LPS counter regulates RNA expression of extracellular proteases and their inhibitors in murine macrophages.
ABSTRACT: Besides their evident importance in host defense, macrophages have been shown to play a detrimental role in different pathological conditions, including chronic inflammation, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Regardless of the exact situation, macrophage activation and migration are intimately connected to extracellular matrix degradation. This process is accomplished by multiple proteolytic enzymes, including serine proteases and members of the matrix metalloproteinase family. In this study, we have utilized qPCR arrays to simultaneously analyze the temporal expression pattern of a range of genes involved in extracellular matrix metabolism in the mouse derived-macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 following stimulation with LPS. Our results revealed that LPS induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinases while at the same time decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. The opposite scenario was found for the genes encoding serine proteases, which were downregulated while their inhibitors were upregulated. In addition, intergenic comparison of the expression levels of related proteases revealed large differences in their basal expression level. These data highlight the complexity of the gene expression regulation implicated in macrophage-dependent matrix degradation and furthermore emphasize the value of qPCR array techniques for the investigation of the complex regulation of the matrix degradome.
Project description:Antileukoproteinase or secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor is a small protein which protects the mucosal linings against excessive proteolysis, inflammation, and microbial infection. We discovered that gelatinase B or matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, a secreted zinc-dependent endopeptidase typically found at sites of inflammation, destroys antileukoproteinase by cleavages within both of its two functional domains: the anti-microbial N-terminal and the anti-proteolytic C-terminal domains. Cleaved antileukoproteinase possessed a significantly lower ability to bind lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and a reduced capacity to inhibit neutrophil elastase (NE) activity. Whereas intact antileukoproteinase repressed proinflammatory transcript [prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and IL6] synthesis and protein secretion [e.g., of MMP-9] in human CD14+ blood monocytes stimulated with LPS, this effect was reduced or lost for cleaved antileukoproteinase. We demonstrated the in vivo presence of antileukoproteinase cleavage fragments in lower airway secretions of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis patients with considerable levels of neutrophils and, hence, elastase and MMP-9 activity. As a comparison, other MMPs (MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-8) and serine proteases (NE, cathepsin G, and proteinase 3) were also able to cleave antileukoproteinase with similar or reduced efficiency. In conclusion, in specific mucosal pathologies, such as bronchiectasis, neutrophils, and macrophage subsets control local immune reactions by proteolytic regulation, here described as the balance between MMPs (in particular MMP-9), serine proteases and local tissue inhibitors.
Project description:Proteases perform important roles in multiple biological and pathological processes. The availability of the rat genome sequence has facilitated the analysis of the complete protease repertoire or degradome of this model organism. The rat degradome consists of at least 626 proteases and homologs, which are distributed into 24 aspartic, 160 cysteine, 192 metallo, 221 serine, and 29 threonine proteases. This distribution is similar to that of the mouse degradome but is more complex than that of the human degradome composed of 561 proteases and homologs. This increased complexity of rat proteases mainly derives from the expansion of several families, including placental cathepsins, testases, kallikreins, and hematopoietic serine proteases, involved in reproductive or immunological functions. These protease families have also evolved differently in rat and mouse and may contribute to explain some functional differences between these closely related species. Likewise, genomic analysis of rat protease inhibitors has shown some differences with mouse protease inhibitors and the expansion of families of cysteine and serine protease inhibitors in rodents with respect to human. These comparative analyses may provide new views on the functional diversity of proteases and inhibitors and contribute to the development of innovative strategies for treating proteolysis diseases.
Project description:Aspergillus niger has the ability to produce a large variety of proteases, which are of particular importance for protein digestion, intracellular protein turnover, cell signaling, flavour development, extracellular matrix remodeling and microbial defense. However, the A. niger degradome (the full repertoire of peptidases encoded by the A. niger genome) available is not accurate and comprehensive. Herein, we have utilized annotations of A. niger proteases in AspGD, JGI, and version 12.2 MEROPS database to compile an index of at least 232 putative proteases that are distributed into the 71 families/subfamilies and 26 clans of the 6 known catalytic classes, which represents?~?1.64% of the 14,165 putative A. niger protein content. The composition of the A. niger degradome comprises?~?7.3% aspartic,?~?2.2% glutamic,?~?6.0% threonine,?~?17.7% cysteine,?~?31.0% serine, and?~?35.8% metallopeptidases. One hundred and two proteases have been reassigned into the above six classes, while the active sites and/or metal-binding residues of 110 proteases were recharacterized. The probable physiological functions and active site architectures of these peptidases were also investigated. This work provides a more precise overview of the complete degradome of A. niger, which will no doubt constitute a valuable resource and starting point for further experimental studies on the biochemical characterization and physiological roles of these proteases.
