The 3'-->5' exonuclease of DNA polymerase delta can substitute for the 5' flap endonuclease Rad27/Fen1 in processing Okazaki fragments and preventing genome instability.
ABSTRACT: Many DNA polymerases (Pol) have an intrinsic 3'-->5' exonuclease (Exo) activity which corrects polymerase errors and prevents mutations. We describe a role of the 3'-->5' Exo of Pol delta as a supplement or backup for the Rad27/Fen1 5' flap endonuclease. A yeast rad27 null allele was lethal in combination with Pol delta mutations in Exo I, Exo II, and Exo III motifs that inactivate its exonuclease, but it was viable with mutations in other parts of Pol delta. The rad27-p allele, which has little phenotypic effect by itself, was also lethal in combination with mutations in the Pol delta Exo I and Exo II motifs. However, rad27-p Pol delta Exo III double mutants were viable. They exhibited strong synergistic increases in CAN1 duplication mutations, intrachromosomal and interchromosomal recombination, and required the wild-type double-strand break repair genes RAD50, RAD51, and RAD52 for viability. Observed effects were similar to those of the rad27-null mutant deficient in the removal of 5' flaps in the lagging strand. These results suggest that the 3'-->5' Exo activity of Pol delta is redundant with Rad27/Fen1 for creating ligatable nicks between adjacent Okazaki fragments, possibly by reducing the amount of strand-displacement in the lagging strand.
Project description:Okazaki fragment maturation to produce continuous lagging strands in eukaryotic cells requires precise coordination of strand displacement synthesis by DNA polymerase delta (Pol delta) with 5.-flap cutting by FEN1(RAD27) endonuclease. Excessive strand displacement is normally prevented by the 3.-exonuclease activity of Pol delta. This core maturation machinery can be assisted by Dna2 nuclease/helicase that processes long flaps. Our genetic studies show that deletion of the POL32 (third subunit of Pol delta) or PIF1 helicase genes can suppress lethality or growth defects of rad27Delta pol3-D520V mutants (defective for FEN1(RAD27) and the 3.-exonuclease of Pol delta) that produce long flaps and of dna2Delta mutants that are defective in cutting long flaps. On the contrary, pol32Delta or pif1Delta caused lethality of rad27Delta exo1Delta double mutants, suggesting that Pol32 and Pif1 are required to generate longer flaps that can be processed by Dna2 in the absence of the short flap processing activities of FEN1(RAD27) and Exo1. The genetic analysis reveals a remarkable flexibility of the Okazaki maturation machinery and is in accord with our biochemical analysis. In vitro, the generation of short flaps by Pol delta is not affected by the presence of Pol32; however, longer flaps only accumulate when Pol32 is present. The presence of FEN1(RAD27) during strand displacement synthesis curtails displacement in favor of flap cutting, thus suggesting an active hand-off mechanism from Pol delta to FEN1(RAD27). Finally, RNA-DNA hybrids are more readily displaced by Pol delta than DNA hybrids, thereby favoring degradation of initiator RNA during Okazaki maturation.
Project description:Fen1/Rad27 nuclease activity, which is important in DNA metabolism, is stimulated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in vitro. The in vivo role of the PCNA interaction was investigated in the yeast Rad27. A nuclease-defective rad27 mutation had a dominant-negative effect that was suppressed by a mutation in the PCNA binding site, thereby demonstrating the importance of the Rad27-PCNA interaction. The PCNA-binding defect alone had little effect on mutation, recombination, and the methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) response in repair-competent cells, but it greatly amplified the MMS sensitivity of a rad51 mutant. Furthermore, the PCNA binding mutation resulted in lethality when combined with a homozygous or even a heterozygous pol3-01 mutation in the 3'-->5' exonuclease domain of DNA polymerase delta. These results suggest that phenotypically mild polymorphisms in DNA metabolic proteins can have dramatic consequences when combined.
