Comparison of bone and renal effects in HIV-infected adults switching to abacavir or tenofovir based therapy in a randomized trial.
ABSTRACT: Our objective was to compare the bone and renal effects among HIV-infected patients randomized to abacavir or tenofovir-based combination anti-retroviral therapy.In an open-label randomized trial, HIV-infected patients were randomized to switch from zidovudine/lamivudine (AZT/3TC) to abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC). We measured bone mass density (BMD) and bone turnover biomarkers (osteocalcin, osteocalcin, procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTx), and osteoprotegerin). We assessed renal function by estimated creatinine clearance, plasma cystatin C, and urinary levels of creatinine, albumin, cystatin C, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). The changes from baseline in BMD and renal and bone biomarkers were compared across study arms.Of 40 included patients, 35 completed 48 weeks of randomized therapy and follow up. BMD was measured in 33, 26, and 27 patients at baseline, week 24, and week 48, respectively. In TDF/FTC-treated patients we observed significant reductions from baseline in hip and lumbar spine BMD at week 24 (-1.8% and -2.5%) and week 48 (-2.1% and -2.1%), whereas BMD was stable in patients in the ABC/3TC arm. The changes from baseline in BMD were significantly different between study arms. All bone turnover biomarkers except osteoprotegerin increased in the TDF/FTC arm compared with the ABC/3TC arm, but early changes did not predict subsequent loss of BMD. Renal function parameters were similar between study arms although a small increase in NGAL was detected among TDF-treated patients.Switching to TDF/FTC-based therapy led to decreases in BMD and increases in bone turnover markers compared with ABC/3TC-based treatment. No major difference in renal function was observed.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00647244.
Project description:Long-term effects of abacavir (ABC)-lamivudine (3TC), compared with tenofovir (TDF)-emtricitabine (FTC) with efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir plus ritonavir (ATV/r), on bone mineral density (BMD) have not been analyzed.A5224s was a substudy of A5202, in which HIV-infected treatment-naive participants were randomized and blinded to receive ABC-3TC or TDF-FTC with open-label EFV or ATV/r. Primary bone end points included Dual-emission X-ray absorbtiometry (DXA)-measured percent changes in spine and hip BMD at week 96. Primary analyses were intent-to-treat. Statistical tests used the factorial design and included linear regression, 2-sample t, log-rank, and Fisher's exact tests.Two hundred sixty-nine persons randomized to 4 arms of ABC-3TC or TDF-FTC with EFV or ATV/r. At baseline, 85% were male, and 47% were white non-Hispanic; the median HIV-1 RNA load was 4.6 log(10) copies/mL, the median age was 38 years, the median weight was 76 kg, and the median CD4 cell count was 233 cells/μL. At week 96, the mean percentage changes from baseline in spine and hip BMD for ABC-3TC versus TDF-FTC were -1.3% and -3.3% (P = .004) and -2.6% and -4.0% (P = .024), respectively; and for EFV versus ATV/r were -1.7% and -3.1% (P = .035) and -3.1% and -3.4% (P = .61), respectively. Bone fracture was observed in 5.6% of participants. The probability of bone fractures and time to first fracture were not different across components.Compared with ABC-3TC, TDF-FTC-treated participants had significantly greater decreases in spine and hip BMD, whereas ATV/r led to more significant losses in spine, but not hip, BMD than EFV. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00118898.
Project description:Simplification of antiretroviral therapy in patients with suppressed viremia may minimize long-term adverse effects. The study's primary objective was to determine whether abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir (ABC/3TC+ATV) was virologically non-inferior to tenofovir/emtricitabine + atazanavir/ritonavir (TDF/FTC+ATV/r) over 24 weeks in a population of virologically suppressed, HIV-1 infected patients.This open-label, multicenter, non-inferiority study enrolled antiretroviral experienced, HIV-infected adults currently receiving a regimen of TDF/FTC+ATV/r for ? 6 months with no history of virologic failure and whose HIV-1 RNA had been ? 75 copies/mL on 2 consecutive measurements including screening. Patients were randomized 1 ? 2 to continue current treatment or simplify to ABC/3TC+ATV.The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with HIV-RNA<50 copies/mL at Week 24 by the Time to Loss of Virologic Response (TLOVR) algorithm. Secondary endpoints included alternative measures of efficacy, adverse events (AEs), and fasting lipids. Exploratory endpoints included inflammatory, coagulation, bone, and renal biomarkers.After 24 weeks, ABC/3TC+ATV (n = 199) was non-inferior to TDF/FTC+ATV/r (n = 97) by both the primary analysis (87% in both groups) and all secondary efficacy analyses. Rates of grade 2-4 AEs were similar between the two groups (40% vs 37%, respectively), but an excess of hyperbilirubinemia made the rate of grade 3-4 laboratory abnormalities higher in the TDF/FTC+ATV/r group (30%) compared with the ABC/3TC+ATV group (13%). Lipid levels were stable except for HDL cholesterol, which increased significantly in the ABC/3TC+ATV group. Bone and renal biomarkers improved significantly between baseline and Week 24 in patients taking ABC/3TC+ATV, and the difference between groups was significant at Week 24. No significant changes occurred in any inflammatory or coagulation biomarker within or between treatment groups.After 24 weeks, simplification to ABC/3TC+ATV from TDF/FTC+ATV/r maintained viral suppression was well-tolerated, and led to improvements in bone and renal biomarkers and HDL cholesterol.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01102972 GlaxoSmithKline Clinical Study Register #113734.
