A comprehensive survey of genomic alterations in gastric cancer reveals systematic patterns of molecular exclusivity and co-occurrence among distinct therapeutic targets.
ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is a major gastrointestinal malignancy for which targeted therapies are emerging as treatment options. This study sought to identify the most prevalent molecular targets in gastric cancer and to elucidate systematic patterns of exclusivity and co-occurrence among these targets, through comprehensive genomic analysis of a large panel of gastric cancers.Using high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, copy number alterations were profiled in a panel of 233 gastric cancers (193 primary tumours, 40 cell lines) and 98 primary matched gastric non-malignant samples. For selected alterations, their impact on gene expression and clinical outcome were evaluated.22 recurrent focal alterations (13 amplifications and nine deletions) were identified. These included both known targets (FGFR2, ERBB2) and also novel genes in gastric cancer (KLF5, GATA6). Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/RAS alterations were found to be frequent in gastric cancer. This study also demonstrates, for the first time, that these alterations occur in a mutually exclusive fashion, with KRAS gene amplifications highlighting a clinically relevant but previously underappreciated gastric cancer subgroup. FGFR2-amplified gastric cancers were also shown to be sensitive to dovitinib, an orally bioavailable FGFR/VEGFR targeting agent, potentially representing a subtype-specific therapy for FGFR2-amplified gastric cancers.The study demonstrates the existence of five distinct gastric cancer patient subgroups, defined by the signature genomic alterations FGFR2 (9% of tumours), KRAS (9%), EGFR (8%), ERBB2 (7%) and MET (4%). Collectively, these subgroups suggest that at least 37% of gastric cancer patients may be potentially treatable by RTK/RAS directed therapies.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) is a major global cancer burden and the second most common cause of global cancer-related deaths. The addition of anti-ERBB2 (HER2) targeted therapy to chemotherapy improves survival for ERBB2-amplified advanced GC patients; however, the majority of GC patients do not harbor this alteration and thus cannot benefit from targeted therapy under current practice paradigms.Prospective comprehensive genomic profiling of 116 predominantly locally advanced or metastatic (90.0%) gastric cancer cases was performed to identify genomic alterations (GAs) associated with a potential response to targeted therapies approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or targeted therapy-based clinical trials.Overall, 78% of GC cases harbored one clinically relevant GA or more, with the most frequent alterations being found in TP53 (50%), ARID1A (24%), KRAS (16%), CDH1 (15%), CDKN2A (14%), CCND1 (9.5%), ERBB2 (8.5%), PIK3CA (8.6%), MLL2 (6.9%), FGFR2 (6.0%), and MET (6.0%). Receptor tyrosine kinase genomic alterations were detected in 20.6% of cases, primarily ERBB2, FGFR2, and MET amplification, with ERBB2 alterations evenly split between amplifications and base substitutions. Rare BRAF mutations (2.6%) were also observed. One MET-amplified GC patient responded for 5 months to crizotinib, a multitargeted ALK/ROS1/MET inhibitor.Comprehensive genomic profiling of GC identifies clinically relevant GAs that suggest benefit from targeted therapy including MET-amplified GC and ERBB2 base substitutions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:With the exception of trastuzumab, therapies directed at receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas (GEA) have had limited success. Recurrent fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) alterations exist in GEA; however, little is known about the genomic landscape of FGFR2-altered GEA. We examined FGFR2 alteration frequency and frequency of co-occurring alterations in GEA. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS:A total of 6,667 tissue specimens from patients with advanced GEA were assayed using hybrid capture-based genomic profiling. Tumor mutational burden (TMB) was determined on up to 1.1 Mb of sequenced DNA, and microsatellite instability was determined on 95 or 114 loci. Descriptive statistics were used to compare subgroups. RESULTS:We identified a total of 269 (4.0%) FGFR2-altered cases consisting of FGFR2-amplified (amp; 193, 72% of FGFR2-altered), FGFR2-mutated (36, 13%), FGFR2-rearranged (re; 23, 8.6%), and cases with multiple FGFR2 alterations (17, 6.3%). Co-occurring alterations in other GEA RTK targets including ERBB2 (10%), EGFR (8%), and MET (3%) were observed across all classes of FGFR2-altered GEA. Co-occurring alterations in MYC (17%), KRAS (10%), and PIK3CA (5.6%) were also observed frequently. Cases with FGFR2amp and FGFR2re were exclusively microsatellite stable. The median TMB for FGFR2-altered GEA was 3.6 mut/mb, not significantly different from a median of 4.3 mut/mb seen in FGFR2 wild-type samples. CONCLUSION:FGFR2-altered GEA is a heterogenous subgroup with approximately 20% of FGFR2-altered samples harboring concurrent RTK alterations. Putative co-occurring modifiers of FGFR2-directed therapy including oncogenic MYC, KRAS, and PIK3CA alterations were also frequent, suggesting that pretreatment molecular analyses may be needed to facilitate rational combination therapies and optimize patient selection for clinical trials. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Actionable receptor tyrosine kinase alterations assayed within a genomic context with therapeutic implications remain limited to HER2 amplification in gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas (GEA). Composite biomarkers and heterogeneity assessment are critical in optimizing patients selected for targeted therapies in GEA. Comprehensive genomic profiling in FGFR2-altered GEA parallels the heterogeneity findings in HER2-amplified GEA and adds support to the utility of genomic profiling in advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas.
