is the substrate for the unique halogenase (Hal) domain embedded within the CurA module. We have identified the interaction surface of both proteins using mutagenesis and MALDI-based identification of product formation. Amino acids affecting product formation are located on helices II and III of ACP(I) and form a contiguous surface. Since the CurA Hal accepts substrate only when presented by one of the ACPs within the ACP(I)-ACP(II)-ACP(III) tridomain, our data provide insight into the specificity of the chlorination reaction.
Project description:The CurA halogenase (Hal) catalyzes a cryptic chlorination leading to cyclopropane ring formation in the synthesis of the natural product curacin A. Hal belongs to a family of enzymes that use Fe(2+), O(2) and alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG) to perform a variety of halogenation reactions in natural product biosynthesis. Crystal structures of the enzyme in five ligand states reveal strikingly different open and closed conformations dependent on alphaKG binding. The open form represents ligand-free enzyme, preventing substrate from entering the active site until both alphaKG and chloride are bound, while the closed form represents the holoenzyme with alphaKG and chloride coordinated to iron. Candidate amino acid residues involved in substrate recognition were identified by site-directed mutagenesis. These new structures provide direct evidence of a conformational switch driven by alphaKG leading to chlorination of an early pathway intermediate.
Project description:Curacin A is a polyketide synthase (PKS)-non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-derived natural product with potent anticancer properties generated by the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. Type I modular PKS assembly lines typically employ a thioesterase (TE) domain to off-load carboxylic acid or macrolactone products from an adjacent acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain. In a striking departure from this scheme the curacin A PKS employs tandem sulfotransferase and TE domains to form a terminal alkene moiety. Sulfotransferase sulfonation of β-hydroxy-acyl-ACP is followed by TE hydrolysis, decarboxylation, and sulfate elimination (Gu, L., Wang, B., Kulkarni, A., Gehret, J. J., Lloyd, K. R., Gerwick, L., Gerwick, W. H., Wipf, P., Håkansson, K., Smith, J. L., and Sherman, D. H. (2009) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 16033-16035). With low sequence identity to other PKS TEs (<15%), the curacin TE represents a new thioesterase subfamily. The 1.7-Å curacin TE crystal structure reveals how the familiar α/β-hydrolase architecture is adapted to specificity for β-sulfated substrates. A Ser-His-Glu catalytic triad is centered in an open active site cleft between the core domain and a lid subdomain. Unlike TEs from other PKSs, the lid is fixed in an open conformation on one side by dimer contacts of a protruding helix and on the other side by an arginine anchor from the lid into the core. Adjacent to the catalytic triad, another arginine residue is positioned to recognize the substrate β-sulfate group. The essential features of the curacin TE are conserved in sequences of five other putative bacterial ACP-ST-TE tridomains. Formation of a sulfate leaving group as a biosynthetic strategy to facilitate acyl chain decarboxylation is of potential value as a route to hydrocarbon biofuels.
Project description:Acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase (AcpS) catalyzes the transfer of the 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety from coenzyme A (CoA) onto a serine residue of apo-ACP, resulting in the conversion of apo-ACP to the functional holo-ACP. The holo form of bacterial ACP plays an essential role in mediating the transfer of acyl fatty acid intermediates during the biosynthesis of fatty acids and phospholipids. AcpS is therefore an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we have purified and characterized the AcpS enzymes from Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which exemplify gram-negative, gram-positive, and atypical bacteria, respectively. Our gel filtration column chromatography and cross-linking studies demonstrate that the AcpS enzyme from M. pneumoniae, like E. coli enzyme, exhibits a homodimeric structure, but the enzyme from S. pneumoniae exhibits a trimeric structure. Our biochemical studies show that the AcpS enzymes from M. pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae can utilize both short- and long-chain acyl CoA derivatives but prefer long-chain CoA derivatives as substrates. On the other hand, the AcpS enzyme from E. coli can utilize short-chain CoA derivatives but not the long-chain CoA derivatives tested. Finally, our biochemical studies show that M. pneumoniae AcpS is kinetically a very sluggish enzyme compared with those from E. coli and S. pneumoniae. Together, the results of these studies show that the AcpS enzymes from different bacterial species exhibit different native structures and substrate specificities with regard to the utilization of CoA and its derivatives. These findings suggest that AcpS from different microorganisms plays a different role in cellular physiology.
