The lid domain of Caenorhabditis elegans Hsc70 influences ATP turnover, cofactor binding and protein folding activity.
ABSTRACT: Hsc70 is a conserved ATP-dependent molecular chaperone, which utilizes the energy of ATP hydrolysis to alter the folding state of its client proteins. In contrast to the Hsc70 systems of bacteria, yeast and humans, the Hsc70 system of C. elegans (CeHsc70) has not been studied to date.We find that CeHsc70 is characterized by a high ATP turnover rate and limited by post-hydrolysis nucleotide exchange. This rate-limiting step is defined by the helical lid domain at the C-terminus. A certain truncation in this domain (CeHsc70-?545) reduces the turnover rate and renders the hydrolysis step rate-limiting. The helical lid domain also affects cofactor affinities as the lidless mutant CeHsc70-?512 binds more strongly to DNJ-13, forming large protein complexes in the presence of ATP. Despite preserving the ability to hydrolyze ATP and interact with its cofactors DNJ-13 and BAG-1, the truncation of the helical lid domain leads to the loss of all protein folding activity, highlighting the requirement of this domain for the functionality of the nematode's Hsc70 protein.
Project description:The molecular chaperone Hsc70 performs essential tasks by folding proteins. Hsc70 is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP and tuned by the association with various co-chaperones. One such cofactor is the nematode nucleotide exchange factor UNC-23, whose mutation disrupts muscle attachment and induces a severe head-bent phenotype in C.elegans. Interestingly, four mutations in Hsc70 can suppress this phenotype, but the molecular mechanism underlying this suppression is unknown. Here we characterize these four suppressor variants, Hsc70 D233N, S321F, A379V and D384N. In vitro only Hsc70 S321F shows reduced stability and altered nucleotide interaction, but all mutations affect the ATPase stimulation. In particular, Hsc70 D233N and Hsc70 A379V show strongly reduced interactions with DNJ-12 and DNJ-13. Nucleotide exchange factor binding instead is barely influenced in Hsc70 D233N, A379V and D384N and their chaperone activity is preserved. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that effects in Hsc70 S321F and Hsc70 A379V originate from steric clashes in the vicinity of the mutation site, while D233N disrupts a salt bridge that contributes to Hsc70's nucleotide-induced conformational changes. In summary, the analyzed mutants show altered ATPase and refolding activity caused by changes in Hsp40 binding.
Project description:Group II chaperonins found in archaea and in eukaryotic cytosol mediate protein folding without a GroES-like cofactor. The function of the cofactor is substituted by the helical protrusion at the tip of the apical domain, which forms a built-in lid on the central cavity. Although many studies on the change in lid conformation coupled to the binding and hydrolysis of nucleotides have been conducted, the molecular mechanism of lid closure remains poorly understood. Here, we performed a single-molecule polarization modulation to probe the rotation of the helical protrusion of a chaperonin from a hyperthermophilic archaeum, Thermococcus sp. strain KS-1. We detected approximately 35° rotation of the helical protrusion immediately after photorelease of ATP. The result suggests that the conformational change from the open lid to the closed lid state is responsible for the approximately 35° rotation of the helical protrusion.
Project description:ATP drives the conformational change of the group II chaperonin from the open lid substrate-binding conformation to the closed lid conformation to encapsulate an unfolded protein in the central cavity. The detailed mechanism of this conformational change remains unknown. To elucidate the intra-ring cooperative action of subunits for the conformational change, we constructed Thermococcus chaperonin complexes containing mutant subunits in an ordered manner and examined their folding and conformational change abilities. Chaperonin complexes containing wild-type subunits and mutant subunits with impaired ATP-dependent conformational change ability or ATP hydrolysis activity, one by one, exhibited high protein refolding ability. The effects of the mutant subunits correlate with the number and order in the ring. In contrast, the use of a mutant lacking helical protrusion severely affected the function. Interestingly, these mutant chaperonin complexes also exhibited ATP-dependent conformational changes as demonstrated by small angle x-ray scattering, protease digestion, and changes in fluorescence of the fluorophore attached to the tip of the helical protrusion. However, their conformational change is likely to be transient. They captured denatured proteins even in the presence of ATP, whereas addition of ATP impaired the ability of the wild-type chaperonin to protect citrate synthase from thermal aggregation. These results suggest that ATP binding/hydrolysis causes the independent conformational change of the subunit, and further conformational change for the complete closure of the lid is induced and stabilized by the interaction between helical protrusions.
Project description:Chaperonins are large ATP-driven molecular machines that mediate cellular protein folding. Group II chaperonins use their "built-in lid" to close their central folding chamber. Here we report the structure of an archaeal group II chaperonin in its prehydrolysis ATP-bound state at subnanometer resolution using single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Structural comparison of Mm-cpn in ATP-free, ATP-bound, and ATP-hydrolysis states reveals that ATP binding alone causes the chaperonin to close slightly with a ?45° counterclockwise rotation of the apical domain. The subsequent ATP hydrolysis drives each subunit to rock toward the folding chamber and to close the lid completely. These motions are attributable to the local interactions of specific active site residues with the nucleotide, the tight couplings between the apical and intermediate domains within the subunit, and the aligned interactions between two subunits across the rings. This mechanism of structural changes in response to ATP is entirely different from those found in group I chaperonins.
