Key residues for controlling enantioselectivity of Halohydrin dehalogenase from Arthrobacter sp. strain AD2, revealed by structure-guided directed evolution.
ABSTRACT: Halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 (HheC) is a valuable tool in the preparation of R enantiomers of epoxides and ?-substituted alcohols. In contrast, the halohydrin dehalogenase from Arthrobacter sp. AD2 (HheA) shows a low S enantioselectivity toward most aromatic substrates. Here, three amino acids (V136, L141, and N178) located in the two neighboring active-site loops of HheA were proposed to be the key residues for controlling enantioselectivity. They were subjected to saturation mutagenesis aimed at evolving an S-selective enzyme. This led to the selection of two outstanding mutants (the V136Y/L141G and N178A mutants). The double mutant displayed an inverted enantioselectivity (from S enantioselectivity [E(S)] = 1.7 to R enantioselectivity [E(R)] = 13) toward 2-chloro-1-phenylethanol without compromising enzyme activity. Strikingly, the N178A mutant showed a large enantioselectivity improvement (E(S) > 200) and a 5- to 6-fold-enhanced specific activity toward (S)-2-chloro-1-phenylethanol. Further analysis revealed that those mutations produced some interference for the binding of nonfavored enantiomers which could account for the observed enantioselectivities. Our work demonstrated that those three active-site residues are indeed crucial in modulating the enantioselectivity of HheA and that a semirational design strategy has great potential for rapid creation of novel industrial biocatalysts.
Project description:Halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 (HheC) shows great potential in producing valuable chiral epoxides and ?-substituted alcohols. The wild-type (WT) enzyme displays a high R-enantiopreference toward most aromatic substrates, whereas no S-selective HheC has been reported to date. To obtain more enantioselective enzymes, seven noncatalytic active-site residues were subjected to iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM). After two rounds of screening aspects of both activity and enantioselectivity (E), three outstanding mutants (Thr134Val/Leu142Met, Leu142Phe/Asn176His, and Pro84Val/Phe86Pro/Thr134Ala/Asn176Ala mutants) with divergent enantioselectivity were obtained. The two double mutants displayed approximately 2-fold improvement in R-enantioselectivity toward 2-chloro-1-phenylethanol (2-CPE) without a significant loss of enzyme activity compared with the WT enzyme. Strikingly, the Pro84Val/Phe86Pro/Thr134Ala/Asn176Ala mutant showed an inverted enantioselectivity (from an ER of 65 [WT] to an ES of 101) and approximately 100-fold-enhanced catalytic efficiency toward (S)-2-CPE. Molecular dynamic simulation and docking analysis revealed that the phenyl side chain of (S)-2-CPE bound at a different location than that of its R-counterpart; those mutations generated extra connections for the binding of the favored enantiomer, while the eliminated connections reduced binding of the nonfavored enantiomer, all of which could contribute to the observed inverted enantiopreference.
Project description:Halohydrin dehalogenases, also known as haloalcohol dehalogenases or halohydrin hydrogen-halide lyases, catalyze the nucleophilic displacement of a halogen by a vicinal hydroxyl function in halohydrins to yield epoxides. Three novel bacterial genes encoding halohydrin dehalogenases were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the enzymes were shown to display remarkable differences in substrate specificity. The halohydrin dehalogenase of Agrobacterium radiobacter strain AD1, designated HheC, was purified to homogeneity. The k(cat) and K(m) values of this 28-kDa protein with 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol were 37 s(-1) and 0.010 mM, respectively. A sequence homology search as well as secondary and tertiary structure predictions indicated that the halohydrin dehalogenases are structurally similar to proteins belonging to the family of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs). Moreover, catalytically important serine and tyrosine residues that are highly conserved in the SDR family are also present in HheC and other halohydrin dehalogenases. The third essential catalytic residue in the SDR family, a lysine, is replaced by an arginine in halohydrin dehalogenases. A site-directed mutagenesis study, with HheC as a model enzyme, supports a mechanism for halohydrin dehalogenases in which the conserved Tyr145 acts as a catalytic base and Ser132 is involved in substrate binding. The primary role of Arg149 may be lowering of the pK(a) of Tyr145, which abstracts a proton from the substrate hydroxyl group to increase its nucleophilicity for displacement of the neighboring halide. The proposed mechanism is fundamentally different from that of the well-studied hydrolytic dehalogenases, since it does not involve a covalent enzyme-substrate intermediate.
