Differing and isoform-specific roles for the formin DIAPH3 in plasma membrane blebbing and filopodia formation.
ABSTRACT: Plasma membrane (PM) blebs are dynamic actin-rich cell protrusions that occur, e.g., during cytokinesis, amoeboid cell motility and cell attachment. Using a targeted siRNA screen against 21 actin nucleation factors, we identify a novel and essential role of the human diaphanous formin DIAPH3 in PM blebbing during cell adhesion. Suppression of DIAPH3 inhibited blebbing to promote rapid cell spreading involving ?1-integrin. Multiple isoforms of DIAPH3 were detected on the mRNA and protein level of which isoforms 3 and 7 were the largest and most abundant isoforms that however did not induce formation of actin-rich protrusions. Rather, PM blebbing specifically involved the low abundance isoform 1 of DIAPH3 and activation of isoform 7 by deletion of the diaphanous-autoregulatory domain caused the formation of filopodia. Dimerization and actin assembly activity were essential for induction of specific cell protrusions by DIAPH3 isoforms 1 and 7. Our data suggest that the N-terminal region comprising the GTPase-binding domain determined the subcellular localization of the formin as well as its protrusion activity between blebs and filopodia. We propose that isoform-selective actin assembly by DIAPH3 exerts specific and differentially regulated functions during cell adhesion and motility.
Project description:Morphological plasticity in response to environmental cues in migrating cancer cells requires F-actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. Conserved formin family proteins play critical roles in cell shape, tumor cell motility, invasion and metastasis, in part, through assembly of non-branched actin filaments. Diaphanous-related formin-2 (mDia2/Diaph3/Drf3/Dia) regulates mesenchymal-to-amoeboid morphological conversions and non-apoptotic blebbing in tumor cells by interacting with its inhibitor diaphanous-interacting protein (DIP), and disrupting cortical F-actin assembly and bundling. F-actin disruption is initiated by a CXCL12-dependent mechanism. Downstream CXCL12 signaling partners inducing mDia2-dependent amoeboid conversions remain enigmatic. We found in MDA-MB-231 tumor cells CXCL12 induces DIP and mDia2 interaction in blebs, and engages its receptor CXCR4 to induce RhoA-dependent blebbing. mDia2 and CXCR4 associate in blebs upon CXCL12 stimulation. Both CXCR4 and RhoA are required for CXCL12-induced blebbing. Neither CXCR7 nor other Rho GTPases that activate mDia2 are required for CXCL12-induced blebbing. The Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) Net1 is required for CXCL12-driven RhoA activation and subsequent blebbing. These results reveal CXCL12 signaling, through CXCR4, directs a Net1/RhoA/mDia-dependent signaling hub to drive cytoskeleton rearrangements to regulate morphological plasticity in tumor cells. These signaling hubs may be conserved during normal and cancer cells responding to chemotactic cues.
Project description:Oncosomes have recently been described as membrane-derived microvesicles secreted by cancer cells, which transfer oncogenic signals and protein complexes across cell boundaries. Here, we show the rapid formation and secretion of oncosomes from DU145 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Oncosome formation was stimulated by epidermal growth factor receptor activation and also by overexpression of membrane-targeted Akt1. Microvesicles shed from prostate cancer cells contained numerous signal transduction proteins and were capable of activating rapid phospho-tyrosine and Akt pathway signaling, and stimulating proliferation and migration, in recipient tumor cells. They also induced a stromal reaction in recipient normal cells. Knockdown of the actin nucleating protein Diaphanous Related Formin 3 (DRF3/Dia2) by RNA interference enhanced rates of oncosome formation, indicating that these structures resemble, and may be identical to, nonapoptotic membrane blebs, a feature of the amoeboid form of cell motility. Analysis of primary and metastatic human prostate tumors using 100K single nucleotide polymorphism arrays revealed a significantly higher frequency of deletion of the locus encoding DRF3 (DIAPH3) in metastatic tumors (P = 0.001) in comparison with organ-confined tumors. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed increased chromosomal loss of DIAPH3 in metastatic tumors in a different cohort of patients (P = 0.006). These data suggest that microvesicles shed from prostate cancer cells can alter the tumor microenvironment in a manner that may promote disease progression. They also show that DRF3 is a physiologically relevant protein that seems to regulate this process.