Project description:The ubiquitin ligase CHIP plays an important role in cytosolic protein quality control by ubiquitinating proteins chaperoned by Hsp70/Hsc70 and Hsp90, thereby targeting such substrate proteins for degradation. We present a 2.91 Å resolution structure of the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of CHIP in complex with the ?-helical lid subdomain and unstructured tail of Hsc70. Surprisingly, the CHIP-TPR interacts with determinants within both the Hsc70-lid subdomain and the C-terminal PTIEEVD motif of the tail, exhibiting an atypical mode of interaction between chaperones and TPR domains. We demonstrate that the interaction between CHIP and the Hsc70-lid subdomain is required for proper ubiquitination of Hsp70/Hsc70 or Hsp70/Hsc70-bound substrate proteins. Posttranslational modifications of the Hsc70 lid and tail disrupt key contacts with the CHIP-TPR and may regulate CHIP-mediated ubiquitination. Our study shows how CHIP docks onto Hsp70/Hsc70 and defines a bipartite mode of interaction between TPR domains and their binding partners.
Project description:The 70-kilodalton (kDa) heat-shock proteins (Hsp70s) are ubiquitous molecular chaperones essential for cellular protein folding and proteostasis. Each Hsp70 has two functional domains: a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD), which binds and hydrolyzes ATP, and a substrate-binding domain (SBD), which binds extended polypeptides. NBD and SBD interact little when in the presence of ADP; however, ATP binding allosterically couples the polypeptide- and ATP-binding sites. ATP binding promotes polypeptide release; polypeptide rebinding stimulates ATP hydrolysis. This allosteric coupling is poorly understood. Here we present the crystal structure of an intact ATP-bound Hsp70 from Escherichia coli at 1.96-Å resolution. The ATP-bound NBD adopts a unique conformation, forming extensive interfaces with an SBD that has changed radically, having its ?-helical lid displaced and the polypeptide-binding channel of its ?-subdomain restructured. These conformational changes, together with our biochemical assays, provide a structural explanation for allosteric coupling in Hsp70 activity.
Project description:Group II chaperonins are ATP-dependent ring-shaped complexes that bind nonnative polypeptides and facilitate protein folding in archaea and eukaryotes. A built-in lid encapsulates substrate proteins within the central chaperonin chamber. Here, we describe the fate of the substrate during the nucleotide cycle of group II chaperonins. The chaperonin substrate-binding sites are exposed, and the lid is open in both the ATP-free and ATP-bound prehydrolysis states. ATP hydrolysis has a dual function in the folding cycle, triggering both lid closure and substrate release into the central chamber. Notably, substrate release can occur in the absence of a lid, and lid closure can occur without substrate release. However, productive folding requires both events, so that the polypeptide is released into the confined space of the closed chamber where it folds. Our results show that ATP hydrolysis coordinates the structural and functional determinants that trigger productive folding.
Project description:Cotranslational chaperones assist in de novo folding of nascent polypeptides in all organisms. In yeast, the heterodimeric ribosome-associated complex (RAC) forms a unique chaperone triad with the Hsp70 homologue Ssb. We report the X-ray structure of full length Ssb in the ATP-bound open conformation at 2.6?Å resolution and identify a positively charged region in the ?-helical lid domain (SBD?), which is present in all members of the Ssb-subfamily of Hsp70s. Mutational analysis demonstrates that this region is strictly required for ribosome binding. Crosslinking shows that Ssb binds close to the tunnel exit via contacts with both, ribosomal proteins and rRNA, and that specific contacts can be correlated with switching between the open (ATP-bound) and closed (ADP-bound) conformation. Taken together, our data reveal how Ssb dynamics on the ribosome allows for the efficient interaction with nascent chains upon RAC-mediated activation of ATP hydrolysis.
Project description:The allosteric mechanism of Hsp70 molecular chaperones enables ATP binding to the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) to alter substrate affinity to the C-terminal substrate-binding domain (SBD) and substrate binding to enhance ATP hydrolysis. Cycling between ATP-bound and ADP/substrate-bound states requires Hsp70s to visit a state with high ATPase activity and fast on/off kinetics of substrate binding. We have trapped this "allosterically active" state for the E. coli Hsp70, DnaK, and identified how interactions among the NBD, the ? subdomain of the SBD, the SBD ?-helical lid, and the conserved hydrophobic interdomain linker enable allosteric signal transmission between ligand-binding sites. Allostery in Hsp70s results from an energetic tug-of-war between domain conformations and formation of two orthogonal interfaces: between the NBD and SBD, and between the helical lid and the ? subdomain of the SBD. The resulting energetic tension underlies Hsp70 functional properties and enables them to be modulated by ligands and cochaperones and "tuned" through evolution.
Project description:Chaperonins are allosteric double-ring ATPases that mediate cellular protein folding. ATP binding and hydrolysis control opening and closing of the central chaperonin chamber, which transiently provides a protected environment for protein folding. During evolution, two strategies to close the chaperonin chamber have emerged. Archaeal and eukaryotic group II chaperonins contain a built-in lid, whereas bacterial chaperonins use a ring-shaped cofactor as a detachable lid. Here we show that the built-in lid is an allosteric regulator of group II chaperonins, which helps synchronize the subunits within one ring and, to our surprise, also influences inter-ring communication. The lid is dispensable for substrate binding and ATP hydrolysis, but is required for productive substrate folding. These regulatory functions of the lid may serve to allow the symmetrical chaperonins to function as 'two-stroke' motors and may also provide a timer for substrate encapsulation within the closed chamber.