Internalization and down-regulation of the ALK receptor in neuroblastoma cell lines upon monoclonal antibodies treatment.
ABSTRACT: Recently, activating mutations of the full length ALK receptor, with two hot spots at positions F1174 and R1275, have been characterized in sporadic cases of neuroblastoma. Here, we report similar basal patterns of ALK phosphorylation between the neuroblastoma IMR-32 cell line, which expresses only the wild-type receptor (ALK(WT)), and the SH-SY5Y cell line, which exhibits a heterozygous ALK F1174L mutation and expresses both ALK(WT) and ALK(F1174L) receptors. We demonstrate that this lack of detectable increased phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells is a result of intracellular retention and proteasomal degradation of the mutated receptor. As a consequence, in SH-SY5Y cells, plasma membrane appears strongly enriched for ALK(WT) whereas both ALK(WT) and ALK(F1174L) were present in intracellular compartments. We further explored ALK receptor trafficking by investigating the effect of agonist and antagonist mAb (monoclonal antibodies) on ALK internalization and down-regulation, either in SH-SY5Y cells or in cells expressing only ALK(WT). We observe that treatment with agonist mAbs resulted in ALK internalization and lysosomal targeting for receptor degradation. In contrast, antagonist mAb induced ALK internalization and recycling to the plasma membrane. Importantly, we correlate this differential trafficking of ALK in response to mAb with the recruitment of the ubiquitin ligase Cbl and ALK ubiquitylation only after agonist stimulation. This study provides novel insights into the mechanisms regulating ALK trafficking and degradation, showing that various ALK receptor pools are regulated by proteasome or lysosome pathways according to their intracellular localization.
Project description:A series of novel 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole benzyl ureas was identified as having potent anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibition exemplified by 15a, 20a, and 23a, which exhibited antiproliferative IC(50) values of 70, 40, and 20 nM in Tel-ALK transformed Ba/F3 cells, respectively. Moreover, 15a and 23a potently inhibited the growth and survival of NPM-ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell (SU-DHL-1) and neuroblastoma cell lines (KELLY, SH-SY5Y) containing the F1174L ALK mutation. These compounds provide novel leads for the development of small-molecule ALK inhibitors for cancer therapy.
Project description:ALK receptor tyrosine kinase has been shown to be a therapeutic target in neuroblastoma. Germline ALK activating mutations are responsible for the majority of hereditary neuroblastoma and somatic ALK activating mutations are also frequently observed in sporadic cases of advanced NB. Crizotinib, a first-line therapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring ALK rearrangements, demonstrates striking efficacy against ALK-rearranged NB. However, crizotinib fails to effectively inhibit the activity of ALK when activating mutations are present within its kinase domain, as with the F1174L mutation. Here we show that a new ALK inhibitor AZD3463 effectively suppressed the proliferation of NB cell lines with wild type ALK (WT) as well as ALK activating mutations (F1174L and D1091N) by blocking the ALK-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and ultimately induced apoptosis and autophagy. In addition, AZD3463 enhanced the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin on NB cells. AZD3463 also exhibited significant therapeutic efficacy on the growth of the NB tumors with WT and F1174L activating mutation ALK in orthotopic xenograft mouse models. These results indicate that AZD3463 is a promising therapeutic agent in the treatment of NB.
Project description:The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene is overexpressed, mutated or amplified in most neuroblastoma (NB), a pediatric neural crest-derived embryonal tumor. The two most frequent mutations, ALK-F1174L and ALK-R1275Q, contribute to NB tumorigenesis in mouse models, and cooperate with MYCN in the oncogenic process. However, the precise role of activating ALK mutations or ALK-wt overexpression in NB tumor initiation needs further clarification. Human ALK-wt, ALK-F1174L, or ALK-R1275Q were stably expressed in murine neural crest progenitor cells (NCPC), MONC-1 or JoMa1, immortalized with v-Myc or Tamoxifen-inducible Myc-ERT, respectively. While orthotopic implantations of MONC- 1 parental cells in nude mice generated various tumor types, such as NB, osteo/ chondrosarcoma, and undifferentiated tumors, due to v-Myc oncogenic activity, MONC-1-ALK-F1174L cells only produced undifferentiated tumors. Furthermore, our data represent the first demonstration of ALK-wt transforming capacity, as ALK-wt expression in JoMa1 cells, likewise ALK-F1174L, or ALK-R1275Q, in absence of exogenous Myc-ERT activity, was sufficient to induce the formation of aggressive and undifferentiated neural crest cell-derived tumors, but not to drive NB development. Interestingly, JoMa1-ALK tumors and their derived cell lines upregulated Myc endogenous expression, resulting from ALK activation, and both ALK and Myc activities were necessary to confer tumorigenic properties on tumor-derived JoMa1 cells in vitro.
