Salmonella virulence effector SopE and Host GEF ARNO cooperate to recruit and activate WAVE to trigger bacterial invasion.
ABSTRACT: Salmonella virulence effectors elicit host cell membrane ruffling to facilitate pathogen invasion. The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) governs the underlying membrane-localized actin polymerization, but how Salmonella manipulates WRC is unknown. We show that Rho GTPase activation by the Salmonella guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) SopE efficiently triggered WRC recruitment but not its activation, which required host Arf GTPase activity. Invading Salmonella recruited and activated Arf1 to facilitate ruffling and uptake. Arf3 and Arf6 could also enhance invasion. RNAi screening of host Arf-family GEFs revealed a key role for ARNO in pathogen invasion and generation of pathogen-containing macropinosomes enriched in Arf1 and WRC. Salmonella recruited ARNO via Arf6 and the phosphoinositide phosphatase effector SopB-induced PIP3 generation. ARNO in turn triggered WRC recruitment and activation, which was dramatically enhanced when SopE and ARNO cooperated. Thus, we uncover a mechanism by which pathogen and host GEFs synergize to regulate WRC and trigger Salmonella invasion.
Project description:ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) 6 anchors to the plasma membrane, where it coordinates membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton remodelling, but how it assembles actin filaments is unknown. By reconstituting membrane-associated actin assembly mediated by the WASP family veroprolin homolog (WAVE) regulatory complex (WRC), we recapitulated an Arf6-driven actin polymerization pathway. We show that Arf6 is divergent from other Arf members, as it was incapable of directly recruiting WRC. We demonstrate that Arf6 triggers actin assembly at the membrane indirectly by recruiting the Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARNO that activates Arf1 to enable WRC-dependent actin assembly. The pathogen Salmonella usurped Arf6 for host cell invasion by recruiting its canonical GEFs EFA6 and BRAG2. Arf6 and its GEFs facilitated membrane ruffling and pathogen invasion via ARNO, and triggered actin assembly by generating an Arf1-WRC signaling hub at the membrane in vitro and in cells. This study reconstitutes Arf6-dependent actin assembly to reveal a mechanism by which related Arf GTPases orchestrate distinct steps in the WRC cytoskeleton remodelling pathway.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>To establish intracellular infections, Salmonella bacteria trigger host cell membrane ruffling and invasion by subverting cellular Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that activate Arf1 and Arf6 GTPases by promoting GTP binding. A family of cellular Arf GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) can downregulate Arf signaling by stimulating GTP hydrolysis, but whether they do this during infection is unknown. Here, we uncovered a remarkable role for distinct Arf GAP family members in Salmonella invasion. The Arf6 GAPs ACAP1 and ADAP1 and the Arf1 GAP ASAP1 localized at Salmonella-induced ruffles, which was not the case for the plasma membrane-localized Arf6 GAPs ARAP3 and GIT1 or the Golgi-associated Arf1 GAP1. Surprisingly, we found that loss of ACAP1, ADAP1, or ASAP1 impaired Salmonella invasion, revealing that GAPs cannot be considered mere terminators of cytoskeleton remodeling. Salmonella invasion was restored in Arf GAP-depleted cells by expressing fast-cycling Arf derivatives, demonstrating that Arf GTP/GDP cycles facilitate Salmonella invasion. Consistent with this view, both constitutively active and dominant-negative Arf derivatives that cannot undergo GTP/GDP cycles inhibited invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Arf GEFs and GAPs colocalize at invading Salmonella and collaborate to drive Arf1-dependent pathogen invasion. This study revealed that Salmonella bacteria exploit a remarkable interplay between Arf GEFs and GAPs to direct cycles of Arf GTPase activation and inactivation. These cycles drive Salmonella cytoskeleton remodeling and enable intracellular infections.<h4>Importance</h4>To initiate infections, the Salmonella bacterial pathogen remodels the mammalian actin cytoskeleton and invades host cells by subverting host Arf GEFs that activate Arf1 and Arf6 GTPases. Cellular Arf GAPs deactivate Arf GTPases and negatively regulate cell processes, but whether they target Arfs during infection is unknown. Here, we uncovered an important role for the Arf GAP family in Salmonella invasion. Surprisingly, we found that Arf1 and Arf6 GAPs cooperate with their Arf GEF counterparts to facilitate cycles of Arf GTPase activation and inactivation, which direct pathogen invasion. This report illustrates that GAP proteins promote actin-dependent processes and are not necessarily restricted to negatively regulating cellular signaling. It uncovers a remarkable interplay between Arf GEFs and GAPs that is exploited by Salmonella to establish infection and expands our understanding of Arf GTPase-regulated cytoskeleton remodeling.
