Propeptide of aminopeptidase 1 protein mediates aggregation and vesicle formation in cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway.
ABSTRACT: Misfolded protein aggregation causes disease and aging; autophagy counteracts this by eliminating damaged components, enabling cells to survive starvation. The cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway in yeast encompasses the aggregation of the premature form of aminopeptidase 1 (prApe1) in cytosol and its sequestration by autophagic proteins into a vesicle for vacuolar transport. We show that the propeptide of Ape1 is important for aggregation and vesicle formation and that it is sufficient for binding to prApe1 and Atg19. Defective aggregation disrupts vacuolar transport, suggesting that aggregate shape is important in vesicle formation, whereas Atg19 binding is not sufficient for vacuolar transport. Aggregation involves hydrophobicity, whereas Atg19 binding requires additional electrostatic interactions. Ape1 dodecamerization may cluster propeptides into trimeric structures, with sufficient affinity to form propeptide hexamers by binding to other dodecamers, causing aggregation. We show that Ape1 aggregates bind Atg19 and Atg8 in vitro; this could be used as a scaffold for an in vitro assay of autophagosome formation to elucidate the mechanisms of autophagy.
Project description:Autophagy is a catabolic membrane-trafficking mechanism conserved in all eukaryotic cells. In addition to the nonselective transport of bulk cytosol, autophagy is responsible for efficient delivery of the vacuolar enzyme Ape1 precursor (prApe1) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting the presence of a prApe1 sorting machinery. Sequential interactions between Atg19-Atg11 and Atg19-Atg8 pairs are thought responsible for targeting prApe1 to the vesicle formation site, the preautophagosomal structure (PAS), and loading it into transport vesicles, respectively. However, the different patterns of prApe1 transport defect seen in the atg11Delta and atg19Delta strains seem to be incompatible with this model. Here we report that prApe1 could not be targeted to the PAS and failed to be delivered into the vacuole in atg8Delta atg11Delta double knockout cells regardless of the nutrient conditions. We postulate that Atg19 mediates a dual interaction prApe1-sorting mechanism through independent, instead of sequential, interactions with Atg11 and Atg8. In addition, to efficiently deliver prApe1 to the vacuole, a proper interaction between Atg11 and Atg9 is indispensable. We speculate that Atg11 may elicit a cargo-loading signal and induce Atg9 shuttling to a specific PAS site, where Atg9 relays the signal and recruits other Atg proteins to induce vesicle formation.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a constitutive biosynthetic transport pathway, termed the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway, sequesters precursor aminopeptidase I (prApe1) dodecamers in the form of a large complex into a Cvt vesicle using autophagic machinery, targeting it into the vacuole (the yeast lysosome) where it is proteolytically processed into its mature form, Ape1, by removal of an amino-terminal 45-amino acid propeptide. prApe1 is thought to serve as a scaffolding cargo critical for the assembly of the Cvt vesicle by presenting the propeptide to mediate higher-ordered complex formation and autophagic receptor recognition. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of Ape1 at 2.5 Å resolution and reveal its dodecameric architecture consisting of dimeric and trimeric units, which associate to form a large tetrahedron. The propeptide of prApe1 exhibits concentration-dependent oligomerization and forms a stable tetramer. Structure-based mutagenesis demonstrates that disruption of the inter-subunit interface prevents dodecameric assembly and vacuolar targeting in vivo despite the presence of the propeptide. Furthermore, by examining the vacuolar import of propeptide-fused exogenous protein assemblies with different quaternary structures, we found that 3-dimensional spatial distribution of propeptides presented by a scaffolding cargo is essential for the assembly of the Cvt vesicle for vacuolar delivery. This study describes a molecular framework for understanding the mechanism of Cvt or autophagosomal biogenesis in selective macroautophagy.
Project description:Selective autophagy is the mechanism by which large cargos are specifically sequestered for degradation. The structural details of cargo and receptor assembly giving rise to autophagic vesicles remain to be elucidated. We utilize the yeast cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway, a prototype of selective autophagy, together with a multi-scale analysis approach to study the molecular structure of Cvt vesicles. We report the oligomeric nature of the major Cvt cargo Ape1 with a combined 2.8 Å X-ray and negative stain EM structure, as well as the secondary cargo Ams1 with a 6.3 Å cryo-EM structure. We show that the major dodecameric cargo prApe1 exhibits a tendency to form higher-order chain structures that are broken upon interaction with the receptor Atg19 in vitro The stoichiometry of these cargo-receptor complexes is key to maintaining the size of the Cvt aggregate in vivo Using correlative light and electron microscopy, we further visualize key stages of Cvt vesicle biogenesis. Our findings suggest that Atg19 interaction limits Ape1 aggregate size while serving as a vehicle for vacuolar delivery of tetrameric Ams1.