Project description:GPCRs undergo both homologous and heterologous regulatory processes in which receptor phosphorylation plays a critical role. The protein kinases responsible for each pathway are well established; however, other molecular details that characterize each pathway remain unclear. In this study, the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in the functional roles and intracellular trafficking between homologous and PKC-mediated heterologous internalization pathways for the dopamine D? receptor were investigated.All of the S/T residues located within the intracellular loops of D? receptor were mutated, and the residues responsible for GRK- and PKC-mediated internalization were determined in HEK-293 cells and SH-SY5Y cells. The functional role of receptor internalization and the cellular components that determine the post-endocytic fate of internalized D? receptors were investigated in the transfected cells.T134, T225/S228/S229 and S325 were involved in PKC-mediated D? receptor desensitization. S229 and adjacent S/T residues mediated the PKC-dependent internalization of D? receptors, which induced down-regulation and desensitization. S/T residues within the second intracellular loop and T225 were the major residues involved in GRK-mediated internalization of D? receptors, which induced receptor resensitization. ARF6 mediated the recycling of D? receptors internalized in response to agonist stimulation. In contrast, GASP-1 mediated the down-regulation of D? receptors internalized in a PKC-dependent manner.GRK- and PKC-mediated internalizations of D? receptors occur through different intracellular trafficking pathways and mediate distinct functional roles. Distinct S/T residues within D? receptors and different sorting proteins are involved in the dissimilar regulation of D? receptors by GRK2 and PKC.
Project description:Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common skin cancer characterized by increased mortality. Here, we show for the first time that anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a receptor tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor superfamily, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cSCC. Our data demonstrate that the overexpression of the constitutively active, mutated ALK, ALK F1174L , is sufficient to initiate the development of cSCC and is 100% penetrant. Moreover, we show that cSCC development upon ALK F1174L overexpression is independent of the cell-of-origin. Molecularly, our data demonstrate that ALK F1174L cooperates with oncogenic Kras G12D and loss of p53, well-established events in the biology of cSCC. This cooperation results in a more aggressive cSCC type associated with a higher grade histological morphology. Finally, we demonstrate that Stat3 is a key downstream effector of ALK F1174L and likely plays a role in ALK F1174L -driven cSCC tumorigenesis. In sum, these findings reveal that ALK can exert its tumorigenic potential via cooperation with multiple pathways crucial in the pathogenesis of cSCC. Finally, we show that human cSCCs contain mutations in the ALK gene. Taken together, our data identify ALK as a new key player in the pathogenesis of cSCC, and this knowledge suggests that oncogenic ALK signaling can be a target for future clinical trials.
Project description:The ALK(F1174L) mutation is associated with intrinsic and acquired resistance to crizotinib and cosegregates with MYCN in neuroblastoma. In this study, we generated a mouse model overexpressing ALK(F1174L) in the neural crest. Compared to ALK(F1174L) and MYCN alone, co-expression of these two oncogenes led to the development of neuroblastomas with earlier onset, higher penetrance, and enhanced lethality. ALK(F1174L)/MYCN tumors exhibited increased MYCN dosage due to ALK(F1174L)-induced activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPK pathways, coupled with suppression of MYCN pro-apoptotic effects. Combined treatment with the ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor Torin2 overcame the resistance of ALK(F1174L)/MYCN tumors to crizotinib. Our findings demonstrate a pathogenic role for ALK(F1174L) in neuroblastomas overexpressing MYCN and suggest a strategy for improving targeted therapy for ALK-positive neuroblastoma.
Project description:Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor crizotinib has proven to be effective in the treatment of ALK-mutated neuroblastoma, but crizotinib resistance was commonly observed in patients. We aimed to overcome crizotinib resistance by combining with the MEK inhibitor trametinib or low-dose metronomic (LDM) topotecan in preclinical neuroblastoma models.We selected a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines carrying various ALK genetic aberrations to assess the therapeutic efficacy on cell proliferation in vitro. Downstream signals of ALK activation, including phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt as well as HIF-1α expression were evaluated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Tumor growth inhibition was further assessed in NOD/SCID xenograft mouse models.All NBL cell lines responded to crizotinib treatment but at variable ED50 levels, ranging from 0.25 to 5.58 μM. ALK-mutated cell lines SH-SY5Y, KELLY, LAN-5, and CHLA-20 are more sensitive than ALK wild-type cell lines. In addition, we demonstrated that under hypoxic conditions, all NBL cell lines showed marked decrease of ED50s when compared to normoxia except for KELLY cells. Taking into consideration the hypoxia sensitivity to crizotinib, combined treatment with crizotinib and LDM topotecan demonstrated a synergistic effect in ALKF1174L-mutated SH-SY5Y cells. In vivo, single-agent crizotinib showed limited antitumor activity in ALKF1174L-mutated SH-SY5Y and KELLY xenograft models; however, when combined with topotecan, significantly delayed tumor development was achieved in both SH-SY5Y and KELLY tumor models.Oral metronomic topotecan reversed crizotinib drug resistance in the ALKF1174L-mutated neuroblastoma preclinical model.
