Complete genome sequence of the African dairy isolate Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius strain CJ18.
ABSTRACT: Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius, a member of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex, is highly prevalent in artisanal dairy fermentations in Africa. Here the complete genome sequence of the dairy-adapted S. infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18 strain--a strain predominant in traditionally fermented camel milk (suusac) from Kenya--is presented.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex associated with several human and animal infections. Sii is a predominant bacterium in spontaneously fermented milk products in Africa. The genome sequence of Sii strain CJ18 was compared with that of other Streptococcus species to identify dairy adaptations including genome decay such as in Streptococcus thermophilus, traits for its competitiveness in spontaneous milk fermentation and to assess potential health risks for consumers. RESULTS:The genome of Sii CJ18 harbors several unique regions in comparison to Sii ATCC BAA-102T, among others an enlarged exo- and capsular polysaccharide operon; Streptococcus thermophilus-associated genes; a region containing metabolic and hypothetical genes mostly unique to CJ18 and the dairy isolate Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus; and a second oligopeptide transport operon. Dairy adaptations in CJ18 are reflected by a high percentage of pseudogenes (4.9%) representing genome decay which includes the inactivation of the lactose phosphotransferase system (lacIIABC) by multiple transposases integration. The presence of lacS and lacZ genes is the major dairy adaptation affecting lactose metabolism pathways also due to the disruption of lacIIABC.We constructed mutant strains of lacS, lacZ and lacIIABC and analyzed the resulting strains of CJ18 to confirm the redirection of lactose metabolism via LacS and LacZ.Natural competence genes are conserved in both Sii strains, but CJ18 contains a lower number of CRISPR spacers which indicates a reduced defense capability against alien DNA. No classical streptococcal virulence factors were detected in both Sii strains apart from those involved in adhesion which should be considered niche factors. Sii-specific virulence factors are not described. Several Sii-specific regions encoding uncharacterized proteins provide new leads for virulence analyses and investigation of the unclear association of dairy and clinical Sii with human diseases. CONCLUSIONS:The genome of the African dairy isolate Sii CJ18 clearly differs from the human isolate ATCC BAA-102T. CJ18 possesses a high natural competence predisposition likely explaining the enlarged genome. Metabolic adaptations to the dairy environment are evident and especially lactose uptake corresponds to S. thermophilus. Genome decay is not as advanced as in S. thermophilus (10-19%) possibly due to a shorter history in dairy fermentations.
Project description:Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii), a member of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC), predominates as dairy-adapted and non-adapted variants in fermented dairy products (FDP) in East and West Africa. Epidemiologic data suggest an association with colorectal cancer for most SBSEC members, including Sii from Kenyan patients. Phylogenetic relationships of East African human (EAH) isolates to those of dairy and pathogenic origin were analysed to better estimate potential health implications via FDP consumption. The MLST-derived population structure was also evaluated to provide host, disease, geography and dairy adaptation associations for 157 SBSEC isolates, including 83 novel Sii/SBSEC isolates of which 40 originated from Kenyan colonoscopy patients. Clonal complex (CC) 90 was delineated as potential pathogenic CC for Sii. Single EAH, West African dairy (WAD), food and animal Sii isolates clustered within CC-90, suggesting a potential link to pathogenic traits for CC-90. The majority of EAH and WAD Sii were clustered in a shared clade distinct from CC-90 and East African dairy (EAD) isolates. This indicates shared ancestry for the EAH and WAD clade and limitations to translate disease associations of EAH and CC-90 to EAD Sii, which could support the separation of pathogenic, pathobiont/commensal and food lineages.
Project description:Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) has been identified as predominant lactic acid bacteria in spontaneously fermented dairy products (FDPs) in sub-Saharan Africa including Côte d'Ivoire. However, Sii belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC). Most SBSEC members are assumed to be involved as opportunistic pathogens in serious diseases in both humans and animals. A population-based cross-sectional survey, including 385 participants was conducted in Korhogo, northern Côte d'Ivoire, to identify risk factors for Sii fecal carriage, including consumption of local FDPs. A structured questionnaire was used to gather participant's socio-demographic and economic characteristics, their relation to livestock and dietary habits. In addition, fresh stool and milk samples were collected. The identification of Sii was done using a SBSEC-specific PCR assay targeting 16S rRNA and groEL genes. The overall prevalence of SBSEC and Sii carriage was 23.2% (confidence interval CI 95% = 18.9-27.5) and 12.0% (CI 95% = 8.4-15.5) for stool, respectively. Prevalence of Sii was significantly higher in consumers of artisanal butter compared with non-consumers (57.1% vs 10.1%, odds ratio OR: 11.9, 95% CI: 3.9-36.6), as well as in persons handling livestock (OR = 3.9; 95% CI = 1.6-9.3) and livestock primary products (OR = 5.7; 95% CI = 2.3-14.3). The closer contact with livestock was a risk factor for Sii fecal carriage. Sii strains were isolated from fresh and fermented milk products with a prevalence of 30.4% and 45.4%, respectively. Analysis of Sii population structure through the SBSEC multi locus sequence typing assay revealed a close relationship across human and dairy isolates, possibly linked to a Kenyan human isolate. All these outcomes underline the interest of in-depth investigations on the ecology, potential reservoirs and pathways of contamination by Sii at the human-animal-environment interface in comparison to yet to be collected data from Europe, Asia and the Americas to further elucidate the various roles of Sii.