Project description:Carrier proteins are four-helix bundles that covalently hold metabolites and secondary metabolites, such as fatty acids, polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides. These proteins mediate the production of many pharmaceutically important compounds including antibiotics and anticancer agents. Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) can be found as part of a multi-domain polypeptide (Type I ACPs), or as part of a multiprotein complex (Type II). Here, the main focus is on ACP2 and ACP3, domains from the type I trans-AT polyketide synthase MmpA, which is a core component of the biosynthetic pathway of the antibiotic mupirocin. During molecular dynamics simulations of their apo, holo and acyl forms ACP2 and ACP3 both form a substrate-binding surface-groove. The substrates bound to this surface-groove have polar groups on their acyl chain exposed and forming hydrogen bonds with the solvent. Bulky hydrophobic residues in the GXDS motif common to all ACPs, and similar residues on helix III, appear to prohibit the formation of a deep tunnel in type I ACPs and type II ACPs from polyketide synthases. In contrast, the equivalent positions in ACPs from type II fatty acid synthases, which do form a deep solvent-excluded substrate-binding tunnel, have the small residue alanine. During simulation, ACP3 with mutations I61A L36A W44L forms a deep tunnel that can fully bury a saturated substrate in the core of the ACP, in contrast to the surface groove of the wild type ACP3. Similarly, in the ACP from E. coli fatty acid synthase, a type II ACP, mutations can change ligand binding from being inside a deep tunnel to being in a surface groove, thus demonstrating how changing a few residues can modify the possibilities for ligand binding.
Project description:The correct folding of a protein is a pre-requirement for its proper posttranslational modification. The Escherichia coli Sec pathway, in which preproteins, in an unfolded, translocation-competent state, are rapidly secreted across the cytoplasmic membrane, is commonly assumed to be unfavorable for their modification in the cytosol. Whether posttranslationally modified recombinant preproteins can be efficiently transported via the Sec pathway, however, remains unclear. ACP and BCCP domain (BCCP87) are carrier proteins that can be converted into active phosphopantetheinylated ACP (holo-ACP) and biotinylated-BCCP (holo-BCCP) by AcpS and BirA, respectively. In the present study, we show that, when ACP or BCCP87 is fused to the C-terminus of secretory protein YebF or MBP, the resulting fusion protein preYebF-ACP, preYebF-BCCP87, preMBP-ACP or preMBP-BCCP87 can be modified and then secreted. Our data demonstrate that posttranslational modification of preYebF-ACP, preYebF-BCCP87 preMBP-ACP and preMBP-BCCP87 can take place in the cytosol prior to translocation, and the Sec machinery accommodates these previously modified fusion proteins. High levels of active holo-ACP and holo-BCCP87 are achieved when AcpS or BirA is co-expressed, especially when sodium azide is used to retard their translocation across the inner membrane. Our results also provide an alternative to achieve a high level of modified recombinant proteins expressed extracellularly.
Project description:Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is an essential co-factor protein in fatty acid biosynthesis that shuttles covalently bound fatty acyl intermediates in its hydrophobic pocket to various enzyme partners. To characterize acyl chain-ACP interactions and their influence on enzyme interactions, we performed 19 molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of Escherichia coli apo-, holo-, and acyl-ACPs. The simulations were started with the acyl chain in either a solvent-exposed or a buried conformation. All four short-chain (< or = C10) and one long-chain (C16) unbiased acyl-ACP MD simulation show the transition of the solvent-exposed acyl chain into the hydrophobic pocket of ACP, revealing its pathway of acyl chain binding. Although the acyl chain resides inside the pocket, Thr-39 and Glu-60 at the entrance stabilize the phosphopantetheine linker through hydrogen bonding. Comparisons of the different ACP forms indicate that the loop region between helices II and III and the prosthetic linker may aid in substrate recognition by enzymes of fatty acid synthase systems. The MD simulations consistently show that the hydrophobic binding pocket of ACP is best suited to accommodate an octanoyl group and is capable of adjusting in size to accommodate chain lengths as long as decanoic acid. The simulations also reveal a second, novel binding mode of the acyl chains inside the hydrophobic binding pocket directed toward helix I. This study provides a detailed dynamic picture of acyl-ACPs that is in excellent agreement with available experimental data and, thereby, provides a new understanding of enzyme-ACP interactions.
Project description:Some bacterial type II fatty-acid synthesis (FAS II) enzymes have been shown to be important candidates for drug discovery. The scientific and medical quest for new FAS II protein targets continues to stimulate research in this field. One of the possible additional candidates is the acyl-carrier-protein synthase (AcpS) enzyme. Its holo form post-translationally modifies the apo form of an acyl carrier protein (ACP), which assures the constant delivery of thioester intermediates to the discrete enzymes of FAS II. At the Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID), AcpSs from Staphylococcus aureus (AcpS(SA)), Vibrio cholerae (AcpS(VC)) and Bacillus anthracis (AcpS(BA)) have been structurally characterized in their apo, holo and product-bound forms, respectively. The structure of AcpS(BA) is emphasized because of the two 3',5'-adenosine diphosphate (3',5'-ADP) product molecules that are found in each of the three coenzyme A (CoA) binding sites of the trimeric protein. One 3',5'-ADP is bound as the 3',5'-ADP part of CoA in the known structures of the CoA-AcpS and 3',5'-ADP-AcpS binary complexes. The position of the second 3',5'-ADP has never been described before. It is in close proximity to the first 3',5'-ADP and the ACP-binding site. The coordination of two ADPs in AcpS(BA) may possibly be exploited for the design of AcpS inhibitors that can block binding of both CoA and ACP.