Project description:Halohydrin dehalogenases are industrially relevant enzymes that catalyze the reversible dehalogenation of vicinal haloalcohols with formation of the corresponding epoxides. In the reverse reaction, also other negatively charged nucleophiles such as azide, cyanide, or nitrite are accepted besides halides to open the epoxide ring. Thus, novel C-N, C-C, or C-O bonds can be formed by halohydrin dehalogenases, which makes them attractive biocatalysts for the production of various ?-substituted alcohols. Despite the fact that only five individual halohydrin dehalogenase enzyme sequences have been known until recently enabling their heterologous production, a large number of different biocatalytic applications have been reported using these enzymes. The recent characterization of specific sequence motifs has facilitated the identification of novel halohydrin dehalogenase sequences available in public databases and has largely increased the number of recombinantly available enzymes. These will help to extend the biocatalytic repertoire of this enzyme family and to foster novel biotechnological applications and developments in the future. This review gives a general overview on the halohydrin dehalogenase enzyme family and their biochemical properties and further focuses on recent developments in halohydrin dehalogenase biocatalysis and protein engineering.
Project description:Halohydrin dehalogenases (HHDHs) are biocatalytically interesting enzymes due to their ability to form C-C, C-N, C-O, and C-S bonds. One of most important application of HHDH was the protein engineering of HheC (halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1) for the industrial manufacturing of ethyl (R)-4-cyano-3-hydroxybutanoate (HN), a key chiral synthon of a cholesterol-lowering drug of atorvastatin. During our development of an alternative, more efficient and economic route for chemo-enzymatic preparation of the intermediate of atorvastatin, we found that the HheC2360 previously reported for HN manufacture, had insufficient activity for the cyanolysis production of tert-butyl (3?R,5?S)-6-cyano-3,5-dihydroxyhexanoate (A7). Herein, we present the focused directed evolution of HheC2360 with higher activity and enhanced biocatalytic performance using active site mutagenesis. Through docking of the product, A7, into the crystal structure of HheC2360, 6 residues was selected for combined active sites testing (CASTing). After library screening, the variant V84G/W86F was identified to have a 15- fold increase in activity. Time course analysis of the cyanolysis reaction catalyzed by this variant, showed 2- fold increase in space time productivity compared with HheC2360. These results demonstrate the applicability of the variant V84G/W86F as a biocatalyst for the efficient and practical production of atorvastatin intermediate.
Project description:Halohydrin dehalogenases are very rare enzymes that are naturally involved in the mineralization of halogenated xenobiotics. Due to their catalytic potential and promiscuity, many biocatalytic reactions have been described that have led to several interesting and industrially important applications. Nevertheless, only a few of these enzymes have been made available through recombinant techniques; hence, it is of general interest to expand the repertoire of these enzymes so as to enable novel biocatalytic applications. After the identification of specific sequence motifs, 37 novel enzyme sequences were readily identified in public sequence databases. All enzymes that could be heterologously expressed also catalyzed typical halohydrin dehalogenase reactions. Phylogenetic inference for enzymes of the halohydrin dehalogenase enzyme family confirmed that all enzymes form a distinct monophyletic clade within the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. In addition, the majority of novel enzymes are substantially different from previously known phylogenetic subtypes. Consequently, four additional phylogenetic subtypes were defined, greatly expanding the halohydrin dehalogenase enzyme family. We show that the enormous wealth of environmental and genome sequences present in public databases can be tapped for in silico identification of very rare but biotechnologically important biocatalysts. Our findings help to readily identify halohydrin dehalogenases in ever-growing sequence databases and, as a consequence, make even more members of this interesting enzyme family available to the scientific and industrial community.
Project description:Haloalcohol dehalogenases are bacterial enzymes that cleave the carbon-halogen bond in short aliphatic vicinal haloalcohols, like 1-chloro-2,3-propanediol, some of which are recalcitrant environmental pollutants. They use a conserved Ser-Tyr-Arg catalytic triad to deprotonate the haloalcohol oxygen, which attacks the halogen-bearing carbon atom, producing an epoxide and a halide ion. Here, we present the X-ray structure of the haloalcohol dehalogenase HheA(AD2) from Arthrobacter sp. strain AD2 at 2.0-A resolution. Comparison with the previously reported structure of the 34% identical enantioselective haloalcohol dehalogenase HheC from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 shows that HheA(AD2) has a similar quaternary and tertiary structure but a much more open substrate-binding pocket. Docking experiments reveal that HheA(AD2) can bind both enantiomers of the haloalcohol substrate 1-p-nitrophenyl-2-chloroethanol in a productive way, which explains the low enantiopreference of HheA(AD2). Other differences are found in the halide-binding site, where the side chain amino group of Asn182 is in a position to stabilize the halogen atom or halide ion in HheA(AD2), in contrast to HheC, where a water molecule has taken over this role. These results broaden the insight into the structural determinants that govern reactivity and selectivity in the haloalcohol dehalogenase family.