Project description:Amoeboid movement is characteristic for rounded cells, which do not form strong adhesion contacts with the ECM and use blebs as migratory protrusions. It is well known that actin is the main component of mature forms of these structures, but the exact role fulfilled by non-muscle actin isoforms ?- and ?- in bleb formation and migration of these cells is still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to establish the role of ?- and ?-actin in migration of bleb-forming cancer cells using isoform-specific antibodies and expression of fluorescently tagged actin isoforms. We observed, after staining with monoclonal antibodies, that both actins are present in these cells in the form of a cortical ring as well as in the area of blebs. Additionally, using simultaneous expression of differentially tagged ?- and ?-actin in cells, we observed that the actin isoforms are present together in a single bleb. They were involved during bleb expansion as well as retraction. Also present in the area of these protrusions formed by both isoforms were the bleb markers-ezrin and myosin II. The overexpression of ?- or ?-actin led to actin cytoskeletal rearrangement followed by the growth of migration and invasion abilities of examined human colon cancer cells, LS174T line. In summary these data prove that both actin isoforms have an impact on motility of bleb-forming cancer cells. Moreover, we conclude that monoclonal antibodies directed against actin isoforms in combination with the tagged actins are good tools to study their role in important biological processes.
Project description:The diaphanous homologue Diaph3 (aka mDia2) is a major regulator of actin cytoskeleton. Loss of Diaph3 has been constantly associated with cytokinesis failure ascribed to impaired accumulation of actin in the cleavage furrow. Here we report that Diaph3 is required before cell fission, to ensure the accurate segregation of chromosomes. Inactivation of the Diaph3 gene causes a massive loss of cortical progenitor cells, with subsequent depletion of intermediate progenitors and neurons, and results in microcephaly. In embryonic brain extracts, Diaph3 co-immunoprecipitates with BubR1, a key regulator of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Diaph3-deficient cortical progenitors have decreased levels of BubR1 and fail to properly activate the SAC. Hence, they bypass mitotic arrest and embark on anaphase in spite of incorrect chromosome segregation, generating aneuploidy. Our data identify Diaph3 as a major guard of cortical progenitors, unravel novel functions of Diaphanous formins and add insights into the pathobiology of microcephaly.
Project description:Cytokinesis is initiated by the localized assembly of the contractile ring, a dynamic actomyosin structure that generates a membrane furrow between the segregating chromosomal masses to divide a cell into two. Here we show that the stabilization and organization of the cytokinetic furrow is specifically dependent on localized ?-actin filament assembly at the site of cytokinesis. ?-actin filaments are assembled directly at the furrow by an anillin-dependent pathway that enhances RhoA-dependent activation of the formin DIAPH3, an actin nucleator. DIAPH3 specifically generates homopolymeric filaments of ?-actin in vitro. By employing enhancers and activators, cells can achieve acute spatio-temporal control over isoform-specific actin arrays that are required for distinct cellular functions.
Project description:Two motors can drive extension of the leading edge of motile cells: actin polymerization and myosin-driven contraction of the cortex, producing fluid pressure and the formation of blebs. Dictyostelium cells can move with both blebs and actin-driven pseudopods at the same time, and blebs, like pseudopods, can be orientated by chemotactic gradients. Here we ask how bleb sites are selected and how the two forms of projection cooperate. We show that membrane curvature is an important, yet overlooked, factor. Dictyostelium cells were observed moving under agarose, which efficiently induces blebbing, and the dynamics of membrane deformations were analyzed. Blebs preferentially originate from negatively curved regions, generated on the flanks of either extending pseudopods or blebs themselves. This is true of cells at different developmental stages, chemotaxing to either folate or cyclic AMP and moving with both blebs and pseudopods or with blebs only. A physical model of blebbing suggests that detachment of the cell membrane is facilitated in concave areas of the cell, where membrane tension produces an outward directed force, as opposed to pulling inward in convex regions. Our findings assign a role to membrane tension in spatially coupling blebs and pseudopods, thus contributing to clustering protrusions to the cell front.
