Characterization of full-length enterovirus 71 strains from severe and mild disease patients in northeastern China.
ABSTRACT: Human enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has been a leading cause of childhood infection in China since 2008. Epidemic and molecular characteristics of HFMD have been examined in many areas of China, including the central and southern regions. However, clinical and genetic characterization of EV71 in the northeastern region of China is scarce. In this study, a series of analyses were performed on seven full-length EV71 sequences from HFMD patients who had either severe or mild disease. We have determined that these seven circulating EV71 viruses from Changchun, China are actually complex recombinant viruses involving multiple type A human enterovirus (HEV). Classified as EV71 subtype C4 (EV71 C4), these Changchun EV71 viruses contain genetic recombination events between the CA4, CA5, EV71B4 and EV71C1 strains. Most of the structural protein region (P1) of these viruses resembled that of the prototype EV71 C1 strains. The non-structural protein domains (P2 and P3) showed a high degree of similarity with CA4, CA5 and EV71 B4 in different regions. The 5'UTR had unclassified recombination,while partial 3D region of these viruses showed a high degree of similarity to CA16. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length or partial sequences of isolates from severe or mild disease patients in Changchun always formed a single cluster in various phylogenetic analyses of different genomic regions, suggesting that all seven strains originated from one single common ancestor. There was no correlation between viral genomic sequence and virulence. Thus, we found that circulating recombinant forms of EV71 are prevalent among HFMD patients in Northeastern China. The existence of a unique cluster of EV71 related viruses in Northeast China has important implications for vaccine development that would address the increasing prevalence of HFMD.
Project description:The major pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Beijing, China from 2007 to 2009 were identified in this study. A total of 186 HFMD cases were included, and 136 cases (73%) were positive for enterovirus (EV). In 2007, 75% (27/36) were Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) positive and 19% (7/36) were Enterovirus 71 (EV71) positive cases. However, EV71 was the predominant virus in 2008, when 56% (31/55) of the cases were positive for EV71 and 22% (12/55) were positive for CA16. In 2009, EV71 and CA16, with positive rates of 36% (16/45) and 29% (13/45), respectively, were still the major pathogens of HFMD. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the dominant genotype of EV71 was C4, with co-circulation of genotype A in 2009. The prevalent cluster of the EV71 subgenotype C4 changed over time. A proposed new sublineage of EV71, C4a-2, was the predominant virus associated with the Beijing and nationwide HFMD outbreaks since 2008 and amino acid substitution, which possibly link to the central nervous system tropism of EV71, was found in genotype A viruses. Persistent surveillance of HFMD-associated pathogens is required for predicting potential emerging viruses and related disease outbreaks.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A rapid expansion of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks has occurred and caused deaths in China in recent years, but little is known about the other etiologic agents except enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16). The objective of this study is to determine the genotype compositions of enterovirus causing HFMD in Shanghai and identify any associations between enterovirus types and clinical manifestations. METHODS:Stool specimens were collected from patients hospitalized for treatment of HFMD, from May 2010 to April 2011. Enterovirus was detected by reverse transcription PCR and directly genotyped by sequencing the PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis was based on the VP1 partial gene. RESULTS:Of 290 specimens, 277 (95.5%) tested positive for enterovirus. The major genotypes were EV71 (63.8%), CA10 (9.0%), CA6 (8.3%), CA16 (6.9%), CA12 (2.4%), and CA4 (1.4%). The EV71 strains belonged to the C4a subtype and CA16 belonged to the B subtype. CA6 was closely related to strains detected in Japan, Taiwan and China, and CA10, CA12 and CA4 were phylogenetically similar to other strains circulating in China. Mean hospital stays and the prevalence of complications in patients with EV71 infection were higher than those in patients in CA6, CA10 or CA16 infection (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Children with CA12 infection were the youngest, and most likely have the highest risk of complications when compared to the other non-EV71 infection groups. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated a diversified pathogen compositions attributing to HFMD and clinical symptoms differing in enterovirus genotypes. It deserves our attention as early identification of enterovirus genotypes is important for diagnosis and treatment of HFMD patients.