Project description:HheG from Ilumatobacter coccineus is a halohydrin dehalogenase with synthetically useful activity in the ring opening of cyclic epoxides with various small anionic nucleophiles. This enzyme provides access to chiral ?-substituted alcohols that serve as building blocks in the pharmaceutical industry. Wild-type HheG suffers from low thermostability, which poses a significant drawback for potential applications. In an attempt to thermostabilize HheG by protein engineering, several single mutants at position 123 were identified which displayed up to 14?°C increased apparent melting temperatures and up to three-fold higher activity. Aromatic amino acids at position 123 resulted even in a slightly higher enantioselectivity. Crystal structures of variants T123W and T123G revealed a flexible loop opposite to amino acid 123. In variant T123G, this loop adopted two different positions resulting in an open or partially closed active site. Classical molecular dynamics simulations confirmed a high mobility of this loop. Moreover, in variant T123G this loop adopted a position much closer to residue 123 resulting in denser packing and increased buried surface area. Our results indicate an important role for position 123 in HheG and give first structural and mechanistic insight into the thermostabilizing effect of mutations T123W and T123G.
Project description:The separation of racemic molecules is of crucial significance not only for fundamental research but also for technical application. Enantiomers remain challenging to be separated owing to their identical physical and chemical properties in achiral environments. Chromatographic techniques employing chiral stationary phases (CSPs) have been developed as powerful tools for the chiral analysis and preparation of pure enantiomers, most of which are of biological and pharmaceutical interests. Here we report our efforts in developing high-performance phenylcarbamated cyclodextrin (CD) clicked CSPs. Insights on the impact of CD functionalities in structure design are provided. High-efficiency enantioseparation of a range of aryl alcohols and flavanoids with resolution values (Rs) over 10 were demonstrated by per(3-chloro-4-methyl)phenylcarbamated CD clicked CSP. Comparison study and molecular simulations suggest the improved enantioselectivity was attributed to higher interactions energy difference between the complexes of enantiomers and CSPs with phenylcarbamated CD bearing 3-chloro and 4-methyl functionalities.
Project description:The lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia represents a widely applied catalyst for highly enantioselective resolution of chiral secondary alcohols. While its stereopreference is determined predominantly by the substrate structure, stereoselectivity depends on atomic details of interactions between substrate and lipase. Thirty secondary alcohols with published E values using P. cepacia lipase in hydrolysis or esterification reactions were selected, and models of their octanoic acid esters were docked to the open conformation of P. cepacia lipase. The two enantiomers of 27 substrates bound preferentially in either of two binding modes: the fast-reacting enantiomer in a productive mode and the slow-reacting enantiomer in a nonproductive mode. Nonproductive mode of fast-reacting enantiomers was prohibited by repulsive interactions. For the slow-reacting enantiomers in the productive binding mode, the substrate pushes the active site histidine away from its proper orientation, and the distance d(H(N epsilon) - O(alc)) between the histidine side chain and the alcohol oxygen increases, d(H(N epsilon) - O(alc)) was correlated to experimentally observed enantioselectivity: in substrates for which P. cepacia lipase has high enantioselectivity (E > 100), d(H(N epsilon) - O(alc)) is >2.2 A for slow-reacting enantiomers, thus preventing efficient catalysis of this enantiomer. In substrates of low enantioselectivity (E < 20), the distance d(H(N epsilon) - O(alc)) is less than 2.0 A, and slow- and fast-reacting enantiomers are catalyzed at similar rates. For substrates of medium enantioselectivity (20 < E < 100), d(H(N epsilon) - O(alc)) is around 2.1 A. This simple model can be applied to predict enantioselectivity of P. cepacia lipase toward a broad range of secondary alcohols.
Project description:A method for determining lipase enantioselectivity in the transacylation of sec-alcohols in organic solvent was developed. The method was applied to a model library of Candida antarctica lipase?A (CalA) variants for improved enantioselectivity (E?values) in the kinetic resolution of 1-phenylethanol in isooctane. A focused combinatorial gene library simultaneously targeting seven positions in the enzyme active site was designed. Enzyme variants were immobilized on nickel-coated 96-well microtiter plates through a histidine tag (His6-tag), screened for transacylation of 1-phenylethanol in isooctane, and analyzed by GC. The highest enantioselectivity was shown by the double mutant Y93L/L367I. This enzyme variant gave an E?value of 100 (R), which is a dramatic improvement on the wild-type CalA (E=3). This variant also showed high to excellent enantioselectivity for other secondary alcohols tested.