Haploinsufficiency of SGO1 results in deregulated centrosome dynamics, enhanced chromosomal instability and colon tumorigenesis.
ABSTRACT: Chromosome instability (CIN) is found in 85% of colorectal cancers. Defects in mitotic processes are implicated in high CIN and may be critical events in colorectal tumorigenesis. Shugoshin-1 (SGO1) aids in the maintenance of chromosome cohesion and prevents premature chromosome separation and CIN. In addition, integrity of the centrosome may be compromised due to the deficiency of Cohesin and Sgo1 through the disengagement of centrioles. We report here the generation and characterization of SGO1-mutant mice and show that haploinsufficiency of SGO1 leads to enhanced colonic tumorigenesis. Complete disruption of SGO1 results in embryonic lethality, whereas SGO1+/- mice are viable and fertile. Haploinsufficiency of SGO1 results in genomic instability manifested as missegregation of chromosomes and formation of extra centrosomal foci in both murine embryonic fibroblasts and adult bone marrow cells. Enhanced CIN observed in SGO1-deficient mice resulted in an increase in formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and accelerated development of tumors after exposure to azoxymethane (AOM), a colon carcinogen. Together, these results suggest that haploinsufficiency of SGO1 causes enhanced CIN, colonic preneoplastic lesions and tumorigenesis in mice. SGO1 is essential for the suppression of CIN and tumor formation.
Project description:Colon cancer is the second most lethal cancer. It is predicted to claim 50,310 lives in 2014. Chromosome Instability (CIN) is observed in 80-90% of colon cancers, and is thought to contribute to colon cancer progression and recurrence. However, there are no animal models of CIN that have been validated for studies of colon cancer development or drug testing. In this study, we sought to validate a mitotic error-induced CIN model mouse, the Shugoshin1 (Sgo1) haploinsufficient mouse, as a colon cancer study model. Wild-type and Sgo1(-/+) mice were treated with the colonic carcinogen, azoxymethane (AOM). We tracked colon tumor development 12, 24, and 36?wk after treatment to assess progression of colon tumorigenesis. Initially, more precancerous lesions, Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF), developed in Sgo1(-/+) mice. However, the ACF did not develop straightforwardly into larger tumors. At the 36-wk endpoint, the number of gross tumors in Sgo1(-/+) mice was no different from that in wild-type controls. However, Copy Number Variation (CNV) analysis indicated that fully developed colon tumor in Sgo1(-/+) mice carried 13.75 times more CNV. Immunohistological analyses indicated that Sgo1(-/+) mice differentially expressed IL-6, Bcl2, and p16(INK4A) . We propose that formation of ACF in Sgo1(-/+) mice is facilitated by the IL6-STAT3-SOCS3 oncogenic pathway and by the Bcl2-anti-apoptotic pathway, yet further development of the ACF to tumors is inhibited by the p16(INK4A) tumor suppressor pathway. Manipulating these pathways would be beneficial for inhibiting development of colon cancer with CIN.
Project description:Colon cancer is the second most lethal cancer and is predicted to claim 49,700 lives in the United States this year. Chromosome instability (CIN) is observed in 80% to 90% of colon cancers and is thought to contribute to colon cancer progression and recurrence. To investigate the impact of CIN on colon cancer development, we developed shugoshin-1 (Sgo1) haploinsufficient (-/+) mice, an animal model focusing on mitotic error-induced CIN. In this study, we analyzed signature changes in the colonic transcriptome of Sgo1(-/+) mice to examine the molecular events underlying the altered carcinogenesis profiles in Sgo1(-/+) mice. We performed next-generation sequencing of normal-looking colonic mucosal tissue from mice treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane after 24 weeks. Transcriptome profiling revealed 349 hits with a 2-fold expression difference threshold (217 upregulated genes, 132 downregulated genes, P < 0.05). Pathway analyses indicated that the Sgo1-CIN tissues upregulated pathways known to be activated in colon cancer, including lipid metabolism (z score 4.47), Notch signaling (4.47), insulin signaling (3.81), and PPAR pathways (3.75), and downregulated pathways involved in immune responses including allograft rejection (6.69) and graft-versus-host disease (6.54). Notably, stem cell markers were also misregulated. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that systemic CIN results in transcriptomic changes in metabolism, proliferation, cell fate, and immune responses in the colon, which may foster a microenvironment amenable to cancer development. Therefore, therapeutic approaches focusing on these identified pathways may be valuable for colon cancer prevention and treatment.