Project description:To establish pathogenicity, bacteria must evade phagocytosis directed by remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that macrophages facilitate pathogen phagocytosis through actin polymerization mediated by the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC), small GTPases Arf and Rac1, and the Arf1 activator ARNO. To establish extracellular infections, enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli hijack the actin cytoskeleton by injecting virulence effectors into the host cell. Here, we find that the virulence effector EspG counteracts WRC-dependent phagocytosis, enabling EPEC and EHEC to remain extracellular. By reconstituting membrane-associated actin polymerization, we find that EspG disabled WRC activation through two mechanisms: EspG interaction with Arf6 blocked signaling to ARNO while EspG binding of Arf1 impeded collaboration with Rac1, thereby inhibiting WRC recruitment and activation. Investigating the mode of EspG interference revealed sites in Arf1 required for WRC activation and a mechanism facilitating pathogen evasion of innate host defenses.
Project description:ARNO is a soluble guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Arf family of GTPases. Although in biochemical assays ARNO prefers Arf1 over Arf6 as a substrate, its localization in cells at the plasma membrane (PM) suggests an interaction with Arf6. In this study, we found that ARNO activated Arf1 in HeLa and COS-7 cells resulting in the recruitment of Arf1 on to dynamic PM ruffles. By contrast, Arf6 was activated less by ARNO than EFA6, a canonical Arf6 GEF. Remarkably, Arf6 in its GTP-bound form recruited ARNO to the PM and the two proteins could be immunoprecipitated. ARNO binding to Arf6 was not mediated through the catalytic Sec7 domain, but via the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Active Arf6 also bound the PH domain of Grp1, another ARNO family member. This interaction was direct and required both inositol phospholipids and GTP. We propose a model of sequential Arf activation at the PM whereby Arf6-GTP recruits ARNO family GEFs for further activation of other Arf isoforms.
Project description:Budding of transport vesicles in the Golgi apparatus requires the recruitment of coat proteins and is regulated by ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) 1. ARF1 activation is promoted by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which catalyze the transition to GTP-bound ARF1. We recently have identified a human protein, ARNO (ARF nucleotide-binding-site opener), as an ARF1-GEF that shares a conserved domain with the yeast Sec7 protein. We now describe a human Sec7 domain-containing GEF referred to as ARNO3. ARNO and ARNO3, as well as a third GEF called cytohesin-1, form a family of highly related proteins with identical structural organization that consists of a central Sec7 domain and a carboxy-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. We show that all three proteins act as ARF1 GEF in vitro, whereas they have no effect on ARF6, an ARF protein implicated in the early endocytic pathway. Substrate specificity of ARNO-like GEFs for ARF1 depends solely on the Sec7 domain. Overexpression of ARNO3 in mammalian cells results in (i) fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus, (ii) redistribution of Golgi resident proteins as well as the coat component beta-COP, and (iii) inhibition of SEAP transport (secreted form of alkaline phosphatase). In contrast, the distribution of endocytic markers is not affected. This study indicates that Sec7 domain-containing GEFs control intracellular membrane compartment structure and function through the regulation of specific ARF proteins in mammalian cells.
Project description:The pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium is a common cause of diarrhea and invades the gut tissue by injecting a cocktail of virulence factors into epithelial cells, triggering actin rearrangements, membrane ruffling and pathogen entry. One of these factors is SopE, a G-nucleotide exchange factor for the host cellular Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. How SopE mediates cellular invasion is incompletely understood. Using genome-scale RNAi screening we identified 72 known and novel host cell proteins affecting SopE-mediated entry. Follow-up assays assigned these 'hits' to particular steps of the invasion process; i.e., binding, effector injection, membrane ruffling, membrane closure and maturation of the Salmonella-containing vacuole. Depletion of the COPI complex revealed a unique effect on virulence factor injection and membrane ruffling. Both effects are attributable to mislocalization of cholesterol, sphingolipids, Rac1 and Cdc42 away from the plasma membrane into a large intracellular compartment. Equivalent results were obtained with the vesicular stomatitis virus. Therefore, COPI-facilitated maintenance of lipids may represent a novel, unifying mechanism essential for a wide range of pathogens, offering opportunities for designing new drugs.
Project description:The small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) anchors at the plasma membrane to orchestrate key functions, such as membrane trafficking and regulating cortical actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. A number of studies have identified key players that interact with Arf6 to regulate actin dynamics in diverse cell processes, yet it is still unknown whether Arf6 can directly signal to the wave regulatory complex to mediate actin assembly. By reconstituting actin dynamics on supported lipid bilayers, we found that Arf6 in co-ordination with Rac1(Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) can directly trigger actin polymerization by recruiting wave regulatory complex components. Interestingly, we demonstrated that Arf6 triggers actin assembly at the membrane directly without recruiting the Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARNO (ARF nucleotide-binding site opener), which is able to activate Arf1 to enable WRC-dependent actin assembly. Furthermore, using labelled <i>E. coli</i>, we demonstrated that actin assembly by Arf6 also contributes towards efficient phagocytosis in THP-1 macrophages. Taken together, this study reveals a mechanism for Arf6-driven actin polymerization.
