Gut bitter taste receptor signalling induces ABCB1 through a mechanism involving CCK.
ABSTRACT: T2Rs (bitter taste-sensing type 2 receptors) are expressed in the oral cavity to prevent ingestion of dietary toxins through taste avoidance. They are also expressed in other cell types, including gut enteroendocrine cells, where their physiological role is enigmatic. Previously, we proposed that T2R-dependent CCK (cholecystokinin) secretion from enteroendocrine cells limits absorption of dietary toxins, but an active mechanism was lacking. In the present study we show that T2R signalling activates ABCB1 (ATP-binding cassette B1) in intestinal cells through a CCK signalling mechanism. PTC (phenylthiocarbamide), an agonist for the T2R38 bitter receptor, increased ABCB1 expression in both intestinal cells and mouse intestine. PTC induction of ABCB1 was decreased by either T2R38 siRNA (small interfering RNA) or treatment with YM022, a gastrin receptor antagonist. Thus gut ABCB1 is regulated through signalling by CCK/gastrin released in response to PTC stimulation of T2R38 on enteroendocrine cells. We also show that PTC increases the efflux activity of ABCB1, suggesting that T2R signalling limits the absorption of bitter tasting/toxic substances through modulation of gut efflux membrane transporters.
Project description:Bitter taste-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (type 2 taste receptors [T2Rs]) are expressed in taste receptor cells of the tongue, where they play an important role in limiting ingestion of bitter-tasting, potentially toxic compounds. T2Rs are also expressed in gut-derived enteroendocrine cells, where they have also been hypothesized to play a role in limiting toxin absorption. In this study, we have shown that T2R gene expression in both cultured mouse enteroendocrine cells and mouse intestine is regulated by the cholesterol-sensitive SREBP-2. In addition, T2R stimulation of cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion was enhanced directly by SREBP-2 in cultured cells and in mice fed chow supplemented with lovastatin and ezetimibe (L/E) to decrease dietary sterol absorption and increase nuclear activity of SREBP-2. Low-cholesterol diets are naturally composed of high amounts of plant matter that is likely to contain dietary toxins, and CCK is known to improve dietary absorption of fats, slow gastric emptying, and decrease food intake. Thus, these studies suggest that SREBP-2 activation of bitter signaling receptors in the intestine may sensitize the gut to a low-fat diet and to potential accompanying food-borne toxins that make it past the initial aversive response in the mouth.
Project description:Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gut hormone released from enteroendocrine cells. CCK functions as an anorexigenic factor by acting on CCK receptors expressed on the vagal afferent nerve and hypothalamus with a synergistic interaction between leptin. In the gut, tastants such as amino acids and bitter compounds stimulate CCK release from enteroendocrine cells via activation of taste transduction pathways. CCK is also expressed in taste buds, suggesting potential roles of CCK in taste signaling in the peripheral taste organ. In the present study, we focused on the function of CCK in the initial responses to taste stimulation. CCK was coexpressed with type II taste cell markers such as G?-gustducin, phospholipase C?2, and transient receptor potential channel M5. Furthermore, a small subset (~30%) of CCK-expressing taste cells expressed a sweet/umami taste receptor component, taste receptor type 1 member 3, in taste buds. Because type II taste cells are sweet, umami or bitter taste cells, the majority of CCK-expressing taste cells may be bitter taste cells. CCK-A and -B receptors were expressed in both taste cells and gustatory neurons. CCK receptor knockout mice showed reduced neural responses to bitter compounds compared with wild-type mice. Consistently, intravenous injection of CCK-Ar antagonist lorglumide selectively suppressed gustatory nerve responses to bitter compounds. Intravenous injection of CCK-8 transiently increased gustatory nerve activities in a dose-dependent manner whereas administration of CCK-8 did not affect activities of bitter-sensitive taste cells. Collectively, CCK may be a functionally important neurotransmitter or neuromodulator to activate bitter nerve fibers in peripheral taste tissues.
