19p13.1 is a triple-negative-specific breast cancer susceptibility locus.
ABSTRACT: The 19p13.1 breast cancer susceptibility locus is a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is also associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated 19p13.1 variation and risk of breast cancer subtypes, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, using 48,869 breast cancer cases and 49,787 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Variants from 19p13.1 were not associated with breast cancer overall or with ER-positive breast cancer but were significantly associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk [rs8170 OR, 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.15; P = 3.49 × 10(-5)] and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, and HER2-negative) breast cancer (rs8170: OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.13-1.31; P = 2.22 × 10(-7)). However, rs8170 was no longer associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk when triple-negative cases were excluded (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89-1.07; P = 0.62). In addition, a combined analysis of triple-negative cases from BCAC and the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC; N = 3,566) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8170 and triple-negative breast cancer risk (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18-1.33; P = 3.31 × 10(-13)]. Thus, 19p13.1 is the first triple-negative-specific breast cancer risk locus and the first locus specific to a histologic subtype defined by ER, PR, and HER2 to be identified. These findings provide convincing evidence that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer varies by tumor subtype and that triple-negative tumors and other subtypes likely arise through distinct etiologic pathways.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiologic factors that promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome-wide association studies display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by the status of estrogen and progesterone receptors. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple-negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single-nucleotide polymorphisms, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.1), and rs8100241 (19p13.1), significantly associated with the risk of triple-negative breast cancer. Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple-negative breast cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified variants at 19p13.1 and ZNF365 (10q21.2) as risk factors for breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. We explored associations with ovarian cancer and with breast cancer by tumor histopathology for these variants in mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). METHODS:Genotyping data for 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 40 studies were combined. RESULTS:We confirmed associations between rs8170 at 19p13.1 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers [HR, 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.27; P = 7.42 × 10(-4)] and between rs16917302 at ZNF365 (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.97; P = 0.017) but not rs311499 at 20q13.3 (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.94-1.31; P = 0.22) and breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Analyses based on tumor histopathology showed that 19p13 variants were predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, whereas rs16917302 at ZNF365 was mainly associated with ER-positive breast cancer for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We also found for the first time that rs67397200 at 19p13.1 was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer for BRCA1 (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.05-1.29; P = 3.8 × 10(-4)) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.10-1.52; P = 1.8 × 10(-3)). CONCLUSIONS:19p13.1 and ZNF365 are susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer and ER subtypes of breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. IMPACT:These findings can lead to an improved understanding of tumor development and may prove useful for breast and ovarian cancer risk prediction for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
Project description:Most genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been carried out in European ancestry populations; no risk variants for breast cancer have been identified solely from African ancestry GWAS data. Few GWAS hits have replicated in African ancestry populations.In a nested case-control study of breast cancer in the Black Women's Health Study (1,199 cases/1,948 controls), we evaluated index single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 21 loci from GWAS of European or Asian ancestry populations, overall, in subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status (ER+/PR+, n = 336; ER-/PR-, n = 229), and in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, N = 81). To evaluate the contribution of genetic factors to population differences in breast cancer subtype, we also examined global percent African ancestry.Index SNPs in five loci were replicated, including three associated with ER-/PR- breast cancer (TERT rs10069690 in 5p15.33, rs704010 in 10q22.3, and rs8170 in 19p13.11): per allele ORs were 1.29 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.59], P = 0.02, 1.52 (95% CI 1.12-2.08), P = 0.01, and 1.30 (95% CI 1.01-1.68), P = 0.04, respectively. Stronger associations were observed for TNBC. Furthermore, cases in the highest quintile of percent African ancestry were three times more likely to have TNBC than ER+/PR+ cancer.These findings provide the first confirmation of the TNBC SNP rs8170 in an African ancestry population, and independent confirmation of the TERT ER- SNP. Furthermore, the risk of developing ER- breast cancer, particularly TNBC, increased with increasing proportion of global African ancestry.The findings illustrate the importance of genetic factors in the disproportionately high occurrence of TNBC in African American women.