Project description:Proteins of the cytohesin/Arno/Grp1 family of Arf activators are positive regulators of the insulin-signaling pathway and control various remodeling events at the plasma membrane. Arno has a catalytic Sec7 domain, which promotes GDP to GTP exchange on Arf, followed by a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Previous studies have revealed two functions of the PH domain: inhibition of the Sec7 domain and membrane targeting. Interestingly, the Arno PH domain interacts not only with a phosphoinositide (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate or phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) but also with an activating Arf family member, such as Arf6 or Arl4. Using the full-length membrane-bound forms of Arf1 and Arf6 instead of soluble forms, we show here that the membrane environment dramatically affects the mechanism of Arno activation. First, Arf6-GTP stimulates Arno at nanomolar concentrations on liposomes compared with micromolar concentrations in solution. Second, mutations in the PH domain that abolish interaction with Arf6-GTP render Arno completely inactive when exchange reactions are reconstituted on liposomes but have no effect on Arno activity in solution. Third, Arno is activated by its own product Arf1-GTP in addition to a distinct activating Arf isoform. Consequently, Arno activity is strongly modulated by competition with Arf effectors. These results show that Arno behaves as a bistable switch, having an absolute requirement for activation by an Arf protein but, once triggered, becoming highly active through the positive feedback effect of Arf1-GTP. This property of Arno might provide an explanation for its function in signaling pathways that, once triggered, must move forward decisively.
Project description:Small molecules that produce nonfunctional protein-protein complexes are an alternative to competitive inhibitors for the inhibition of protein functions. Here we target the activation of the small GTP-binding protein Arf1, a major regulator of membrane traffic, by the Sec7 catalytic domain of its guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARNO. The crystal structure of the Arf1-GDP/ARNO complex, which initiates the exchange reaction, was used to discover an inhibitor, LM11, using in silico screening of a flexible pocket near the Arf1/ARNO interface. Using fluorescence kinetics and anisotropy, NMR spectroscopy and mutagenesis, we show that LM11 acts following a noncompetitive mechanism in which the inhibitor targets both Arf1-GDP and the Arf1-GDP/ARNO complex and produces a nonfunctional Arf-GDP/ARNO complex whose affinity is similar to that of the native complex. In addition, LM11 recognizes features of both Arf and ARNO near the Arf/Sec7 interface, a characteristic reminiscent of the paradigm interfacial inhibitor Brefeldin A. We then show that LM11 is a cell-active inhibitor that impairs Arf-dependent trafficking structures at the Golgi. Furthermore, LM11 inhibits ARNO-dependent migration of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, demonstrating that ARNO is a target of LM11 in cells. Remarkably, LM11 inhibits the activation of Arf1 but not Arf6 in vitro, pointing to a possible synergy between Arf1 and Arf6 activation by ARNO in cell migration. Our design method shows that flexible regions in protein-protein complexes provide drugable sites with the potential to develop novel tools for investigating and inhibiting signaling pathways.
Project description:G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transduce the binding of extracellular stimuli into intracellular signalling cascades that can lead to morphological changes. Here, we demonstrate that stimulation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a GPCR that promotes chemotaxis by detecting increases in extracellular calcium, triggers plasma membrane (PM) ruffling via a pathway that involves beta-arrestin 1, Arf nucleotide binding site opener (ARNO), ADP-ribosylating factor 6 (ARF6) and engulfment and cell motility protein (ELMO). Expression of dominant negative beta-arrestin 1 or its knockdown with siRNA impaired the CaSR-induced PM ruffling response. Expression of a catalytically inactive ARNO also reduced CaSR-induced PM ruffling. Furthermore, beta-arrestin 1 co-immunoprecipitated with the CaSR and ARNO under resting conditions. Agonist treatment did not markedly alter beta-arrestin 1 binding to the CaSR or to ARNO but it did elicit the translocation and colocalisation of the CaSR, beta-arrestin 1 and ARNO to membrane protrusions. Furthermore, ARF6 and ELMO, two proteins known to couple ARNO to the cytoskeleton, were required for CaSR-dependent morphological changes and translocated to the PM ruffles. These data suggest that cells ruffle upon CaSR stimulation via a mechanism that involves translocation of beta-arrestin 1 pre-assembled with the CaSR or ARNO, and that ELMO plays an essential role in this CaSR-signalling-induced cytoskeletal reorganisation.