Dynamics of the regulation of Hsp90 by the co-chaperone Sti1.
ABSTRACT: In eukaryotic cells, Hsp90 chaperones assist late folding steps of many regulatory protein clients by a complex ATPase cycle. Binding of clients to Hsp90 requires prior interaction with Hsp70 and a transfer reaction that is mediated by the co-chaperone Sti1/Hop. Sti1 furthers client transfer by inhibiting Hsp90's ATPase activity. To better understand how Sti1 prepares Hsp90 for client acceptance, we characterized the interacting domains and analysed how Hsp90 and Sti1 mutually influence their conformational dynamics using hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry. Sti1 stabilizes several regions in all three domains of Hsp90 and slows down dissociation of the Hsp90 dimer. Our data suggest that Sti1 inhibits Hsp90's ATPase activity by preventing N-terminal dimerization and docking of the N-terminal domain with the middle domain. Using crosslinking and mass spectrometry we identified Sti1 segments, which are in close vicinity of the N-terminal domain of Hsp90. We found that the length of the linker between C-terminal dimerization domain and the C-terminal MEEVD motif is important for Sti1 association rates and propose a kinetic model for Sti1 binding to Hsp90.
Project description:In eukaryotes, the molecular chaperones Hsp90 and Hsp70 are connected via the co-chaperone Sti1/Hop, which allows transfer of clients. Here, we show that the basic functions of yeast Sti1 and human Hop are conserved. These include the simultaneous binding of Hsp90 and Hsp70, the inhibition of the ATPase activity of Hsp90, and the ability to support client activation in vivo. Importantly, we reveal that both Hop and Sti1 are subject to inhibitory phosphorylation, although the sites modified and the influence of regulatory phosphorylation is species specific. Phospho-mimetic variants have a reduced ability to activate clients in vivo and different affinity for Hsp70. Hop is more tightly regulated, as phosphorylation affects also the interaction with Hsp90 and induces structural rearrangements in the core part of the protein.
Project description:The molecular chaperone Hsp (heat-shock protein) 90 is critical for the activity of diverse cellular client proteins. In a current model, client proteins are transferred from Hsp70 to Hsp90 in a process mediated by the co-chaperone Sti1/Hop, which may simultaneously interact with Hsp70 and Hsp90 via separate TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains, but the mechanism and in vivo importance of this function is unclear. In the present study, we used truncated forms of Sti1 to determine the minimal regions required for the Hsp70 and Hsp90 interaction, as well as Sti1 dimerization. We found that both TPR1 and TPR2B contribute to the Hsp70 interaction in vivo and that mutations in both TPR1 and TPR2B were required to disrupt the in vitro interaction of Sti1 with the C-terminus of the Hsp70 Ssa1. The TPR2A domain was required for the Hsp90 interaction in vivo, but the isolated TPR2A domain was not sufficient for the Hsp90 interaction unless combined with the TPR2B domain. However, isolated TPR2A was both necessary and sufficient for purified Sti1 to migrate as a dimer in solution. The DP2 domain, which is essential for in vivo function, was dispensable for the Hsp70 and Hsp90 interaction, as well as Sti1 dimerization. As evidence for the role of Sti1 in mediating the interaction between Hsp70 and Hsp90 in vivo, we identified Sti1 mutants that result in reduced recovery of Hsp70 in Hsp90 complexes. We also identified two Hsp90 mutants that exhibit a reduced Hsp70 interaction, which may help clarify the mechanism of client transfer between the two molecular chaperones.
Project description:Sti1/Hop is a modular protein required for the transfer of client proteins from the Hsp70 to the Hsp90 chaperone system in eukaryotes. It binds Hsp70 and Hsp90 simultaneously via TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains. Sti1/Hop contains three TPR domains (TPR1, TPR2A and TPR2B) and two domains of unknown structure (DP1 and DP2). We show that TPR2A is the high affinity Hsp90-binding site and TPR1 and TPR2B bind Hsp70 with moderate affinity. The DP domains exhibit highly homologous ?-helical folds as determined by NMR. These, and especially DP2, are important for client activation in vivo. The core module of Sti1 for Hsp90 inhibition is the TPR2A-TPR2B segment. In the crystal structure, the two TPR domains are connected via a rigid linker orienting their peptide-binding sites in opposite directions and allowing the simultaneous binding of TPR2A to the Hsp90 C-terminal domain and of TPR2B to Hsp70. Both domains also interact with the Hsp90 middle domain. The accessory TPR1-DP1 module may serve as an Hsp70-client delivery system for the TPR2A-TPR2B-DP2 segment, which is required for client activation in vivo.