Project description:Dna2 and Rad27 (yeast Fen1) are the two endonucleases critical for Okazaki fragment processing during lagging strand DNA synthesis that have been shown to interact genetically and physically. In this study, we addressed the functional consequences of these interactions by examining whether purified Rad27 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affects the enzymatic activity of Dna2 and vice versa. For this purpose, we constructed Rad27DA (catalytically defective enzyme with an Asp to Ala substitution at amino acid 179) and found that it significantly stimulated the endonuclease activity of wild type Dna2, but failed to do so with Dna2?405N that lacks the N-terminal 405 amino acids. This was an unexpected finding because dna2?405N cells were still partially suppressed by overexpression of rad27DA in vivo. Further analyses revealed that Rad27 is a trans-autostimulatory enzyme, providing an explanation why overexpression of Rad27, regardless of its catalytic activity, suppressed dna2 mutants as long as an endogenous wild type Rad27 is available. We found that the C-terminal 16-amino acid fragment of Rad27, a highly polybasic region due to the presence of multiple positively charged lysine and arginine residues, was sufficient and necessary for the stimulation of both Rad27 and Dna2. Our findings provide further insight into how Dna2 and Rad27 jointly affect the processing of Okazaki fragments in eukaryotes.
Project description:Prior to ligation, each Okazaki fragment synthesized on the lagging strand in eukaryotes must be nucleolytically processed. Nuclease cleavage takes place in the context of 5' flap structures generated via strand-displacement synthesis by DNA polymerase delta. At least three DNA nucleases: Rad27 (Fen1), Dna2 and Exo1, have been implicated in processing Okazaki fragment flaps. However, neither the contributions of individual nucleases to lagging-strand synthesis nor the structure of the DNA intermediates formed in their absence have been fully defined in vivo. By conditionally depleting lagging-strand nucleases and directly analyzing Okazaki fragments synthesized in vivo in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we conduct a systematic evaluation of the impact of Rad27, Dna2 and Exo1 on lagging-strand synthesis. We find that Rad27 processes the majority of lagging-strand flaps, with a significant additional contribution from Exo1 but not from Dna2. When nuclease cleavage is impaired, we observe a reduction in strand-displacement synthesis as opposed to the widespread generation of long Okazaki fragment 5' flaps, as predicted by some models. Further, using cell cycle-restricted constructs, we demonstrate that both the nucleolytic processing and the ligation of Okazaki fragments can be uncoupled from DNA replication and delayed until after synthesis of the majority of the genome is complete.
Project description:Okazaki fragments that are formed during lagging strand DNA synthesis include an initiating primer consisting of both RNA and DNA. The RNA fragment must be removed before the fragments are joined. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key player in this process is the structure-specific flap endonuclease, Rad27p (human homolog FEN1). To obtain a genomic view of the mutational consequence of loss of RAD27, a S. cerevisiae rad27? strain was subcultured for 25 generations and sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Out of the 455 changes observed in 10 colonies isolated the two most common types of events were insertions or deletions (INDELs) in simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and INDELs mediated by short direct repeats. Surprisingly, we also detected a previously neglected class of 21 template-switching events. These events were presumably generated by quasi-palindrome to palindrome correction, as well as palindrome elongation. The formation of these events is best explained by folding back of the stalled nascent strand and resumption of DNA synthesis using the same nascent strand as a template. Evidence of quasi-palindrome to palindrome correction that could be generated by template switching appears also in yeast genome evolution. Out of the 455 events, 55 events appeared in multiple isolates; further analysis indicates that these loci are mutational hotspots. Since Rad27 acts on the lagging strand when the leading strand should not contain any gaps, we propose a mechanism favoring intramolecular strand switching over an intermolecular mechanism. We note that our results open new ways of understanding template switching that occurs during genome instability and evolution.
Project description:This review discusses recent insights in the roles of DNA polymerases (Pol) delta and epsilon in eukaryotic DNA replication. A growing body of evidence specifies Pol epsilon as the leading strand DNA polymerase and Pol delta as the lagging strand polymerase during undisturbed DNA replication. New evidence supporting this model comes from the use of polymerase mutants that show an asymmetric mutator phenotype for certain mispairs, allowing an unambiguous strand assignment for these enzymes. On the lagging strand, Pol delta corrects errors made by Pol alpha during Okazaki fragment initiation. During Okazaki fragment maturation, the extent of strand displacement synthesis by Pol delta determines whether maturation proceeds by the short or long flap processing pathway. In the more common short flap pathway, Pol delta coordinates with the flap endonuclease FEN1 to degrade initiator RNA, whereas in the long flap pathway, RNA removal is initiated by the Dna2 nuclease/helicase.