Project description:Epidemiologic studies suggest that some hormone-related risk factors in breast cancer differentially influence risk for disease subtypes classified by the status of the estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR). However, it remains unclear whether human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) or p53 expression status further differentiates these exposure-risk group associations. We evaluated the associations of oral contraceptive (OC) use and reproductive factors with incident invasive breast cancer subtypes among 1,197 population-based cases and 2,015 controls from the Los Angeles County or Detroit components of the Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences Study. Case-control comparisons by ER/PR/HER2/p53 status were conducted by multivariable polychotomous unconditional logistic regression methods. We found that OC use was not associated with any breast cancer subtype as defined by ER/PR/HER2/p53 status, except for a 2.9-fold increased risk of so-called triple-negative tumors (ER(-)/PR(-)/HER2(-)) among women of 45 to 64 years of age who started OC use before age 18. Parity was associated with a decreased risk of luminal A (ER(+) or PR(+), HER2(-)), luminal B (ER(+) or PR(+)/HER2(+)), and ER(-)/PR(-)/HER2(+) tumors. Age at first full-term pregnancy was positively associated with luminal A tumors among older women. Neither of these reproductive factors was associated with triple-negative tumors. Long duration of breast-feeding lowered the risk of triple-negative and luminal A tumors. p53 status did not define further differential risk patterns. Our findings offer evidence of differences in the hormone-related risk factors between triple-negative cancers and other ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes of breast cancer.
Project description:A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) as breast cancer susceptibility loci. The initial GWAS suggested stronger effects for both loci for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), we sought to determine whether risks differ by ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), grade, node status, tumor size, and ductal or lobular morphology. We genotyped rs11249433 at 1p.11.2, and two highly correlated SNPs rs999737 and rs10483813 (r(2)= 0.98) at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1), for up to 46 036 invasive breast cancer cases and 46 930 controls from 39 studies. Analyses by tumor characteristics focused on subjects reporting to be white women of European ancestry and were based on 25 458 cases, of which 87% had ER data. The SNP at 1p11.2 showed significantly stronger associations with ER-positive tumors [per-allele odds ratio (OR) for ER-positive tumors was 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10-1.16 and, for ER-negative tumors, OR was 1.03, 95% CI = 0.98-1.07, case-only P-heterogeneity = 7.6 × 10(-5)]. The association with ER-positive tumors was stronger for tumors of lower grade (case-only P= 6.7 × 10(-3)) and lobular histology (case-only P= 0.01). SNPs at 14q24.1 were associated with risk for most tumor subtypes evaluated, including triple-negative breast cancers, which has not been described previously. Our results underscore the need for large pooling efforts with tumor pathology data to help refine risk estimates for SNP associations with susceptibility to different subtypes of breast cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Type II diabetes and certain diabetes treatments have been observed to impact breast cancer risk. However, their associations with different breast cancer molecular subtype defined by estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)/HER2 status are unclear. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective multi-center population-based case-case study consisting of 4,557 breast cancer cases to evaluate the impact of type II diabetes and diabetes medications on the risk of different breast cancer molecular subtypes [ER+/HER2-, ER+/HER2+, triple negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-), and HER2 overexpressing (H2E, ER-/PR-/HER2+)]. Using ER+/HER2- cases as the reference group, we estimated ORs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each subtype using polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS:Compared with those without a diabetes history, women with type II diabetes had a 38% (95% CI, 1.01-1.89) increased odds of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Current and longer term recent metformin use (13-24 months of treatment within the 24-month period prior to breast cancer diagnosis) was associated with elevated odds of TNBC (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.07-2.22 and OR = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.13-2.85, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:The odds of having a triple-negative rather than ER+/HER2- breast cancer is greater for women with type II diabetes, and particularly for those who were users of metformin. This finding is supported by some preclinical data suggesting that diabetes may be more strongly associated with risk of triple-negative disease. IMPACT:Our study provides novel evidence regarding potential differential effects of type II diabetes and metformin use on risk of different molecular subtypes of breast cancer.