Project description:The cochaperone Sti1/Hop physically links Hsp70 and Hsp90. The protein exhibits one binding site for Hsp90 (TPR2A) and two binding sites for Hsp70 (TPR1 and TPR2B). How these sites are used remained enigmatic. Here we show that Sti1 is a dynamic, elongated protein that consists of a flexible N-terminal module, a long linker and a rigid C-terminal module. Binding of Hsp90 and Hsp70 regulates the Sti1 conformation with Hsp90 binding determining with which site Hsp70 interacts. Without Hsp90, Sti1 is more compact and TPR2B is the high-affinity interaction site for Hsp70. In the presence of Hsp90, Hsp70 shifts its preference. The linker connecting the two modules is crucial for the interaction with Hsp70 and for client activation in vivo. Our results suggest that the interaction of Hsp70 with Sti1 is tightly regulated by Hsp90 to assure transfer of Hsp70 between the modules, as a prerequisite for the efficient client handover.
Project description:Specific co-chaperone adaptors facilitate the recruitment of client proteins to the Hsp90 system. Tah1 binds the C-terminal conserved MEEVD motif of Hsp90, thus linking an eclectic set of client proteins to the R2TP complex for their assembly and regulation by Hsp90. Rather than the normal complement of seven ?-helices seen in other tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains, Tah1 unusually consists of the first five only. Consequently, the methionine of the MEEVD peptide remains exposed to solvent when bound by Tah1. In solution Tah1 appears to be predominantly monomeric, and recent structures have failed to explain how Tah1 appears to prevent the formation of mixed TPR domain-containing complexes such as Cpr6-(Hsp90)2-Tah1. To understand this further, the crystal structure of Tah1 in complex with the MEEVD peptide of Hsp90 was determined, which shows a helix swap involving the fifth ?-helix between two adjacently bound Tah1 molecules. Dimerization of Tah1 restores the normal binding environment of the bound Hsp90 methionine residue by reconstituting a TPR binding site similar to that in seven-helix-containing TPR domain proteins. Dimerization also explains how other monomeric TPR-domain proteins are excluded from forming inappropriate mixed co-chaperone complexes.
Project description:Hsp90 is a highly conserved molecular chaperone important for the activity of many client proteins. Hsp90 has an N-terminal ATPase domain (N), a middle domain (M) that interacts with clients and a C-terminal dimerization domain (C). "Closing" of dimers around clients is regulated by ATP binding, co-chaperones, and post-translational modifications. ATP hydrolysis coincides with release of mature client and resetting the reaction cycle. Humans have two Hsp90s: hHsp90? and hHsp90?. Although 85% identical, hHsp90? supports Hsp90 function in yeast much better than hHsp90?. Determining the basis of this difference would provide important insight into functional specificity of seemingly redundant Hsp90s, and the evolution of eukaryotic Hsp90 systems and clientele. Here, we found host co-chaperones Sba1, Cpr6 and Cpr7 inhibited hHsp90? function in yeast, and we identified mutations clustering in the N domain that considerably improved hHsp90? function in yeast. The strongest of these rescuer mutations accelerated nucleotide-dependent lid closing, N-M domain docking, and ATPase. It also disrupted binding to Sba1, which prolongs the closed state, and promoted N-M undocking and lid opening. Our data suggest the rescuer mutations improve function of hHsp90? in yeast by accelerating return to the open state. Our findings imply hHsp90? occupies the closed state too long to function effectively in yeast, and define an evolutionarily conserved region of the N domain involved in resetting the Hsp90 reaction cycle.
Project description:Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) accounts for 1-2% of the total proteins in normal cells and functions as a molecular chaperone that folds, assembles, and stabilizes client proteins. Hsp90 is overexpressed (3- to 6-fold increase) in stressed cells, including cancer cells, and regulates over 200 client and co-chaperone proteins. Hsp90 client proteins are involved in a plethora of cellular signaling events including numerous growth and apoptotic pathways. Since pathway-specific inhibitors can be problematic in drug-resistant cancers, shutting down multiple pathways at once is a promising approach when developing new therapeutics. Hsp90's ability to modulate many growth and signaling pathways simultaneously makes this protein an attractive target in the field of cancer therapeutics. Herein we present evidence that a small molecule modulates Hsp90 via binding between the N and middle domain and allosterically inhibiting the binding interaction between Hsp90 and four C-terminal binding client proteins: IP6K2, FKBP38, FKBP52, and HOP. These last three clients contain a tetratricopeptide-repeat (TPR) region, which is known to interact with the MEEVD sequence on the C-terminus of Hsp90. Thus, this small molecule modulates the activity between co-chaperones that contain TPR motifs and Hsp90's MEEVD region. This mechanism of action is unique from that of all Hsp90 inhibitors currently in clinical trials where these molecules have no effect on proteins that bind to the C-terminus of Hsp90. Further, our small molecule induces a Caspase-3 dependent apoptotic event. Thus, we describe the mechanism of a novel scaffold that is a useful tool for studying cell-signaling events that result when blocking the MEEVD-TPR interaction between Hsp90 and co-chaperone proteins.