Project description:Taste receptor family 2 (T2R) bitter taste receptors were originally identified and named on the basis of their role in type 2 taste cells of the tongue, in which they serve to detect the presence of potentially harmful ingested chemicals. In 2009, researchers demonstrated that airway epithelial cells also express T2R receptors, but their role in airway physiology and human disease has only recently begun to be identified.Recent research has demonstrated that at least one airway T2R receptor, taste receptor family 2 isoform 38 protein (T2R38) is activated by secreted bacterial products. Activation of T2R38 in sinonasal epithelial cells stimulates nitric oxide production, increasing ciliary beating and directly killing bacteria. Clinical studies have also found correlations of TAS2R38 genotype with susceptibility to gram-negative upper respiratory infection and established T2R38 as an independent risk factor for chronic rhinosinusitis requiring sinus surgery.These recent studies identify a role for T2R38 in sinonasal innate immunity and chronic rhinosinusitis. Clinical implications include the potential development of T2R38-directed topical therapies, as well as using taste testing and/or genotyping to predict susceptibility to infection. Further studies are needed to more clearly determine how TAS2R38 genotype affects patient outcomes in chronic rhinosinusitis and other upper airway diseases.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Bitter taste receptors (T2R) have recently been demonstrated to contribute to sinonasal innate immunity. One T2R, T2R38, regulates mucosal defense against gram-negative organisms through nitric oxide (NO) production, which enhances mucociliary clearance and directly kills bacteria. To determine whether additional T2Rs contribute to this innate defense, we evaluated two other sinonasal T2Rs (T2R4 and T2R16) for regulation of NO production and expression within the human sinonasal cavity.<h4>Methods</h4>Primary human sinonasal cultures were stimulated with ligands specific to T2R4 and T2R16, colchicine and D-salicin, respectively. Cellular NO production was measured by intracellular 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence. For T2R expression mapping, sinonasal tissue was obtained from patients who underwent sinus surgery of the middle turbinate, maxillary sinus, ethmoid sinus, or sphenoid sinus. The expression of T2R4, T2R16, and T2R38 was evaluated by using immunofluorescence with validated antibodies.<h4>Results</h4>Similar to T2R38, T2R4 and T2R16 trigger NO production in a dose-dependent manner by using the canonical taste signaling pathway in response to stimulation with their respective ligands. All three receptors were expressed in the cilia of human epithelial cells of all regions in the sinonasal cavity.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These three T2Rs signaled through the same NO-mediated antimicrobial pathway and were ubiquitously expressed in the sinonasal epithelium. Additional T2Rs besides T2R38 may play a role in sinonasal immune defense. Mapping of T2R expression demonstrated the potential widespread role of T2Rs in sinonasal defense, whereas the genetics of these T2Rs may contribute to our understanding of specific endotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis and develop into novel therapeutic targets.
Project description:Non-gustatory, extraoral bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are G-protein coupled receptors that are expressed throughout the body and have various functional responses when stimulated by bitter agonists. Presently, T2Rs have been found to be expressed in osteoclasts and osteocytes where osteoclasts were capable of detecting bacterial quorum-sensing molecules through the T2R38 isoform. In the innate immune system, stimulating T2Rs induces anti-inflammatory and anti-pathogenic effects through the phospholipase C/inositol triphosphate pathway, which leads to intracellular calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. The immune cells with functional responses to T2R activation also play a role in bone inflammation and orthopaedic disorders. Furthermore, increasing intracellular calcium levels in bone cells through T2R activation can potentially influence bone formation and resorption. With recent studies finding T2R expression in bone cells, we examine the potential of targeting this receptor to treat bone inflammation and to promote bone anabolism.
Project description:Background:Bitter (T2R) and sweet (T1R) taste receptors in the airway are important in innate immune defense, and variations in taste receptor functionality in one T2R (T2R38) correlate with disease status and disease severity in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Quinine is a bitter compound that is an agonist for several T2Rs also expressed on sinonasal cells, but not for T2R38. Because of this property, quinine may stimulate innate immune defense mechanisms in the airway, and functional differences in quinine perception may be reflective of disease status in CRS. Methods:Demographic and taste intensity data were collected prospectively from CRS patients and non-CRS control subjects. Sinonasal tissue from patients undergoing rhinologic surgery was also collected and grown at an air-liquid interface (ALI). Nitric oxide (NO) production and dynamic regulation of ciliary beat frequency in response to quinine stimulation were assessed in vitro. Results:Quinine reliably increased ciliary beat frequency and NO production in ALI cultures in a manner consistent with T2R activation (p?<?0.01). Quinine taste intensity rating was performed in 328 CRS patients and 287 control subjects demonstrating that CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) patients rated quinine as significantly less intense than did control subjects. Conclusion:Quinine stimulates airway innate immune defenses by increasing ciliary beat frequency and stimulating NO production in a manner fitting with T2R activation. Patient variability in quinine sensitivity is observed in taste intensity ratings, and gustatory quinine "insensitivity" is associated with CRSwNP status. Thus, taste tests for quinine may be a biomarker for CRSwNP, and topical quinine has therapeutic potential as a stimulant of innate defenses.