Project description:Those receiving tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) had greater bone loss compared with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC-3TC) in a randomized simplification trial (STEAL study). Previous studies associated increased bone turnover and bone loss with initiation of antiretroviral treatment, however it is unclear whether change in bone mineral density (BMD) was a result of specific drugs, from immune reconstitution or from suppression of HIV replication. This analysis determined predictors of BMD change in the hip and spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in virologically suppressed participants through week 96.Bone turnover markers (BTMS) tested were: formation [bone alkaline phosphatase, procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP)]; resorption (C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen [CTx]); and bone cytokine-signalling (osteoprotegerin, RANK ligand). Independent predictors of BMD change were determined using forward, stepwise, linear regression. BTM changes and fracture risk (FRAX®) at week 96 were compared by t-test. Baseline characteristics (n = 301) were: 98% male, mean age 45 years, current protease-inhibitor (PI) 23%, tenofovir/abacavir-naïve 52%. Independent baseline predictors of greater hip and spine bone loss were TDF-FTC randomisation (p ? 0.013), lower fat mass (p-trend ? 0.009), lower P1NP (p = 0.015), and higher hip T score/spine BMD (p-trend ? 0.006). Baseline PI use was associated with greater spine bone loss (p = 0.004). TDF-FTC increased P1NP and CTx through Wk96 (p<0.01). Early changes in BTM did not predict bone loss at week 96. No significant between-group difference was found in fracture risk.Tenofovir/emtricitabine treatment, lower bone formation and lower fat mass predicted subsequent bone loss. There was no association between TDF-FTC and fracture risk.
Project description:In the United States, emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) is a preferred nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone with lamivudine/abacavir (3TC/ABC) as a commonly used alternative. For patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) virologically suppressed on a boosted protease inhibitor (PI) + 3TC/ABC regimen, the merits of switching to FTC/TDF as the NRTI backbone are unknown.SWIFT was a prospective, randomized, open-label 48-week study to evaluate efficacy and safety of switching to FTC/TDF. Subjects receiving 3TC/ABC + PI + ritonavir (RTV) with HIV-1 RNA < 200 c/mL ≥3 months were randomized to continue 3TC/ABC or switch to FTC/TDF. The primary endpoint was time to loss of virologic response (TLOVR) with noninferiority measured by delta of 12%. Virologic failure (VF) was defined as confirmed rebound or the last HIV-1 RNA measurement on study drug ≥200 c/mL.In total, 311 subjects were treated in this study (155 to PI + RTV + FTC/TDF, 156 to PI + RTV + 3TC/ABC). Baseline characteristics were similar between the arms: 85% male, 28% black, median age, 46 years; and median CD4 532 cells/mm(3). By TLOVR through week 48, switching to FTC/TDF was noninferior compared to continued 3TC/ABC (86.4% vs 83.3%, treatment difference 3.0% (95% confidence interval, -5.1% to 11.2%). Fewer subjects on FTC/TDF experienced VF (3 vs 11; P = .034). FTC/TDF showed greater declines in fasting low-density lipoproteins (LDL), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG) with significant declines in LDL and TC beginning at week 12 with no TC/HDL ratio change. Switching to FTC/TDF showed improved NCEP thresholds for TC and TG and improved 10-year Framingham TC calculated scores. Decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate [corrected] (eGFR) was observed in both arms with a larger decrease in the FTC/TDF arm.Switching to FTC/TDF from 3TC/ABC maintained virologic suppression, had fewer VFs, improved lipid parameters and Framingham scores but decreased eGFR. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00724711.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Drug choice and metabolic changes with antiretroviral therapy contribute to cardiovascular risk in persons with HIV-1 infection. METHODS:A randomized, 12 week, open-label, comparative study of the impact on lipids of continuation of abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) plus efavirenz (EFV) or replacement with the single tablet regimen of EFV/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (EFV/FTC/TDF) in hypercholesterolaemic subjects on successful antiretroviral therapy, with a 12-week extension with all subjects on EFV/FTC/TDF. RESULTS:157 subjects received study drug, 79 switched to EFV/FTC/TDF and 78 subjects continued ABC/3TC+EFV. At Week 12, 73 subjects on ABC/3TC+EFV switched to EFV/FTC/TDF. The switch was well tolerated and no subject experienced viral rebound. Median baseline fasting total cholesterol was 6.32 mmol/L. 12 weeks following