Project description:Over the last two decades, a novel subgroup of serine proteases, the cell surface-anchored serine proteases, has emerged as an important component of the human degradome, and several members have garnered significant attention for their roles in cancer progression and metastasis. A large body of literature describes that cell surface-anchored serine proteases are deregulated in cancer and that they contribute to both tumor formation and metastasis through diverse molecular mechanisms. The loss of precise regulation of cell surface-anchored serine protease expression and/or catalytic activity may be contributing to the etiology of several cancer types. There is therefore a strong impetus to understand the events that lead to deregulation at the gene and protein levels, how these precipitate in various stages of tumorigenesis, and whether targeting of selected proteases can lead to novel cancer intervention strategies. This review summarizes current knowledge about cell surface-anchored serine proteases and their role in cancer based on biochemical characterization, cell culture-based studies, expression studies, and in vivo experiments. Efforts to develop inhibitors to target cell surface-anchored serine proteases in cancer therapy will also be summarized.
Project description:Parasitic encoded proteases are essential to regulating interactions between parasites and their hosts and thus they represent attractive anti-parasitic druggable and/or vaccine target. We have utilized annotations of Ixodes scapularis proteases in gene bank and version 9.3 MEROPS database to compile an index of at least 233 putatively active and 150 putatively inactive protease enzymes that are encoded by the I. scapularis genome. The 233 putatively active protease homologs hereafter referred to as the degradome (the full repertoire of proteases encoded by the I. scapularis genome) represent ~1.14% of the 20485 putative I. scapularis protein content. Consistent with observations in other animals, the content of the I. scapularis degradome is ~6.0% (14/233) aspartic, ~19% (44/233) cysteine, ~40% (93/233) metallo, ~28.3% (66/233) serine and ~6.4% (15/233) threonine proteases. When scanned against other tick sequences, ~11% (25/233) of I. scapularis putatively active proteases are conserved in other tick species with ? 60% amino acid identity levels. The I. scapularis genome does not apparently encode for putatively inactive aspartic proteases. Of the 150 putative inactive protease homologs none are from the aspartic protease class, ~8% (12/150) are cysteine, ~58.7% (88/150) metallo, 30% (45/150) serine and ~3.3% (5/150) are threonine proteases. The I. scapularis tick genome appears to have evolutionarily lost proteolytic activity of at least 6 protease families, C56 and C64 (cysteine), M20 and M23 (metallo), S24 and S28 (serine) as revealed by a lack of the putatively active proteases in these families. The overall protease content is comparable to other organisms. However, the paucity of the S1 chymotrypsin/trypsin-like serine protease family in the I. scapularis genome where it is ~12.7% (28/233) of the degradome as opposed to ~22-48% content in other blood feeding arthropods, Pediculus humanus humanus, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes Aegypti and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus is notable. The data is presented as a one-stop index of proteases encoded by the I. scapularis genome.
Project description:Macrophages dominate inflammatory environments where they modify the extracellular matrix by mobilizing complex repertoires of proteolytic enzymes. Nevertheless, the dominant proteinases used by macrophage as they confront physiologic tissue barriers remain undefined. Herein, we have characterized the molecular mechanisms that define human macrophage-extracellular matrix interactions ex vivo. Resting and immune-polarized macrophages are shown to proteolytically remodel basement membranes while infiltrating the underlying interstitial matrix. In an unbiased screen to identify key proteases, we find that the macrophage metalloproteinase, MT1-MMP, is the dominant effector of basement membrane degradation and invasion. These studies not only identify MT1-MMP as a key proteolytic effector of extracellular matrix remodeling by human macrophages, but also define the invasive strategies used by macrophages to traverse physiologic tissue barriers. Overall design: Primary mouse bone marrow derived macrophages from global knockout [Mt1-mmp(-/-)] mice and wild-type [Mt1-mmp(+/+)] littermates on an outbred Swiss Black background were cultured for 24 hours in the presence of growth media alone or supplemented with 1ug/ml LPS or 20ng/ml IL-4 and harvested for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:This study was designed to identify metalloproteinase determinants of macrophage migration and led to the specific hypothesis that matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10/stromelysin-2) facilitates macrophage migration. We first profiled expression of all MMPs in LPS-stimulated primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and Raw264.7 cells and found that MMP10 was stimulated early (3 h) and down-regulated later (24 h). Based on this pattern of expression, we speculated that MMP10 plays a role in macrophage responses, such as migration. Indeed, using time lapse microscopy, we found that RNAi silencing of MMP10 in primary macrophages resulted in markedly reduced migration, which was reversed with exogenous active MMP10 protein. Mmp10 (-/-) bone marrow-derived macrophages displayed significantly reduced migration over a two-dimensional fibronectin matrix. Invasion of primary wild-type macrophages into Matrigel supplemented with fibronectin was also markedly impaired in Mmp10 (-/-) cells. MMP10 expression in macrophages thus emerges as an important moderator of cell migration and invasion. These findings support the hypothesis that MMP10 promotes macrophage movement and may have implications in understanding the control of macrophages in several pathologies, including the abnormal wound healing response associated with pro-inflammatory conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Degradation of the extracellular matrix is fundamental to tumour development, invasion and metastasis. Several protease families have been implicated in the development of a broad range of tumour types, including oesophago-gastric (OG) adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to analyse the expression levels of all core members of the cancer degradome in OG adenocarcinoma and to investigate the relationship between expression levels and tumour/patient variables associated with poor prognosis. METHODS: Comprehensive expression profiling of the protease families (matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), members of the ADAM metalloproteinase-disintegrin family (ADAMs)), their inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase), and molecules involved in the c-Met signalling pathway, was performed using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in a cohort of matched malignant and benign peri-tumoural OG tissue (n=25 patients). Data were analysed with respect to clinico-pathological variables (tumour stage and grade, age, sex and pre-operative plasma C-reactive protein level). RESULTS: Gene expression of MMP1, 3, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16 and 24 was upregulated by factors >4-fold in OG adenocarcinoma samples compared with matched benign tissue (P<0.01). Expression of ADAM8 and ADAM15 correlated significantly with tumour stage (P=0.048 and P=0.044), and ADAM12 expression correlated with tumour grade (P=0.011). CONCLUSION: This study represents the first comprehensive quantitative analysis of the expression of proteases and their inhibitors in human OG adenocarcinoma. These findings implicate elevated ADAM8, 12 and 15 mRNA expression as potential prognostic molecular markers.