Project description:Targeted therapy for metastatic colorectal carcinoma consists of anti-EGFR therapy for patients with RAS/RAF wild-type tumors. However, the response rate remains low, suggesting the presence of alternative drivers possibly also representing potential therapeutic targets. We investigated receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) alterations and MAP2K1 (MEK1) mutations in a large cohort of colorectal carcinoma patients studied by Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets and The Cancer Genome Atlas, focusing on amplifications, fusions, and hotspot mutations in RTK genes and MAP2K1. RTK gene amplifications were confirmed with FISH and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Among 751 colorectal carcinoma cases with next-generation sequencing data, 7% and 1% of colorectal carcinoma harbored RTK alterations and MAP2K1 hotspot mutations (n = 7), respectively. RTK-altered cases had fewer concurrent RAS/RAF mutations (P = 0.003) than RTK/MAP2K1 wild-type colorectal carcinoma. MAP2K1-mutated colorectal carcinoma showed no RAS/RAF mutations. ERBB2 (n = 32) and EGFR (n = 13) were the most frequently altered RTKs, both activated by amplification and/or hotspot mutations. Three RTK fusions were identified: NCOA4-RET, ERBB2-GRB7, and ETV6-NTRK3. Only 1 of 6 patients with an RTK or MAP2K1 alteration who received anti-EGFR and/or anti-ERBB2 therapy demonstrated stable disease; the rest progressed immediately. Overall, RTK alterations and MAP2K1 mutations occur in approximately 8% of colorectal carcinoma. In spite of the usual absence of RAS/RAF mutations, response to anti-EGFR and/or anti-ERBB2 therapy was poor in this limited group. Larger studies are warranted to further define these kinase alterations as novel therapeutic targets in colorectal carcinoma and as negative predictors of response to anti-EGFR therapy.Targetable kinase alterations were identified in a subset of advanced colorectal carcinoma patients, preferentially associated with wild-type RAS/RAF, and may predict poor response to standard anti-EGFR therapy.
Project description:Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-related genes, including HER2, EGFR, MET, FGFR2 and KRAS, are target molecules that are clinically beneficial in gastric cancer (GC). We investigated the correlation between RTK-related genes and the curative effect of first-line S-1 plus cisplatin (SP) combination chemotherapy in metastatic and recurrent GC. We enrolled 150 patients with histopathologically confirmed metastatic and recurrent GC treated with SP. KRAS mutation was detected using direct sequencing. DNA copy number was measured by real-time PCR. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens were examined immunohistochemically for HER2, EGFR, FGFR2 and MET. Among 144 patients, KRAS mutation was detected in five (3.5%) at codon 12 and one (0.7%) at codon 13. FGFR2, EGFR, HER2, MET and KRAS gene amplification was suggested in 4.4%, 5.9%, 9%, 3.7% and 10.3% of patients, respectively. KRAS mutation, but not KRAS amplification, was associated with significantly shorter overall and progression-free survival. MET membranous overexpression was associated with a significantly higher tumor response. MET amplification was associated with significantly shorter overall survival. We show for the first time that KRAS mutation and MET amplification are promising predictive markers in metastatic and recurrent GC patients treated with SP. KRAS status may be a useful prognostic marker in patients treated with SP.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) is characterized by amplifications of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) and KRAS, therefore, targeting of the RTK/KRAS downstream pathways could help to broaden the applicability of molecular targeted therapy for GC. We assembled a panel of 48 GC cell lines and screened predictors of responsiveness to inhibition of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, one of the RTK/KRAS downstream pathways. We found that GC cells with MET amplification or KRAS mutation, but not amplification, tended to be sensitive to MEK inhibition. However, several cell lines without RTK/KRAS alterations also showed high sensitivity to MEK inhibition. We then focused on the phosphorylation of RTK/KRAS downstream molecules to screen for predictors' sensitivity to MEK inhibition. We found that the phosphorylation level of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) downstream molecules, including p70S6K, 4EBP1, and S6, was significantly associated with sensitivity to MEK inhibition in GC cells (P < 0.05), suggesting that mTORC1 activity is related to the sensitivity to MEK inhibition. Furthermore, the change in mTORC1 activity after MEK inhibition was also significantly associated with this sensitivity (P < 0.001). Among the mTORC1 downstream molecules, the change in S6 phosphorylation (pS6) showed the most significant correlation with sensitivity. Using xenograft models derived from highly sensitive and resistant cell lines, we found specific reduction of pS6 in xenografts from highly sensitive cell lines after 6 h of treatment with an MEK inhibitor. Thus, our data suggest the potential clinical applicability of an MEK inhibitor for a proportion of GC patients who could be selected on the basis of pS6 change after MEK inhibition.