Project description:A major etiological risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is infection by Hepatitis viruses, especially hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus do not cause aggressive activation of an oncogenic pathway, but they transactivate a broad array of genes, cause chronic inflammation, and, through interference with mitotic processes, lead to mitotic error-induced chromosome instability (ME-CIN). However, how ME-CIN is involved in the development of HCC remains unclear. Delineating the effect of ME-CIN on HCC development should help in identifying measures to combat HCC. In this study, we used ME-CIN model mice haploinsufficient in Shugoshin 1 (Sgo1(-/+)) to assess the role of ME-CIN in HCC development. Treatment with the carcinogen azoxymethane caused Sgo1(-/+) ME-CIN model mice to develop HCCs within 6 months, whereas control mice developed no HCC (P < 0.003). The HCC development was associated with expression of early HCC markers (glutamine synthetase, glypican 3, heat shock protein 70, and the serum marker alpha fetoprotein), although without fibrosis. ME-CIN preceded the expression of HCC markers, suggesting that ME-CIN is an important early event in HCC development. In 12-month-old untreated Sgo1 mice, persistent DNA damage, altered gene expression, and spontaneous HCCs were observed. Sgo1 protein accumulated in response to DNA damage in vitro. Overall, Sgo1(-/+)-mediated ME-CIN strongly promoted/progressed development of HCC in the presence of an initiator carcinogen, and it had a mild initiator effect by itself. Use of the ME-CIN model mice should help in identifying drugs to counteract the effects of ME-CIN and should accelerate anti-HCC drug development.
Project description:Mitotic error-mediated chromosome instability (CIN) can lead to aneuploidy, chromothripsis, DNA damage and/or whole chromosome gain/loss. CIN may prompt rapid accumulation of mutations and genomic alterations. Thus, CIN can promote carcinogenesis. This CIN process results from a mutation in certain genes or environmental challenge such as smoking, and is highly prevalent in various cancers, including lung cancer. A better understanding of the effects of CIN on carcinogenesis will lead to novel methods for cancer prevention and treatment. Previously Shugoshin-1 (Sgo1(-/+)) mice, a transgenic mouse model of CIN, showed mild proneness to spontaneous lung and liver cancers. In this study, adoptive (T/B-cell based) immunity-deficient RAG1(-/-) Sgo1(-/+) double mutant mice developed lung adenocarcinomas more aggressively than did Sgo1(-/+) or RAG1(-/-) mice, suggesting immune system involvement in CIN-mediated lung carcinogenesis. To identify molecular causes of the lung adenocarcinoma, we used systems biology approach, comparative RNAseq, to RAG1(-/-) and RAG1(-/-) Sgo1(-/+). The comparative RNAseq data and follow-up analyses in the lungs of naive Sgo1(-/+) mice demonstrate that, (i) glutathione is depleted, making the tissue vulnerable to oxidative stress, (ii) spontaneous DNA damage is increased, (iii) oncogenic Wnt signaling is activated, (iv) both major branches of the immune system are weakened through misregulations in signal mediators such as CD80 and calreticulin and (v) the actin cytoskeleton is misregulated. Overall, the results show multi-faceted roles of CIN in lung carcinoma development in Sgo1(-/+) mice. Our model presents various effects of CIN and will help to identify potential targets to prevent CIN-driven carcinogenesis in the lung.
Project description:We compared lung mRNA expression profiles between RAG1-/- control and RAG1-/- Sgo1-/+ chromosome instability model mice. RAG1-/-Sgo1-/+ mice developed significantly more spontaneous lung tumors. Overall design: Characterize influence of chromosome instability on lung
Project description:At anaphase onset, Sgo1 function of cohesion protection must be disabled to allow timely chromosome segregation, but how this is achieved is not fully understood. Here, we show that SET, a known PP2A inhibitor, directly binds to a domain in Sgo1 in close proximity to the cohesin-binding motif. The Sgo1-cohesin binding can be disrupted by SET in a dose-dependent manner in vitro as well as by SET overexpression in cells, suggesting that SET is also an inhibitor to the Sgo1-cohesin binding. Furthermore, the SET binding-deficient Sgo1 mutant fully supports centromeric cohesion protection but delays chromosome segregation, suggesting that the SET-Sgo1 binding is required for timely chromosome segregation. Moreover, overexpression of SET WT, not the Sgo1 binding-deficient mutant, exacerbates the occurrence of cohesion fatigue in MG132-arrested cells. Conversely, SET depletion delays it. Thus, we propose that a major function of SET during mitosis is to disrupt the Sgo1-cohesin interaction, thereby promoting centromeric cohesion de-protection and timely chromosome segregation at anaphase onset.