Project description:The coronavirus (CoV) S protein requires cleavage by host cell proteases to mediate virus-cell and cell-cell fusion. Many strains of the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) have distinct, S-dependent organ and tissue tropisms despite using a common receptor, suggesting that they employ different cellular proteases for fusion. In support of this hypothesis, we found that inhibition of endosomal acidification only modestly decreased entry, and overexpression of the cell surface protease TMPRSS2 greatly enhanced entry, of the highly neurovirulent MHV strain JHM.SD relative to their effects on the reference strain, A59. However, TMPRSS2 overexpression decreased MHV structural protein expression, release of infectious particles, and syncytium formation, and endogenous serine protease activity did not contribute greatly to infection. We therefore investigated the importance of other classes of cellular proteases and found that inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)- and a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)-family zinc metalloproteases markedly decreased both entry and cell-cell fusion. Suppression of virus by metalloprotease inhibition varied among tested cell lines and MHV S proteins, suggesting a role for metalloprotease use in strain-dependent tropism. We conclude that zinc metalloproteases must be considered potential contributors to coronavirus fusion.IMPORTANCE The family Coronaviridae includes viruses that cause two emerging diseases of humans, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), as well as a number of important animal pathogens. Because coronaviruses depend on host protease-mediated cleavage of their S proteins for entry, a number of protease inhibitors have been proposed as antiviral agents. However, it is unclear which proteases mediate in vivo infection. For example, SARS-CoV infection of cultured cells depends on endosomal acid pH-dependent proteases rather than on the cell surface acid pH-independent serine protease TMPRSS2, but Zhou et al. (Antiviral Res 116:76-84, 2015, doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2015.01.011) found that a serine protease inhibitor was more protective than a cathepsin inhibitor in SARS-CoV-infected mice. This paper explores the contributions of endosomal acidification and various proteases to coronavirus infection and identifies an unexpected class of proteases, the matrix metalloproteinase and ADAM families, as potential targets for anticoronavirus therapy.
Project description:N-acetylated proline-glycine-proline (N-Ac-PGP) is a chemokine involved in inflammatory diseases and is found to accumulate in degenerative discs. N-Ac-PGP has been demonstrated to have a pro-inflammatory effect on human cartilage endplate stem cells. However, the effect of N-Ac-PGP on human intervertebral disc cells, especially nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of N-Ac-PGP on the expression of pro-inflammatory factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteases in NP cells and the molecular mechanism underlying this effect. Therefore, Milliplex assays were used to detect the levels of various inflammatory cytokines in conditioned culture medium of NP cells treated with N-Ac-PGP, including interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2). RT-qPCR was also used to determine the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and ECM proteases in the NP cells treated with N-Ac-PGP. Moreover, the role of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in mediating the effect of N-Ac-PGP on the phenotype of NP cells was investigated using specific signaling inhibitors. Milliplex assays showed that NP cells treated with N-Ac-PGP (10 and 100 µg/ml) secreted higher levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-? and CCL2 compared with the control. RT-qPCR assays showed that NP cells treated with N-Ac-PGP (100 µg/ml) had markedly upregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), MMP13, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif 4 (ADAMTS4), ADAMTS5, IL-6, CCL-2, CCL-5 and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10). Moreover, N-Ac-PGP was shown to activate the MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways in NP cells. MAPK and NF-?B signaling inhibitors suppressed the upregulation of proteases and pro-inflammatory cytokines in NP cells treated with N-Ac-PGP. In conclusion, N-Ac-PGP induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix catabolic enzymes in NP cells via the NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways. N-Ac-PGP is a novel therapeutic target for intervertebral disc degeneration.