Project description:Most eukaryotic cells express multiple isoforms of the actin-binding protein tropomyosin that help construct a variety of cytoskeletal networks. Only one nonmuscle tropomyosin (Tm1A) has previously been described in Drosophila, but developmental defects caused by insertion of P-elements near tropomyosin genes imply the existence of additional, nonmuscle isoforms. Using biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, we identified three tropomyosins expressed in Drosophila S2 cells: Tm1A, Tm1J, and Tm2A. The Tm1A isoform localizes to the cell cortex, lamellar actin networks, and the cleavage furrow of dividing cells--always together with myosin-II. Isoforms Tm1J and Tm2A colocalize around the Golgi apparatus with the formin-family protein Diaphanous, and loss of either isoform perturbs cell cycle progression. During mitosis, Tm1J localizes to the mitotic spindle, where it promotes chromosome segregation. Using chimeras, we identified the determinants of tropomyosin localization near the C-terminus. This work 1) identifies and characterizes previously unknown nonmuscle tropomyosins in Drosophila, 2) reveals a function for tropomyosin in the mitotic spindle, and 3) uncovers sequence elements that specify isoform-specific localizations and functions of tropomyosin.
Project description:Entosis is a nonapoptotic form of cell death initiated by actomyosin-dependent homotypic cell-in-cell invasion that can be observed in malignant exudates during tumor progression. We previously demonstrated formin-mediated actin dynamics at the rear of the invading cell as well as nonapoptotic plasma membrane (PM) blebbing in this cellular motile process. Although the contractile actin cortex involved in bleb-driven motility is well characterized, a role for transcriptional regulation in this process has not been studied. Here, we explore the impact of the actin-controlled MRTF-SRF (myocardin-related transcription factor-serum response factor) pathway for sustained PM blebbing and entotic invasion. We find that cortical blebbing is tightly coupled to MRTF nuclear shuttling to promote the SRF transcriptional activity required for entosis. Furthermore, PM blebbing triggered SRF-mediated up-regulation of the metastasis-associated ERM protein Ezrin. Notably, Ezrin is sufficient and important to sustain bleb dynamics for cell-in-cell invasion when SRF is suppressed. Our results highlight the critical role of the actin-regulated MRTF transcriptional pathway for bleb-associated invasive motility, such as during entosis.
Project description:Taxanes are widely employed chemotherapies for patients with metastatic prostate and breast cancer. Here, we show that loss of Diaphanous-related formin-3 (DIAPH3), frequently associated with metastatic breast and prostate cancers, correlates with increased sensitivity to taxanes. DIAPH3 interacted with microtubules (MT), and its loss altered several parameters of MT dynamics as well as decreased polarized force generation, contractility, and response to substrate stiffness. Silencing of DIAPH3 increased the cytotoxic response to taxanes in prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Analysis of drug activity for tubulin-targeted agents in the NCI-60 cell line panel revealed a uniform positive correlation between reduced DIAPH3 expression and drug sensitivity. Low DIAPH3 expression correlated with improved relapse-free survival in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapeutic regimens containing taxanes. Our results suggest that inhibition of MT stability arising from DIAPH3 downregulation enhances susceptibility to MT poisons, and that the DIAPH3 network potentially reports taxane sensitivity in human tumors.
Project description:Therapies for most malignancies are generally ineffective once metastasis occurs. While tumour cells migrate through tissues using diverse strategies, the signalling networks controlling such behaviours in human tumours are poorly understood. Here we define a role for the Diaphanous-related formin-3 (DIAPH3) as a non-canonical regulator of metastasis that restrains conversion to amoeboid cell behaviour in multiple cancer types. The DIAPH3 locus is close to RB1, within a narrow consensus region of deletion on chromosome 13q in prostate, breast and hepatocellular carcinomas. DIAPH3 silencing in human carcinoma cells destabilized microtubules and induced defective endocytic trafficking, endosomal accumulation of EGFR, and hyperactivation of EGFR/MEK/ERK signalling. Silencing also evoked amoeboid properties, increased invasion and promoted metastasis in mice. In human tumours, DIAPH3 down-regulation was associated with aggressive or metastatic disease. DIAPH3-silenced cells were sensitive to MEK inhibition, but showed reduced sensitivity to EGFR inhibition. These findings have implications for understanding mechanisms of metastasis, and suggest that identifying patients with chromosomal deletions at DIAPH3 may have prognostic value.