Project description:Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n = 754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 10(6)CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 10(6)-10(8)CFU/mL. lacS and lacZ genes were detected in all Kenyan and 25.8% (June) to 65.4% (Dec/Jan) of Ivorian Sii isolates. Regional differences in prevalence of Sii and dairy adaptations were observed, but no clear effect of dairy animal, fermentation procedure and climate was revealed. Conclusively, the high prevalence of Sii in Kenya, Côte d'Ivoire in addition to Somalia, Sudan and Mali strongly indicates a pivotal role of Sii in traditional African dairy fermentations potentially paralleling that of typical western dairy species S. thermophilus. Putative health risks associated with the consumption of high amounts of live Sii and potential different degrees of evolutionary adaptation or ecological colonization require further epidemiologic and genomic investigations, particularly in Africa.
Project description:Real-time PCR based on the recN and gyrB genes was developed to detect four Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBEC) subspecies from rectal swab specimens. The overall prevalence was 35.2%: Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (11.1%), S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (13%), Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli (20.4%), and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius (11.1%). To conclude, these real-time PCR assays provide a reliable molecular method to detect SBEC pathogenic subspecies from rectal swab specimens.
Project description:Consumption of traditional fermented dairy products (tFDP) in Africa leads to the ingestion of up to 108Streptococcus infantarius subspecies infantarius (Sii) per millilitre of spontaneously fermented milk. Sii is a member of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) for which some members are associated particularly with colorectal cancer or endocarditis. The extent of health risks to tFDP consumers is largely unknown. A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi (Kenya) on 80 cases and 193 controls that were selected exhaustively from patients attending colonoscopy at the hospital. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex and residency were used in the statistical analysis. Consumption of tFDP was not associated with CRC (odds ratio (OR) 1.4; 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.7; p=0.34). Risk factors associated with CRC included age above 40 years, and consumption of processed meat and alcohol. Faecal carriage of Sii was significantly higher in persons with colon tumours and polyps compared to controls (8.4% vs 21.6%: OR: 4.6; CI 1.3-15.9). Patients with haemorrhoids represented an unexpected carrier group with significantly higher Sii faecal carriage (30.4%, CI: 17.7-45.8). Consumption of tFDP does not represent risk factors for CRC whereas Sii seems to be associated with CRC. However, there is urgent need to assess this finding also in the general population, investigate the causality of SBSEC, Sii and CRC as well as compare the phylogenetic, functional and genomic relationship between human and dairy Sii with regards to the ongoing application of Sii in FDP production.
Project description:Streptococcus pneumoniae infections are one of the major causes of morbility and mortality worldwide. Although vaccination and antibiotherapy constitute fundamental and complementary strategies against pneumococcal infections, they present some limitations including the increase in non-vaccine serotypes and the emergence of multidrug-resistances, respectively. Ribosomally-synthesized antimicrobial peptides (i.e. bacteriocins) produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) may represent an alternative or complementary strategy to antibiotics for the control of pneumococal infections. We tested the antimicrobial activity of 37 bacteriocinogenic LAB, isolated from food and other sources, against clinical S. pneumoniae strains. Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius LP90, isolated from Venezuelan water-buffalo milk, was selected because of its broad and strong anti-pneumococcal spectrum. The in vitro safety assessment of S. infantarius LP90 revealed that it may be considered avirulent. The analysis of a 19,539-bp cluster showed the presence of 29 putative open reading frames (ORFs), including the genes encoding 8 new class II-bacteriocins, as well as the proteins involved in their secretion, immunity and regulation. Transcriptional analyses evidenced that the induction factor (IF) structural gene, the bacteriocin/IF transporter genes, the bacteriocin structural genes and most of the bacteriocin immunity genes were transcribed. MALDI-TOF analyses of peptides purified using different multichromatographic procedures revealed that the dairy strain S. infantarius LP90 produces at least 6 bacteriocins, including infantaricin A1, a novel anti-pneumococcal two-peptide bacteriocin.