Project description:Lung cancer causes the largest number of cancer-related deaths in the world. Most (85%) of lung cancers are classified as non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer (15%) (SCLC). The 5-year survival rate for NSCLC patients remains very low (about 16% at 5 years). The two predominant NSCLC histological phenotypes are adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (LSQCC). ADCs display several recurrent genetic alterations, including: KRAS, BRAF and EGFR mutations; recurrent mutations and amplifications of several oncogenes, including ERBB2, MET, FGFR1 and FGFR2; fusion oncogenes involving ALK, ROS1, Neuregulin1 (NRG1) and RET. In LSQCC recurrent mutations of TP53, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, DDR2 and genes of the PI3K pathway have been detected, quantitative gene abnormalities of PTEN and CDKN2A. Developments in the characterization of lung cancer molecular abnormalities provided a strong rationale for new therapeutic options and for understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance. However, the complexity of lung cancer genomes is particularly high, as shown by deep-sequencing studies supporting the heterogeneity of lung tumors at cellular level, with sub-clones exhibiting different combinations of mutations. Molecular studies performed on lung tumors during treatment have shown the phenomenon of clonal evolution, thus supporting the occurrence of a temporal tumor heterogeneity.
Project description:Anti-EGFR antibodies are effective in therapies for late-stage colorectal cancer (CRC); however, many tumours are unresponsive or develop resistance. We performed genomic analysis of intrinsic and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in prospectively collected tumour samples from 25 CRC patients receiving cetuximab (an EGFR inhibitor). Of 25 CRC patients, 13 displayed intrinsic resistance to cetuximab; 12 were intrinsically sensitive. We obtained six re-biopsy samples at acquired resistance from the intrinsically sensitive patients. NCOA4-RET and LMNA-NTRK1 fusions and NRG1 and GNAS amplifications were found in intrinsic-resistant patients. In cetuximab-sensitive patients, we found KRAS K117N and A146T mutations in addition to BRAF V600E, AKT1 E17K, PIK3CA E542K, and FGFR1 or ERBB2 amplifications. The comparison between baseline and acquired-resistant tumours revealed an extreme shift in variant allele frequency of somatic variants, suggesting that cetuximab exposure dramatically selected for rare resistant subclones that were initially undetectable. There was also an increase in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition at acquired resistance, with a reduction in the immune infiltrate. Furthermore, characterization of an acquired-resistant, patient-derived cell line showed that PI3K/mTOR inhibition could rescue cetuximab resistance. Thus, we uncovered novel genomic alterations that elucidate the mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in metastatic CRC patients.
Project description:Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, with 1.2 million patients diagnosed annually. In late-stage colorectal cancer, the most commonly used targeted therapies are the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab, which prevent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. Recent studies have identified alterations in KRAS and other genes as likely mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance to anti-EGFR antibody therapy. Despite these efforts, additional mechanisms of resistance to EGFR blockade are thought to be present in colorectal cancer and little is known about determinants of sensitivity to this therapy. To examine the effect of somatic genetic changes in colorectal cancer on response to anti-EGFR antibody therapy, here we perform complete exome sequence and copy number analyses of 129 patient-derived tumour grafts and targeted genomic analyses of 55 patient tumours, all of which were KRAS wild-type. We analysed the response of tumours to anti-EGFR antibody blockade in tumour graft models and in clinical settings and functionally linked therapeutic responses to mutational data. In addition to previously identified genes, we detected mutations in ERBB2, EGFR, FGFR1, PDGFRA, and MAP2K1 as potential mechanisms of primary resistance to this therapy. Novel alterations in the ectodomain of EGFR were identified in patients with acquired resistance to EGFR blockade. Amplifications and sequence changes in the tyrosine kinase receptor adaptor gene IRS2 were identified in tumours with increased sensitivity to anti-EGFR therapy. Therapeutic resistance to EGFR blockade could be overcome in tumour graft models through combinatorial therapies targeting actionable genes. These analyses provide a systematic approach to evaluating response to targeted therapies in human cancer, highlight new mechanisms of responsiveness to anti-EGFR therapies, and delineate new avenues for intervention in managing colorectal cancer.