Project description:Genetic recombination is a well-known phenomenon for enteroviruses. To investigate the genetic characterization and the potential recombination of enterovirus 71 (EV71) circulating in China, we determined the 16 complete genome sequences of EV71 isolated from Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD) patients during the large scale outbreak and non-outbreak years since 1998 in China. The full length genome sequences of 16 Chinese EV71 in present study were aligned with 186 genome sequences of EV71 available from GenBank, including 104 China mainland and 82 international sequences, covering the time period of 1970-2011. The oldest strains of each subgenotype of EV71 and prototype strains of HEV-A were included to do the phylogenetic and Simplot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all Chinese strains were clustered into C4 subgenotype of EV71, except for HuB/CHN/2009 clustered into A and Xiamen/CHN/2009 clustered into B5 subgenotype. Most of C4 EV71 were clustered into 2 predominant evolutionary branches: C4b and C4a evolutionary brunches. Our comprehensive recombination analysis showed the evidence of genome recombination of subgenotype C4 (including C4a and C4b) sequences between structural genes from genotype C EV71 and non-structural genes from the prototype strains of CAV16, 14 and 4, but the evidence of intratypic recombination between C4 strains and B subgenotype was not enough strong. This intertypic recombination C4 viruses were first seen in 1998 and became the predominant endemic viruses circulating in China mainland for at least 14 years. A shift between C4a and C4b evolutionary brunches of C4 recombination viruses were observed, and C4a viruses have been associated with large scale nationwide HFMD outbreak with higher morbidity and mortality since 2007.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused large hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics among young children, and EV71 infection is the leading cause of severe HFMD cases and deaths. In mainland China, the prevalence and risk factors of non-C4 EV71 strains are still unclear. In this study, we monitored non-C4 strains over a 10-year HFMD epidemiological surveillance period in Xiamen. The 5'UTR and VP1 coding region of EV71 strains were amplified by RT-nested PCR and sequenced. Thirty-two non-C4 EV71 strains were identified during 2009-2018. This study provides important information about the prevalence of EV71 in China that will be applicable for development of vaccines and diagnostic reagents as well as establishment of policies for HFMD prevention and control.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the predominant etiological agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and both belong to the human enterovirus A species of the Picornaviridae family. These viruses share similar genetic homology, although the clinical manifestations of HFMD caused by the two viruses have some discrepancies. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms leading to these differences remain unclear. microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in numerous biological or pathological processes, including host responses to viral infections, by targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for translational repression or degradation. Here, we focused on differences in miRNA expression patterns in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of rhesus monkeys infected with EV71 or CA16 at different time points using high-throughput sequencing technology. For the first time, this study demonstrated that EV71 and CA16 infection result in specific miRNA expression patterns in PBMCs. Overall design: The EV71 virus strain (sub-genotype C4, GenBank: EU812515.1) that originated from an epidemic in Fuyang, China in 2008 and the CA16 virus G20 strain (sub-genotype B, GenBank: JN590244.1), which originated from an HFMD patient in Guangxi in 2010, were propagated in PBMCs at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 the following day. Cells were infected in triplicate and collected at 0, 24 and 48 hours post infection (hpi). Cells infected with EV71 and CA16 for 0 hpi were used as controls. We defined the different experimental groups as EV71-0h, EV71-24h, EV71-48h, CA16-0h, CA16-24h and CA16-48h.
Project description:Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease caused by multiple enteroviruses (EVs) in China. To better define the etiologic agents and clinical characteristics of HFMD, we conducted this study in Yunnan, China.In this study, 1280 stool specimens were collected from pediatric patients hospitalized for treatment of HFMD in 2010. EV was detected with nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and directly genotyped by gene sequencing of the viral protein 1 (VP1) region. Phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the VP1 partial gene and the clinical characteristics were analyzed using SPSS Software.Of 1280 specimens, 1115 (87.1%) tested positive for EV. Seventeen different EV serotypes were detected. Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) was the most frequently detected serotype (615/1115 cases, 55.1%), followed by enterovirus 71 (EV71; 392/1115, 35.2%), CA10 (45/1115, 4.0%), and CA4 (23/1115, 2.1%). Among the 709 severe cases, CA16, EV71, CA10, and CA4 accounted for 48.0%, 42.0%, 3.5%, and 2.3%, respectively. Of the 26 critical cases, 13 were caused by EV71, 9 by CA16, 2 by CA4, and 1 each were the result of CA10 and E9, respectively. All EV71, CA16, CA10, and CA4 isolates were highly homologous to the strains isolated from mainland China, and belonged to the C4a, B1a, G, and C genotypes, respectively.Our study showed that EV71 and CA16 were the main causative agents for severe and critical HFMD, but other serotypes can also cause severe and critical cases.
Project description:Infection of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) are recognized as emerging public health issues worldwide. Hundreds of thousands of children are annually infected with EV71 and develop HFMD in China alone. Studies of EV71 infection are critical to the treatment and prevention of the associated HFMD outbreaks. In this report, we studied an outbreak of 105 HFMD cases in Shawo Township of China between September to October 2012. More than 90% of cases were children younger than 9 years old, with over 50% of cases aged 3-6 years old. Laboratory studies detected a high prevalence of EV71 and suggested EV71 as the most common enterovirus causing HFMD in Shawo. Sequencing analysis showed that the EV71 strains from Shawo belong to the C4 subgenotype, and are phylogenetically more related to those from the distant city of Nanchang than those from the nearby city of Wuhan with distinct variations. More girls were found to be associated with EV71 in Shawo whereas more boys were associated with EV71 in Wuhan and Nanchang. Our studies further the understanding of the molecular epidemiological features of HFMD and infection by enteroviruses in China.