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Breast cancer comprises clinically distinct subtypes, but most risk statistics consider breast cancer only as a single entity. To estimate subtype-specific lifetime breast cancer risks, we took advantage of population-based data for which information regarding tumor expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2/neu (HER2) was newly available.<h4>Methods</h4>We included women whose breast cancer was diagnosed in the state of California from 2006 to 2007 and was reported to the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (N = 40,936). We calculated absolute lifetime and age-specific probabilities (percent, 95% confidence interval) of developing breast cancer subtypes defined by ER, PR, and HER2 status - luminal (ER and/or PR-positive, HER2-negative), HER2-positive (ER and PR-positive or negative, HER2-positive), and triple-negative (ER-negative, PR-negative, and HER2-negative) - separately for white, black, Hispanic, and Asian women.<h4>Results</h4>The luminal breast cancer subtype predominates across racial/ethnic groups, with lifetime risk lowest in Hispanic women (4.60%, 4.41-4.80%) and highest in white women (8.10%, 7.94-8.20%). HER2-positive breast cancer varies less by race (1.56-1.91%). Lifetime risk of triple-negative breast cancer is highest in black women (1.98%, 1.80-2.17%), compared to 0.77% (0.67-0.88%) for Asians, 1.04% (0.96-1.13%) for Hispanics and 1.25% (1.20-1.30%) for whites. Across racial/ethnic groups, nearly half of all luminal breast cancers occur after age 70.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These absolute risk estimates may inform health policy and resource planning across diverse populations, and can help patients and physicians weigh the probabilities of developing specific breast cancer subtypes against competing health risks.
Project description:DNA methylation is one of the most common epigenetic alterations, providing important information regarding cancer risk and prognosis. A case-control study (423 breast cancer cases, 509 controls) and a case-only study (326 cases) were conducted to evaluate the association of DUSP1 promoter methylation with breast cancer risk and clinicopathological characteristics. No significant association between DUSP1 methylation in peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) DNA and breast cancer risk was observed. DUSP1 methylation was significantly associated with ER/PR-negative status; in particular, triple-negative breast cancer patients showed the highest frequency of DUSP1 methylation in both tumour DNA and PBL DNA. Soybean intake was significantly correlated with methylated DUSP1 only in ER-negative (OR 2.978; 95% CI 1.245-7.124) and PR negative (OR 2.735; 95% CI 1.315-5.692) patients. Irregular menstruation was significantly associated with methylated DUSP1 only in ER-positive (OR 3.564; 95% CI 1.691-7.511) and PR-positive (OR 3.902, 95% CI 1.656-9.194) patients. Thus, DUSP1 methylation is a cancer-associated hypermethylation event that is closely linked with triple-negative status. Further investigations are warranted to confirm the association of environmental factors, including fruit and soybean intake, irregular menstruation, and ER/PR status, with DUSP1 methylation in breast tumour DNA.
Project description:GWAS have identified variation in the FGFR2 locus as risk factors for breast cancer. Validation studies, however, have shown inconsistent results by ethnics and pathological characteristics. To further explore this inconsistency and investigate the associations of FGFR2 variants with breast cancer according to intrinsic subtype (Luminal-A, Luminal-B, ER-&PR-&HER2+, and triple negative) among Southern Han Chinese women, we genotyped rs1078806, rs1219648, rs2420946, rs2981579, and rs2981582 polymorphisms in 609 patients and 882 controls. Significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for rs2420946, rs2981579, and rs2981582 with OR (95% CI) per risk allele of 1.19 (1.03-1.39), 1.24 (1.07-1.43), and 1.17 (1.01-1.36), respectively. In subtype specific analysis, above three SNPs were significantly associated with increased Luminal-A risk in a dose-dependent manner (P trend < 0.01); however, only rs2981579 was associated with Luminal-B, and none were linked to ER-&PR- subtypes (ER-&PR-&HER2+ and triple negative). Haplotype analyses also identified common haplotypes significantly associated with luminal-like subtypes (Luminal-A and Luminal-B), but not with ER-&PR- subtypes. Our results suggest that associations of FGFR2 SNPs with breast cancer were heterogeneous according to intrinsic subtype. Future studies stratifying patients by their intrinsic subtypes will provide new insights into the complex genetic mechanisms underlying breast cancer.