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Within the genus Streptococcus, only Streptococcus thermophilus is used as a starter culture in food fermentations. Streptococcus macedonicus though, which belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC), is also frequently isolated from fermented foods mainly of dairy origin. Members of the SBSEC have been implicated in human endocarditis and colon cancer. Here we compare the genome sequence of the dairy isolate S. macedonicus ACA-DC 198 to the other SBSEC genomes in order to assess in silico its potential adaptation to milk and its pathogenicity status. RESULTS: Despite the fact that the SBSEC species were found tightly related based on whole genome phylogeny of streptococci, two distinct patterns of evolution were identified among them. Streptococcus macedonicus, Streptococcus infantarius CJ18 and Streptococcus pasteurianus ATCC 43144 seem to have undergone reductive evolution resulting in significantly diminished genome sizes and increased percentages of potential pseudogenes when compared to Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus. In addition, the three species seem to have lost genes for catabolizing complex plant carbohydrates and for detoxifying toxic substances previously linked to the ability of S. gallolyticus to survive in the rumen. Analysis of the S. macedonicus genome revealed features that could support adaptation to milk, including an extra gene cluster for lactose and galactose metabolism, a proteolytic system for casein hydrolysis, auxotrophy for several vitamins, an increased ability to resist bacteriophages and horizontal gene transfer events with the dairy Lactococcus lactis and S. thermophilus as potential donors. In addition, S. macedonicus lacks several pathogenicity-related genes found in S. gallolyticus. For example, S. macedonicus has retained only one (i.e. the pil3) of the three pilus gene clusters which may mediate the binding of S. gallolyticus to the extracellular matrix. Unexpectedly, similar findings were obtained not only for the dairy S. infantarius CJ18, but also for the blood isolate S. pasteurianus ATCC 43144. CONCLUSIONS: Our whole genome analyses suggest traits of adaptation of S. macedonicus to the nutrient-rich dairy environment. During this process the bacterium gained genes presumably important for this new ecological niche. Finally, S. macedonicus carries a reduced number of putative SBSEC virulence factors, which suggests a diminished pathogenic potential.
Project description:The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) and possibly Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) are associated with human and animal diseases. Sii predominate in spontaneously fermented milk products with unknown public health effects. Sii/SBSEC prevalence data from West Africa in correlation with milk transformation practices are limited. Northern Côte d'Ivoire served as study area due to its importance in milk production and consumption and to link a wider Sudano-Sahelian pastoral zone of cross-border trade. We aimed to describe the cow milk value chain and determine Sii/SBSEC prevalence with a cross-sectional study. Dairy production practices were described as non-compliant with basic hygiene standards. The system is influenced by secular sociocultural practices and environmental conditions affecting product properties. Phenotypic and molecular analyses identified SBSEC in 27/43 (62.8%) fermented and 26/67 (38.8%) unfermented milk samples. Stratified by collection stage, fermented milk at producer and vendor levels featured highest SBSEC prevalence of 71.4% and 63.6%, respectively. Sii with 62.8% and 38.8% as well as Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus with 7.0% and 7.5% were the predominant SBSEC species identified among fermented and unfermented milk samples, respectively. The population structure of Sii/SBSEC isolates seems to reflect evolving novel dairy-adapted, non-adapted and potentially pathogenic lineages. Northern Côte d'Ivoire was confirmed as area with high Sii presence in dairy products. The observed production practices and the high diversity of Sii/SBSEC supports in-depth investigations on Sii ecology niche, product safety and related technology in the dairy value chain potentially affecting large population groups across sub-Saharan Africa.
Project description:Modern taxonomy has delineated Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli, and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius within the heterogenous group of previously designated clinical Streptococcus bovis bacteria. In the present study, 58 consecutive blood culture isolates initially designated S. bovis were further characterized by applying phenotypic and molecular genetic methods, and possible disease associations were investigated by studying the patients' records. Published phenotypic characteristics of S. gallolyticus and S. infantarius were not unequivocal and did not allow an unambiguous phenotypic differentiation of the 58 clinical isolates. However, full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences clearly assigned the strains to S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (n = 29), S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (n = 12), and S. infantarius subsp. coli (n = 17). Only 28% of the patients with available records presented with endocarditis and 7% presented with colon carcinoma, whereas 37% of the patients had altered liver parenchyma and 28% had gall bladder disease as underlying diseases. Detailed antimicrobial susceptibility data on both S. gallolyticus subspecies and S. infantarius subsp. coli are given for the first time. As a result of the extensive characterization of the largest number of S. gallolyticus and S. infantarius human clinical isolates published so far, emended species descriptions are given. It is recommended that both clinical microbiologists and infectious disease specialists avoid the designation S. bovis for true S. gallolyticus and S. infantarius strains in the future in order to get a clearer picture of the possible disease associations of these species.