Project description:Small looped mispairs are corrected by DNA mismatch repair. In addition, a distinct process called large loop repair (LLR) corrects heteroduplexes up to several hundred nucleotides in bacteria, yeast and human cells, and in cell-free extracts. Only some LLR protein components are known, however. Previous studies with neutralizing antibodies suggested a role for yeast DNA polymerase delta (Pol delta), RFC and PCNA in LLR repair synthesis. In the current study, biochemical fractionation studies identified FEN1 (Rad27) as another required LLR component. In the presence of purified FEN1, Pol delta, RFC and PCNA, repair occurred on heteroduplexes with loops ranging from 8 to 216 nt. Repair utilized a 5' nick, with correction directed to the nicked strand, irrespective of which strand contained the loop. In contrast, repair of a G/T mismatch occurred at low levels, suggesting specificity of the reconstituted system for looped mispairs. The presence of RPA enhanced reactivity on some looped substrates, but RPA was not required for activity. Although additional LLR factors remain to be identified, the excision and resynthesis steps of LLR from a 5' nick can be reconstituted in a purified system with FEN1 and Pol delta, together with PCNA and its loader RFC.
Project description:The structure-specific nuclease, Rad27p/FEN1, plays a crucial role in DNA repair and replication mechanisms in the nucleus. Genetic assays using the <i>rad27-?</i> mutant have shown altered rates of DNA recombination, microsatellite instability, and point mutation in mitochondria. In this study, we examined the role of Rad27p in mitochondrial mutagenesis and double-strand break (DSB) repair in <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i> Our findings show that Rad27p is essential for efficient mitochondrial DSB repair by a pathway that generates deletions at a region flanked by direct repeat sequences. Mutant analysis suggests that both exonuclease and endonuclease activities of Rad27p are required for its role in mitochondrial DSB repair. In addition, we found that the nuclease activities of Rad27p are required for the prevention of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations, and in the generation of spontaneous mtDNA rearrangements. Overall, our findings underscore the importance of Rad27p in the maintenance of mtDNA, and demonstrate that it participates in multiple DNA repair pathways in mitochondria, unlinked to nuclear phenotypes.
Project description:During DNA replication, synthesis of the lagging strand occurs in stretches termed Okazaki fragments. Before adjacent fragments are ligated, any flaps resulting from the displacement of the 5' DNA end of the Okazaki fragment must be cleaved. Previously, Dna2 was implicated to function upstream of flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1 or Rad27) in the processing of long flaps bound by the replication protein A (RPA). Here we show that Dna2 efficiently cleaves long DNA flaps exactly at or directly adjacent to the base. A fraction of the flaps cleaved by Dna2 can be immediately ligated. When coupled with DNA replication, the flap processing activity of Dna2 leads to a nearly complete Okazaki fragment maturation at sub-nanomolar Dna2 concentrations. Our results indicate that a subsequent nucleolytic activity of Fen1 is not required in most cases. In contrast Dna2 is completely incapable to cleave short flaps. We show that also Dna2, like Fen1, interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). We propose a model where Dna2 alone is responsible for cleaving of RPA-bound long flaps, while Fen1 or exonuclease 1 (Exo1) cleave short flaps. Our results argue that Dna2 can function in a separate, rather than in a Fen1-dependent pathway.
Project description:Prior to ligation, each Okazaki fragment synthesized on the lagging strand in eukaryotes must be nucleolytically processed. Nuclease cleavage takes place in the context of 5’ flap structures generated via strand-displacement synthesis by DNA polymerase delta. At least three DNA nucleases: Rad27 (Fen1), Dna2, and Exo1, have been implicated in processing Okazaki fragment flaps. However, neither the contributions of individual nucleases to lagging-strand synthesis nor the structure of the DNA intermediates formed in their absence have been clearly defined in vivo. By conditionally depleting lagging-strand nucleases and directly analyzing Okazaki fragments synthesized in vivo in S. cerevisiae, we conduct a systematic evaluation of the impact of Rad27, Dna2 and Exo1 on lagging-strand synthesis. We find that Rad27 processes the majority of lagging-strand flaps, with a significant additional contribution from Exo1 but not from Dna2. When nuclease cleavage is impaired, we observe a reduction in strand-displacement synthesis as opposed to the widespread generation of long Okazaki fragment 5’ flaps, as predicted by some models. Further, using cyclin-controlled constructs, we demonstrate that both the nucleolytic processing and the ligation of Okazaki fragments can be uncoupled from DNA replication and delayed until after synthesis of the majority of the genome is complete. Overall design: Okazaki fragments from asynchronous yeast cultures were enriched by conditional depletion of Cdc9 , and processed into strand-specific libraries for paired-end high-throughput sequencing. We analyzed Okazaki fragment size, terminus location and ligatability in nuclease mutants, with two biological replicates each.