Project description:Hsp90 is responsible for the conformational maturation of newly synthesized polypeptides (client proteins) and the re-maturation of denatured proteins via the Hsp90 chaperone cycle. Inhibition of the Hsp90 N-terminus has emerged as a clinically relevant strategy for anticancer chemotherapeutics due to the involvement of clients in a variety of oncogenic pathways. Several immunophilins, co-chaperones and partner proteins are also necessary for Hsp90 chaperoning activity. Alternative strategies to inhibit Hsp90 function include disruption of the C-terminal dimerization domain and the Hsp90 heteroprotein complex. C-terminal inhibitors and Hsp90 co-chaperone disruptors prevent cancer cell proliferation similar to N-terminal inhibitors and destabilize client proteins without induction of heat shock proteins. Herein, current Hsp90 inhibitors, the chaperone cycle, and regulation of this cycle will be discussed.
Project description:The molecular chaperones of the Hsp90 family are essential in all eukaryotic cells. They assist late folding steps and maturation of many different proteins, called clients, that are not related in sequence or structure. Hsp90 interaction with its clients appears to be coupled to a series of conformational changes. Using hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS) we investigated the structural dynamics of human Hsp90? (hHsp90) and yeast Hsp82 (yHsp82). We found that eukaryotic Hsp90s are much more flexible than the previously studied Escherichia coli homolog (EcHtpG) and that nucleotides induce much smaller changes. More stable conformations in yHsp82 are obtained in presence of co-chaperones. The tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain protein Cpr6 causes a different amide proton protection pattern in yHsp82 than the previously studied TPR-domain protein Sti1. In the simultaneous presence of Sti1 and Cpr6, protection levels are observed that are intermediate between the Sti1 and the Cpr6 induced changes. Surprisingly, no bimodal distributions of the isotope peaks are detected, suggesting that both co-chaperones affect both protomers of the Hsp90 dimer in a similar way. The cochaperones Sba1 was found previously in the crystal structure bound to the ATP hydrolysis-competent conformation of Hsp90, which did not allow to distinguish the mode of Sba1-mediated inhibition of Hsp90's ATPase activity by stabilizing the pre- or post-hydrolysis step. Our HX-MS experiments now show that Sba1 binding leads to a protection of the ATP binding lid, suggesting that it inhibits Hsp90's ATPase activity by slowing down product release. This hypothesis was verified by a single-turnover ATPase assay. Together, our data suggest that there are much smaller energy barriers between conformational states in eukaryotic Hsp90s than in EcHtpG and that co-chaperones are necessary in addition to nucleotides to stabilize defined conformational states.
Project description:Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) have been associated with familial isolated pituitary adenomas predisposing to young-onset acromegaly and gigantism. The precise tumorigenic mechanism is not well understood as AIP interacts with a large number of independent proteins as well as three chaperone systems, HSP90, HSP70 and TOMM20. We have determined the structure of the TPR domain of AIP at high resolution, which has allowed a detailed analysis of how disease-associated mutations impact on the structural integrity of the TPR domain. A subset of C-terminal ?-7 helix (C?-7h) mutations, R304* (nonsense mutation), R304Q, Q307* and R325Q, a known site for AhR and PDE4A5 client-protein interaction, occur beyond those that interact with the conserved MEEVD and EDDVE sequences of HSP90 and TOMM20. These C-terminal AIP mutations appear to only disrupt client-protein binding to the C?-7h, while chaperone binding remains unaffected, suggesting that failure of client-protein interaction with the C?-7h is sufficient to predispose to pituitary adenoma. We have also identified a molecular switch in the AIP TPR-domain that allows recognition of both the conserved HSP90 motif, MEEVD, and the equivalent sequence (EDDVE) of TOMM20.