Project description:Background: Subgenotype C4 of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the predominant agent of Hand Foot and Mouth disease (HFMD) circulating in the mainland of China. For the first time, a subgenotype C2 of EV71 named SY30-2 was isolated from a HFMD case in Beijing, China. Since it is uncertain whether antibodies raised against subgenotype C4 of EV71 can protect C2 EV71, it is important to monitor and check the presence of cross-reactive antibodies against new EV71 subgenotypes. To find out the causes for the different NtAb, this study is to investigate the relationships between amino acid residue variations and cross-reactive antibodies against EV71 subgenotypes C2 and C4. Methods: Nucleotide and amino acid sequences from full-length genome sequence of SY30-2 were compared to EV71 reference strains. A microneutralization test was used to detect neutralizing antibody (NTAb) in the sera of subgenotype C4 of EV71 infected cases against SY30-2 and FY17 (a C4 isolate). The 3D structure of the viral capsid protein of SY30-2 was constructed. Results: Genome sequence and similarity plot analyses showed that SY30-2 shared the highest identity with subgenotype C2 of EV71 strains in every fragment of the genome. While the microneutralization test result showed that children infected with subgenotype C4 of EV71 had higher NTAb titers against FY17 than SY30-2 (p < 0.001). The amino acid sequence comparison revealed that four amino acid residues VP1-22, VP1-31, VP1-249 and VP3-93 were highly conserved in subgenotype C4 of EV71 compared with the corresponding amino acid residues on subgenotype C2 of EV71 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the 3D-structure of viral capsid protein showed that VP1-22, VP1-31 and VP3-93 were located on the surface of virion. Conclusion: This is the first report of an EV71 subgenotype C2 isolated from HFMD in Beijing, China. Only a few antigenic variations on subgenotype C2 of EV71 could have led to a great decrease in NTAb titer. Thus, imported new genotypes and subgenotypes of EV71 should be closely monitored. The efficacy of available vaccines against new viruses should be evaluated as well.
Project description:Recent outbreaks of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection and EV71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in China have affected millions and potentially lead to life-threatening complications in newborns. Furthermore, these outbreaks represent a significant global public health issue in the world. Understanding the epidemiology of HFMD and EV71 infection and their transmission patterns in China is essential for controlling outbreaks. However, no studies on the outbreaks of HFMD and EV71 infection in China during 2010 have been reported. In this report, we carried out an epidemiological analysis to study an outbreak of HFMD and EV71 infection in 2010 in the city of Nanchang in the Jiangxi province of People's Republic of China. From April 7 to May 11, 2010, a total of 109 HFMD cases were reported, and in this report the HFMD cases were studied by both epidemiological and laboratory analyses. The epidemiological study indicates that children aged younger than 8 years old represented more than 90% of the reported cases, with the age group of 1-3 years containing the highest number of cases. Laboratory studies detected a high prevalence of EV71 amongst the cases in our study, suggesting EV71 as a common enterovirus found in HFMD cases in Nanchang. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of the VP1 region of four EV71 isolates indicated that the Nanchang strains belong to the C4 subgenotype commonly found in China during outbreaks in 2008 but contain distinct variations from these strains. Our study for the first time characterizes the epidemiology of HFMD and EV71 infection in China in 2010 and furthermore, provides the first direct evidence of the genotype of EV71 circulating in Nanchang, China. Our study should facilitate the development of public health measures for the control and prevention of HFMD and EV71 infection in at-risk individuals in China.
Project description:Emerging epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become a serious concern in mainland China. It caused 126 and 353 fatalities in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The epidemiologic and pathogenic data of the outbreak collected from national laboratory network and notifiable disease surveillance system. To understand the virological evolution of this emerging outbreak, 326 VP1 gene sequences of EV71 detected in China from 1987 to 2009 were collected for genetic analyses. Evidence from both traditional and molecular epidemiology confirmed that the recent HFMD outbreak was an emerging one caused by EV71 of subgenotype C4. This emerging HFMD outbreak is associated with EV71 of subgenotype C4, circulating persistently in mainland China since 1998, but not attributed to the importation of new genotype. Originating from 1992, subgenotype C4 has been the predominant genotype since 1998 in mainland China, with an evolutionary rate of 4.6?4.8×10?³ nucleotide substitutions/site/year. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the virus during this epidemic was the most recent descendant of subgenotype C4 (clade C4a). It suggests that the evolution might be one of the potential reasons for this native virus to cause the emerging outbreak in China. However, strong negative selective pressure on VP1 protein of EV71 suggested that immune escape might not be the evolving strategy of EV71, predicting a light future for vaccine development. Nonetheless, long-term antigenic and genetic surveillance is still necessary for further understanding.