Project description:Background: HER2 antagonists have marked activity and are approved for the treatment of HER2 overexpressing breast and gastric cancers. Recent studies have shown that ERBB2 (HER2) gene amplification and overexpression may also be actionable in other tumor types. Inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity in HER2 status, however, poses a significant challenge in identifying patients that may benefit from HER2-targeted therapies. ERBB2 amplification as identified by circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA), which circumvents tissue heterogeneity issues, is emerging as a robust biomarker predictive of response to anti-HER2 agents. Here, the prevalence and genomic landscape of ERBB2 alterations detectable by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of cfDNA was evaluated in a large cohort of Asian patients with advanced solid tumors. Methods: Results were queried for consecutive patients (n = 469) tested by a comprehensive 70/73-gene cfDNA NGS assay (Guardant360®) between November 2015 and June 2018. Patients with ERBB2 gene alterations including copy number amplifications (CNAs), single nucleotide variants (SNVs), and insertion-deletions (indels) were identified. Results: ERBB2 alterations were detected in 52 patients (11.1%); ERBB2 SNVs, CNAs, and indels were found in 27 (5.8%), 27 (5.8%), and 10 (2.1%) patients, respectively. ERBB2 amplification was most frequently identified in gastric (21.4%; 6/28), colorectal (11.1%; 5/45), lung (3.9%; 9/231), and breast (3.2%; 1/31) cancer patients. ERBB2 amplification was often mutually exclusive with other oncogenic alterations in gastric (83.3%; 5/6) and colorectal (60%; 3/5) cancer patients. ERBB2 copy number gains were also highest in gastric and colorectal cancers (median 4.8 and 6.6, respectively). We further report two cases of advanced gastric cancer patients, one treatment naïve, and the other having failed four lines of therapy, whose ERBB2 CNAs were identified by cfDNA and derived clinical benefit from HER2-based therapies. Conclusion: Our data indicate that ERBB2 amplification is a common event in solid tumors among Asian cancer patients. High ERBB2 incidence and copy number gains were observed in gastric and colorectal cancer patients, often in the absence of other oncogenic mutations, underscoring its likely role as the driver alteration in those settings. Finally, we show the potential of comprehensive cfDNA testing in identifying patients who are most likely to benefit from HER2-targeted therapies.
Project description:A KRAS mutation represented the first genomic biomarker to predict lack of benefit from anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody therapy in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded RAS testing has further refined the treatment approach, but understanding of genomic alterations underlying primary and acquired resistance is limited and further study is needed.We prospectively analyzed 4,422 clinical samples from patients with advanced CRC, using hybrid-capture based comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) at the request of the individual treating physicians. Comparison with prior molecular testing results, when available, was performed to assess concordance.We identified a RAS/RAF pathway mutation or amplification in 62% of cases, including samples harboring KRAS mutations outside of the codon 12/13 hotspot region in 6.4% of cases. Among cases with KRAS non-codon 12/13 alterations for which prior test results were available, 79 of 90 (88%) were not identified by focused testing. Of 1,644 RAS/RAF wild-type cases analyzed by CGP, 31% harbored a genomic alteration (GA) associated with resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in advanced CRC including mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, EGFR, and ERBB2. We also identified other targetable GA, including novel kinase fusions, receptor tyrosine kinase amplification, activating point mutations, as well as microsatellite instability.Extended genomic profiling reliably detects alterations associated with lack of benefit to anti-EGFR therapy in advanced CRC, while simultaneously identifying alterations potentially important in guiding treatment. The use of CGP during the course of clinical care allows for the refined selection of appropriate targeted therapies and clinical trials, increasing the chance of clinical benefit and avoiding therapeutic futility.Comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) detects diverse genomic alterations associated with lack of benefit to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), as well as targetable alterations in many other genes. This includes detection of a broad spectrum of activating KRAS alterations frequently missed by focused molecular hotspot testing, as well as other RAS/RAF pathway alterations, mutations shown to disrupt antibody binding, RTK activating point mutations, amplifications, and rearrangements, and activating alterations in downstream effectors including PI3K and MEK1. The use of CGP in clinical practice is critical to guide appropriate selection of targeted therapies for patients with advanced CRC.