Project description:We compare mRNA expression profiles between wild type control and Sgo1-/+ chromosome instability model mice Overall design: Characterize influence of chromosome instability on colon
Project description:Timely dissolution of sister-chromatid cohesion in mitosis ensures accurate chromosome segregation to guard against aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. The complex of shugoshin and protein phosphatase 2A (SGO1-PP2A) protects cohesin at centromeres from premature removal by mitotic kinases and WAPL in prophase. Here we address the regulation and mechanism of human SGO1 in centromeric cohesion protection, and show that cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-mediated, mitosis-specific phosphorylation of SGO1 activates its cohesion-protection function and enables its direct binding to cohesin. The phospho-SGO1-bound cohesin complex contains PP2A, PDS5 and hypophosphorylated sororin, but lacks WAPL. Expression of non-phosphorylatable sororin bypasses the requirement for SGO1-PP2A in centromeric cohesion. Thus, mitotic phosphorylation of SGO1 targets SGO1-PP2A to cohesin, promotes dephosphorylation of PDS5-bound sororin and protects centromeric cohesin from WAPL. PP2A-orchestrated, site-selective dephosphorylation of cohesin and its regulators underlies centromeric cohesion protection.
Project description:Spontaneous late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) accounts for more than 95% of all human AD. As mice do not normally develop AD and as understanding on molecular processes leading to spontaneous LOAD has been insufficient to successfully model LOAD in mouse, no mouse model for LOAD has been available. Existing mouse AD models are all early-onset AD (EOAD) models that rely on forcible expression of AD-associated protein(s), which may not recapitulate prerequisites for spontaneous LOAD. This limitation in AD modeling may contribute to the high failure rate of AD drugs in clinical trials. In this study, we hypothesized that genomic instability facilitates development of LOAD and tested two genomic instability mice models in the brain pathology at the old age. Shugoshin-1 (Sgo1) haploinsufficient (?) mice, a model of chromosome instability (CIN) with chromosomal and centrosomal cohesinopathy, spontaneously exhibited a major feature of AD pathology; amyloid beta accumulation that colocalized with phosphorylated Tau, beta-secretase 1 (BACE), and mitotic marker phospho-Histone H3 (p-H3) in the brain. Another CIN model, spindle checkpoint-defective BubR1-/+ haploinsufficient mice, did not exhibit the pathology at the same age, suggesting the prolonged mitosis-origin of the AD pathology. RNA-seq identified ten differentially expressed genes, among which seven genes have indicated association with AD pathology or neuronal functions (e.g., ARC, EBF3). Thus, the model represents a novel model that recapitulates spontaneous LOAD pathology in mouse. The Sgo1-/+ mouse may serve as a novel tool for investigating mechanisms of spontaneous progression of LOAD pathology, for early diagnosis markers, and for drug development.
Project description:Shugoshin-1 (Sgo1) protects the integrity of the centromeres, and H2A phosphorylation is critical for this process. The mitotic checkpoint kinase Bub1, phosphorylates H2A and ensures fidelity of chromosome segregation and chromosome number. Oncogenic KSHV induces genetic alterations through chromosomal instability (CIN), and its essential antigen LANA regulates Bub1. We show that LANA inhibits Bub1 phosphorylation of H2A and Cdc20, important for chromosome segregation and mitotic signaling. Inhibition of H2A phosphorylation at residue T120 by LANA resulted in dislocation of Sgo1, and cohesin from the centromeres. Arrest of Cdc20 phosphorylation also rescued degradation of Securin and Cyclin B1 at mitotic exit, and interaction of H2A, and Cdc20 with Bub1 was inhibited by LANA. The N-terminal nuclear localization sequence domain of LANA was essential for LANA and Bub1 interaction, reversed LANA inhibited phosphorylation of H2A and Cdc20, and attenuated LANA-induced aneuploidy and cell proliferation. This molecular mechanism whereby KSHV-induced CIN, demonstrated that the NNLS of LANA is a promising target for development of anti-viral therapies targeting KSHV associated cancers.