Project description:The natural substrates of the enzymes involved in type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) are acylated acyl carrier proteins (acyl-ACPs). The state of the art method to produce acyl-ACPs involves the transfer of a phosphopantetheine moiety from CoA to apo-ACP by E. coli holo-ACP synthase (EcACPS), yielding holo-ACP which subsequently becomes thioesterified with free fatty acids by the E. coli acyl-ACP synthase (EcAAS). Alternatively, acyl-ACPs can be synthesized by direct transfer of acylated phosphopantetheine moieties from acyl-CoA to apo-ACP by means of EcACPS. The need for native substrates to characterize the FAS-II enzymes of P. falciparum prompted us to investigate the potential and limit of the two methods to efficiently acylate P. falciparum ACP (PfACP) with respect to chain length and ?-modification and in preparative amounts. The EcAAS activity is found to be independent from the oxidation state at the ?-position and accepts fatty acids as substrates with chain lengths starting from C8 to C20, whereas EcACPS accepts very efficiently acyl-CoAs with chain lengths up to C16, and with decreasing activity also longer chains (C18 to C20). Methods were developed to synthesize and purify preparative amounts of high quality natural substrates that are fully functional for the enzymes of the P. falciparum FAS-II system.
Project description:Sulfated molecules with diverse functions are common in biology, but sulfonation as a method to activate a metabolite for chemical catalysis is rare. Catalytic activity was characterized and crystal structures were determined for two such "activating" sulfotransferases (STs) that sulfonate ?-hydroxyacyl thioester substrates. The CurM polyketide synthase (PKS) ST domain from the curacin A biosynthetic pathway of Moorea producens and the olefin synthase (OLS) ST from a hydrocarbon-producing system of Synechococcus PCC 7002 both occur as a unique acyl carrier protein (ACP), ST, and thioesterase (TE) tridomain within a larger polypeptide. During pathway termination, these cyanobacterial systems introduce a terminal double bond into the ?-hydroxyacyl-ACP-linked substrate by the combined action of the ST and TE. Under in vitro conditions, CurM PKS ST and OLS ST acted on ?-hydroxy fatty acyl-ACP substrates; however, OLS ST was not reactive toward analogues of the natural PKS ST substrate bearing a C5-methoxy substituent. The crystal structures of CurM ST and OLS ST revealed that they are members of a distinct protein family relative to other prokaryotic and eukaryotic sulfotransferases. A common binding site for the sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate was visualized in complexes with the product 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate. Critical functions for several conserved amino acids in the active site were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis, including a proposed glutamate catalytic base. A dynamic active-site flap unique to the "activating" ST family affects substrate selectivity and product formation, based on the activities of chimeras of the PKS and OLS STs with exchanged active-site flaps.
Project description:Recently, two types of fatty acid synthases (FASs) have been discovered from apicomplexan parasites. Although significant progress has been made in characterizing these apicomplexan FASs, virtually nothing was previously known about the activation and regulation of these enzymes. In this study, we report the discovery and characterization of two distinct types of phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) that are responsible for synthesizing holo-acyl carrier protein (ACP) from three apicomplexan parasites: surfactin production element (SFP) type in Cryptosporidium parvum (CpSFP-PPT), holo-ACP synthase (ACPS)-type in Plasmodium falciparum (PfACPS-PPT), and both SFP and ACPS types in Toxoplasma gondii (TgSFP-PPT and TgACPS-PPT). CpSFP-PPT and TgSFP-PPT are monofunctional, cytosolic, and phylogenetically related to animal PPTases. However, PfACPS-PPT and TgACPS-PPT are bifunctional (fused with a metal-dependent hydrolase), likely targeted to the apicoplast, and more closely related to proteobacterial PPTases. The function of apicomplexan PPTases has been confirmed by detailed functional analysis using recombinant CpSFP-PPT expressed from an artificially synthesized gene with codon usage optimized for Escherichia coli. The recombinant CpSFP-PPT was able to activate the ACP domains from the C. parvum type I FAS in vitro using either CoA or acetyl-CoA as a substrate, or in vivo when coexpressed in bacteria, with kinetic characteristics typical of PPTases. These observations suggest that the two types of fatty acid synthases in the Apicomplexa are activated and regulated by two evolutionarily distinct PPTases.