Project description:Activating mutations in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene were recently discovered in neuroblastoma, a cancer of the developing autonomic nervous system that is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in the first year of life. The most frequent ALK mutations in neuroblastoma cause amino acid substitutions (F1174L and R1275Q) in the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the intact ALK receptor. Identification of ALK as an oncogenic driver in neuroblastoma suggests that crizotinib (PF-02341066), a dual-specific inhibitor of the ALK and Met tyrosine kinases, will be useful in treating this malignancy. Here, we assessed the ability of crizotinib to inhibit proliferation of neuroblastoma cell lines and xenografts expressing mutated or wild-type ALK. Crizotinib inhibited proliferation of cell lines expressing either R1275Q-mutated ALK or amplified wild-type ALK. In contrast, cell lines harboring F1174L-mutated ALK were relatively resistant to crizotinib. Biochemical analyses revealed that this reduced susceptibility of F1174L-mutated ALK to crizotinib inhibition resulted from an increased adenosine triphosphate-binding affinity (as also seen in acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors). Thus, this effect should be surmountable with higher doses of crizotinib and/or with higher-affinity inhibitors.
Project description:Neuroblastoma is a pediatric solid tumor that can be stratified into stroma-rich and stroma-poor histological subgroups. The stromal compartment of neuroblastoma is composed mostly of Schwann cells, and they play critical roles in the differentiation, survival, and angiogenic responses of tumor cells. In certain neuroblastoma cell lines, the coexistence of neuroblastic N-type and substrate-adherent S-type is frequently observed. One such cell line, SK-N-SH, harbors a F1174L oncogenic mutation in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. Treatment of SK-N-SH with an ALK chemical inhibitor, TAE684, resulted in the outgrowth of S-type cells that expressed the Schwann cell marker, S100?6. Nucleotide sequencing analysis of these TAE684-resistant (TR) sublines revealed the presence of the ALK F1174L mutation, suggesting their tumor origin, although ALK protein was not detected. Consistent with these findings, TR cells displayed approximately 9-fold higher IC(50) values than N-type cells. Also, unlike N-type cells, TR cells have readily detectable phosphorylated STAT3 but weaker phosphorylated AKT. Under coculture conditions, TR cells conferred survival to N-type cells against the apoptotic effect of TAE684. Cocultivation also greatly enhanced the overall phosphorylation of STAT3 and its transcriptional activity in N-type cells. Finally, conditioned medium from TR clones enhanced cell viability of N-type cells, and this effect was phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase dependent. Taken together, these results demonstrate the ability of tumor-derived S-type cells in protecting N-type cells against the apoptotic effect of an ALK kinase inhibitor through upregulating prosurvival signaling.
Project description:Neuroblastoma, an embryonal tumour of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, accounts for approximately 15% of all deaths due to childhood cancer. High-risk neuroblastomas are rapidly progressive; even with intensive myeloablative chemotherapy, relapse is common and almost uniformly fatal. Here we report the detection of previously unknown mutations in the ALK gene, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, in 8% of primary neuroblastomas. Five non-synonymous sequence variations were identified in the kinase domain of ALK, of which three were somatic and two were germ line. The most frequent mutation, F1174L, was also identified in three different neuroblastoma cell lines. ALK complementary DNAs encoding the F1174L and R1275Q variants, but not the wild-type ALK cDNA, transformed interleukin-3-dependent murine haematopoietic Ba/F3 cells to cytokine-independent growth. Ba/F3 cells expressing these mutations were sensitive to the small-molecule inhibitor of ALK, TAE684 (ref. 4). Furthermore, two human neuroblastoma cell lines harbouring the F1174L mutation were also sensitive to the inhibitor. Cytotoxicity was associated with increased amounts of apoptosis as measured by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of ALK expression in neuroblastoma cell lines with the F1174L mutation also resulted in apoptosis and impaired cell proliferation. Thus, activating alleles of the ALK receptor tyrosine kinase are present in primary neuroblastoma tumours and in established neuroblastoma cell lines, and confer sensitivity to ALK inhibition with small molecules, providing a molecular rationale for targeted therapy of this disease.