Project description:Sinonasal biofilms have been demonstrated in specimens collected from chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients. Mounting evidence suggests that biofilms contribute to therapeutically recalcitrant CRS. Recently, the bitter taste receptor T2R38 has been implicated in the regulation of the sinonasal mucosal innate immune response. TAS2R38 gene polymorphisms affect receptor functionality and contribute to variations seen in sinonasal innate defense as well as taste perception reflected in gustatory sensitivity to the bitter compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). In a population of CRS patients with active infection or inflammation, we sought to determine if a correlation between T2R38 phenotype and in vitro biofilm formation existed.Endoscopically guided sinonasal swabs were obtained prospectively from CRS (±polyp) patients with evidence of persistent inflammation or mucopurulence. In vitro biofilm formation was assessed with a modified Calgary Biofilm Detection Assay. Patients' phenotypic (functional) expression of the bitter taste receptor T2R38 was evaluated with a taste test including the compound PTC. Linear regression was used to determine the level of significance between mean in vitro biofilm formation levels and mean PTC taste test intensity ratings across CRS patients.Sinonasal swabs were obtained from 59 patients, with 42 of the 59 samples demonstrating in vitro biofilm formation. Analysis revealed an inverse linear association between in vitro biofilm formation and PTC taste intensity ratings (p = 0.019) for all patients. This association was exclusively driven by nonpolypoid CRS patients (p = 0.0026).In vitro biofilm formation from sinonasal clinical isolates is inversely correlated with PTC taste sensitivity in nonpolypoid CRS patients.
Project description:Although a role for the gastric and intestinal mucosa in molecular sensing has been known for decades, the initial molecular recognition events that sense the chemical composition of the luminal contents has remained elusive. Here we identified putative taste receptor gene transcripts in the gastrointestinal tract. Our results, using reverse transcriptase-PCR, demonstrate the presence of transcripts corresponding to multiple members of the T2R family of bitter taste receptors in the antral and fundic gastric mucosa as well as in the lining of the duodenum. In addition, cDNA clones of T2R receptors were detected in a rat gastric endocrine cell cDNA library, suggesting that these receptors are expressed, at least partly, in enteroendocrine cells. Accordingly, expression of multiple T2R receptors also was found in STC-1 cells, an enteroendocrine cell line. The expression of alpha subunits of G proteins implicated in intracellular taste signal transduction, namely Galpha(gust), and Galpha(t)-(2), also was demonstrated in the gastrointestinal mucosa as well as in STC-1 cells, as revealed by reverse transcriptase-PCR and DNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Furthermore, addition of compounds widely used in bitter taste signaling (e.g., denatonium, phenylthiocarbamide, 6-n-propil-2-thiouracil, and cycloheximide) to STC-1 cells promoted a rapid increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. These results demonstrate the expression of bitter taste receptors of the T2R family in the mouse and rat gastrointestinal tract.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:This study was designed to ascertain whether human enteroendocrine cells express bitter taste receptors, and whether activation of these receptors with bitter-tasting ligands induces secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). METHODS:We used human enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells, isolated duodenal segments from mice, and whole mice as our experimental systems for investigating stimuli and mechanisms underlying GLP-1- and PYY-stimulated release. We measured hormone levels by ELISA and determined bitter taste receptor expression by real-time quantitative PCR. We adopted a pharmacological approach using inhibitors and enhancers of downstream signalling pathways known to be involved in bitter taste transduction in taste bud cells to investigate these pathways in NCI-H716 cells. RESULTS:Using a pharmacological approach, we identified signalling pathways triggered by the denatonium benzoate (DB)-activated bitter receptors. This involved activation of ?-gustducin (G?gust)-the specific G-protein subunit that is also present in taste bud cells-reduction of intracellular cAMP levels and enhancement of phospholipase C (PLC) activity, which ultimately led to increased intracellular calcium concentrations and hormone release. Gavage of DB, followed by gavage of glucose, to db/db mice stimulated GLP-1 and subsequent insulin secretion, leading to lower blood glucose levels. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Our study demonstrates that activation of gut-expressed bitter taste receptors stimulates GLP-1 secretion in a PLC-dependent manner. In diabetic mice, DB (a ligand of bitter taste receptor cells), when given via gavage, lowers blood glucose levels in diabetic mice after oral glucose administration, through increased secretion of GLP-1.
Project description:The peptide hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) exerts a wide range of digestive and CNS-related physiological signaling via CCK receptors in brain and gut. There is very limited information available on these receptors in Atlantic salmon. The aim of this study was to characterize CCK receptors in gut and brain of salmon. We have identified and cloned one CCK-1 receptor and duplicates of CCK-2 receptor in salmon. The phylogenetic analysis indicates the existence of one common ancestor gene for all CCK receptors. CCK-1R mRNA is highly expressed in pancreas followed by midgut, hindgut, gallbladder, and stomach indicating an involvement in pancreatic regulation and gallbladder contractions. CCK-2R1/gastrin mRNA is expressed at high levels in midgut and at relatively low levels in stomach, gallbladder, and pancreas. We postulate CCK-2R1/gastrin receptor to have gastrin-related functions because of its distribution and abundance in gastro-intestinal (GI) tissues. CCK-2R2 is relatively abundant in brain but has low expression levels in gut tissues supporting the hypothesis for involvement in the gut-brain signaling. Major functional motifs and ligand interaction sites in salmon are conserved with that of mammals. This information will be instrumental for comparative studies and further targeting receptor activation and selectivity of biological responses of CCK in salmon.