switch, the difference in the means (LSM) between treatment groups (EFV/FTC/TDF minus ABC/3TC+EFV) in total cholesterol change from baseline was -0.74 mmol/l (95% CI -1.00, -0.47, p < 0.001). The median change from baseline in total cholesterol following switch in the EFV/FTC/TDF arm was -0.86 mmol/l (p < 0.001) compared with +0.01 mmol/l (p = 0.45) in the continuation arm at Week 12. Significant (p < 0.001) differences between treatment groups following switch were seen for all lipid fractions from baseline to Week 12: LDL cholesterol (-0.47 mmol/L [-0.70, -0.25]), HDL cholesterol (-0.15 mmol/L [-0.21, -0.08]), triglycerides (-0.43 mmol/L [-0.75, -0.11]), and non HDL cholesterol (-0.56 mmol/L [-0.80, -0.31]). In the extension phase, similar declines in total cholesterol were observed with a median change from Week 12 to Week 24 of -0.73 mmol/L (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Switching from ABC/3TC+EFV to EFV/FTC/TDF in persons with hypercholesterolemia maintains virological control and significantly improves key lipid parameters. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00615810.
Project description:There are limited data regarding the influence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms on reduced bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated the relationship between HLA supertypes and BMD in HIV-infected adults changing their existing treatment to tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) or abacavir-lamivudine (ABC-3TC) in the STEAL study.Lumbar spine and right hip BMD were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). HLA genotypes at the 2-digit level were classified into class I and II supertypes. Student's t-tests were used to test the association between HLA supertypes and changes in hip and spine BMD over 96 weeks for the whole cohort and stratified by randomised groups. The relationship between HLA supertypes and BMD was also assessed in the subgroup of participants that were naïve to both ABC and TDF at study entry.Class II supertypes were mainly associated with hip BMD change. Overall, compared to participants not carrying HLA-DQ3, participants expressing DQ3 had less bone loss over 96 weeks at both the hip and spine (hip: 0.003 vs. -0.006 g/cm2, 95%CI 0.002 to 0.017, p?=?0.016; spine: 0.006 vs. -0.006 g/cm2, 95%CI 0.001 to 0.023, p?=?0.041). In participants that were naïve to both ABC and TDF at baseline and randomised to TDF-FTC, DQ3 was significantly associated with less bone loss compared with those not carrying DQ3 (hip: 0.001 vs. -0.032 g/cm2; diff 0.033; 95%CI 0.017 to 0.049; p<0.001; spine: 0.007 vs. -0.023 g/cm2; diff 0.035; 95%CI 0.014 to 0.056; p?=?0.001).In this cohort of HIV-infected adults, there was an association between bone status and HLA supertypes, particularly HLA-DQ3.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00192634.
Project description:The effect of nonthymidine nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) on fat mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and function is unclear.A5202 randomized antiretroviral therapy-naive human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects to abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) versus tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). A5224s, substudy of A5202, enrolled 269 subjects with fat measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. A subset of subjects underwent fat biopsies at baseline and week 96 for mtDNA content (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and oxidative phosphorylation nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) dehydrogenase (complex I) and cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) activity levels (immunoassays). Intent-to-treat analyses were performed using analysis of variance and paired t tests.Fifty-six subjects (87% male; median age, 39 years) were included; their median body mass index, CD4 cell count, and fat mtDNA level were 26 kg/m(2), 227 cells/?L, and 1197 copies/cell, respectively. Fat mtDNA content decreased within the ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC groups (combining EFV and ATV/r arms; median change, -341 [interquartile range, -848 to 190; P = .03] and -400 [-661 to -221; P < .001] copies/cell, respectively), but these changes did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (P = .57). Complex I and IV activity decreased significantly in the TDF/FTC group (median change, -12.45 [interquartile range, -24.70 to 2.90; P = .003] and -8.25 [-13.90 to -1.30; P < .001], optical density × 10(3)/µg, respectively) but not the ABC/3TC group. Differences between the ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC groups were significant for complex I (P = .03).ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC significantly and similarly decreased fat mtDNA content, but only TDF/FTC decreased complex I and complex IV activity levels.NCT00118898.
Project description:BACKGROUND:With the introduction of integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-based antiretroviral therapy, persons living with HIV have a potent new treatment option. Recently, providers at our large treatment clinic noted weight gain in several patients who switched from efavirenz/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (EFV/TDF/FTC) to dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine (DTG/ABC/3TC). In this study, we evaluated weight change in patients with sustained virologic suppression who switched from EFV/TDF/FTC to an INSTI-containing regimen. METHODS:We performed a retrospective observational cohort study among adults on EFV/TDF/FTC for at least 2 years who had virologic suppression. We assessed weight change over 18 months in patients who switched from EFV/TDF/FTC to an INSTI-containing regimen or a protease inhibitor (PI)-containing regimen versus those on EFV/TDF/FTC over the same period. In a subgroup analysis, we compared patients switched to DTG/ABC/3TC versus raltegravir- or elvitegravir-containing regimens. RESULTS:A total of 495 patients were included: 136 who switched from EFV/TDF/FTC to an INSTI-containing regimen and 34 switched to a PI-containing regimen. Patients switched to an INSTI-containing regimen gained an average of 2.9 kg at 18 months compared with 0.9 kg among those continued on EFV/TDF/FTC (P = 0.003), whereas those switched to a PI regimen gained 0.7 kg (P = 0.81). Among INSTI regimens, those switched to DTG/ABC/3TC gained the most weight at 18 months (5.3 kg, P = 0.001 compared with EFV/TDF/FTC). CONCLUSION:Adults living with HIV with viral suppression gained significantly more weight after switching from daily, fixed-dose EFV/TDF/FTC to an INSTI-based regimen compared with those remaining on EFV/TDF/FTC. This weight gain was greatest among patients switching to DTG/ABC/3TC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with improved kidney function; however, the nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been associated with decreased kidney function and proteinuria. METHODS:We examined changes in urine protein:creatinine (UPCR) and urine albumin:creatinine (UACR) ratios in 245 ART-naive participants in A5202 randomized in a substudy to blinded NRTI (abacavir/lamivudine, ABC/3TC, n = 124 or TDF/emtricitabine, TDF/FTC, n = 121) with open-label protease inhibitor (PI) atazanavir/ritonavir or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) efavirenz. RESULTS:At baseline, 18% of participants had clinically significant proteinuria (UPCR ?200 mg/g), and 11% had clinically significant albuminuria (UACR ?30 mg/g). The prevalence of clinically significant proteinuria and albuminuria decreased from baseline to week 96 in all treatment groups. In intention-to-treat analyses, there was a significant effect of NRTI component on fold change in UPCR (P = 0.011) and UACR (P = 0.018) from baseline to week 96, with greater improvements in participants randomized to ABC/3TC. There was no significant effect of NNRTI/PI component on fold change in UPCR (P = 0.23) or UACR (P = 0.88), and no significant interactions between NRTI and NNRTI/PI components. CONCLUSIONS:In this prespecified secondary analysis, ART initiation was associated with improvements in proteinuria and albuminuria, with significantly greater improvements in participants randomized to ABC/3TC versus TDF/FTC. These are the first data from a randomized trial to suggest that initiation of TDF/FTC may not be associated with the same degree of improvement in proteinuria and albuminuria that have been reported with other regimens. Future studies should consider the long-term clinical significance of these findings.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The objective of this analysis is to perform an indirect comparison of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine and tenofovir DF (E/C/F/TDF) to abacavir/lamivudine and dolutegravir (ABC/3TC + DTG) by using 2 trials evaluating each of these regimens in comparison to efavirenz, emtricitabine and tenofovir DF (EFV/FTC/TDF). METHODS:An indirect comparison was performed by using a generalization of Bucher's methodology to calculate risk differences. Two phase III clinical trials (GS-US-236-0102 and SINGLE-described above) were used. RESULTS:Results of the indirect comparison showed no statistically significant risk difference of the efficacy endpoint of achieving HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL between E/C/F/TDF and ABC/3TC + DTG for the ITT population at weeks 48, 96 and 144: respectively -3.7% (CI95% = [-10.8%; 3.4%]), -5.2% (CI95% = [-13.2%; 2.8%]) and -3.1% (CI95% = [-12.0%; 5.7%]). There was no statistically significant differences in the risk difference for serious adverse events (5.7% (CI95% = [-2.2%; 12.3%])), drug related adverse event (2.7% (CI95% = [-7.0%;12.4%])), drug related serious adverse event (0.8% (CI95% = [-1.6%;3.2%])) and death (0.5% (CI95% = [-0.8%;1.8%])), respectively, between E/C/F/TDF and ABC/3TC + DTG. A significant difference was found for discontinuation due to adverse events with a higher rate for E/C/F/TDF (difference = 8.6% (CI95% = [3.3%; 13.9%])). There was also no statistically significant risk difference of the viral resistance of 1.2% (CI95% = [-1.2; 3.7]) between E/C/F/TDF and ABC/3TC + DTG at week 48, 1.7% at week 96 (CI95% = [-1.1; 4.5]) and 2.2% (CI95% = [-1.0; 5.4]) at week 144.