Project description:In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a precursor form of aminopeptidase I (prApe1) and ?-mannosidase (Ams1) are selectively transported to the vacuole through the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway under vegetative conditions and through autophagy under starvation conditions. Atg19 plays a central role in these processes by linking Ams1 and prApe1 to Atg8 and Atg11. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of cargo recognition by Atg19. Here, we report structural and functional analyses of Atg19 and its paralog, Atg34. A protease-resistant domain was identified in the C-terminal region of Atg19, which was also conserved in Atg34. In vitro pulldown assays showed that the C-terminal domains of both Atg19 and Atg34 are responsible for Ams1 binding; these domains are hereafter referred to as Ams1-binding domains (ABDs). The transport of Ams1, but not prApe1, was blocked in atg19?atg34? cells expressing Atg19(?ABD), indicating that ABD is specifically required for Ams1 transport. We then determined the solution structures of the ABDs of Atg19 and Atg34 using NMR spectroscopy. Both ABD structures have a canonical immunoglobulin fold consisting of eight ?-strands with highly conserved loops clustered at one side of the fold. These facts, together with the results of a mutational analysis, suggest that ABD recognizes Ams1 using these conserved loops.
Project description:Selective autophagy is mediated by cargo receptors that link the cargo to the isolation membrane via interactions with Atg8 proteins. Atg8 proteins are localized to the membrane in an ubiquitin-like conjugation reaction, but how this conjugation is coupled to the presence of the cargo is unclear. Here we show that the S. cerevisiae Atg19, Atg34 and the human p62, Optineurin and NDP52 cargo receptors interact with the E3-like enzyme Atg12~Atg5-Atg16, which stimulates Atg8 conjugation. The interaction of Atg19 with the Atg12~Atg5-Atg16 complex is mediated by its Atg8-interacting motifs (AIMs). We identify the AIM-binding sites in the Atg5 subunit and mutation of these sites impairs selective autophagy. In a reconstituted system the recruitment of the E3 to the prApe1 cargo is sufficient to drive accumulation of conjugated Atg8 at the cargo. The interaction of the Atg12~Atg5-Atg16 complex and Atg8 with Atg19 is mutually exclusive, which may confer directionality to the system.
Project description:Selective autophagy contributes to cellular homeostasis by delivering harmful material into the lysosomal system for degradation via vesicular intermediates referred to as autophagosomes. The cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway is a variant of selective autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during which hydrolases such as prApe1 are transported into the vacuole. In general, selectivity is achieved by autophagic cargo receptors that link the cargo to autophagosomal membranes because of their ability to simultaneously interact with the cargo and Atg8 proteins that coat the membrane. The Atg19 receptor contains multiple Atg8 interaction sites in its C terminus in addition to a canonical Atg8-interacting LC3-interacting region (LIR, with LC3 being a homolog of Atg8) motif, but their mode of interaction with Atg8 is unclear. Here we show, using a combination of NMR, microscopy-based interaction assays, and prApe1 processing experiments, that two additional sites interact with Atg8 in a LIR-like and thus mutually exclusive manner. We term these motifs accessory LIR motifs because their affinities are lower than that of the canonical LIR motif. Thus, one Atg19 molecule has the ability to interact with multiple Atg8 proteins simultaneously, resulting in a high-avidity interaction that may confer specific binding to the Atg8-coated autophagosomal membrane on which Atg8 is concentrated.
Project description:Many soluble plant vacuolar proteins are sorted away from secreted proteins into small vesicles at the trans-Golgi network by transmembrane cargo receptors. Cleavable vacuolar sorting signals include the NH(2)-terminal propeptide (NTPP) present in sweet potato sporamin (Spo) and the COOH-terminal propeptide (CTPP) present in barley lectin (BL). These two proteins have been found to be transported by different mechanisms to the vacuole. We examined the ability of the vacuolar cargo receptor AtELP to interact with the sorting signals of heterologous and endogenous plant vacuolar proteins in mediating vacuolar transport in Arabidopsis thaliana. AtELP extracted from microsomes was found to interact with the NTPPs of barley aleurain and Spo, but not with the CTPPs of BL or tobacco chitinase, in a pH-dependent and sequence-specific manner. In addition, EM studies revealed the colocalization of AtELP with NTPP-Spo at the Golgi apparatus, but not with BL-CTPP in roots of transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Further, we found that AtELP interacts in a similar manner with the NTPP of the endogenous vacuolar protein AtALEU (Arabidopsis thaliana Aleu), a protein highly homologous to barley aleurain. We hypothesize that AtELP functions as a vacuolar sorting receptor involved in the targeting of NTPP-, but not CTPP-containing proteins in Arabidopsis.
Project description:We determined at 2.3 A resolution the crystal structure of prophytepsin, a zymogen of a barley vacuolar aspartic proteinase. In addition to the classical pepsin-like bilobal main body of phytepsin, we also traced most of the propeptide, as well as an independent plant-specific domain, never before described in structural terms. The structure revealed that, in addition to the propeptide, 13 N-terminal residues of the mature phytepsin are essential for inactivation of the enzyme. Comparison of the plant-specific domain with NK-lysin indicates that these two saposin-like structures are closely related, suggesting that all saposins and saposin-like domains share a common topology. Structural analysis of prophytepsin led to the identification of a putative membrane receptor-binding site involved in Golgi-mediated transport to vacuoles.
Project description:The autophagy-related protein 8 (Atg8) conjugation system is essential for the formation of double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes during autophagy, a bulk degradation process conserved among most eukaryotes. It is also important in yeast for recognizing target vacuolar enzymes through the receptor protein Atg19 during the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway, a selective type of autophagy. Atg3 is an E2-like enzyme that conjugates Atg8 with phosphatidylethanolamine. Here, we show that Atg3 directly interacts with Atg8 through the WEDL sequence, which is distinct from canonical interaction between E2 and ubiquitin-like modifiers. Moreover, NMR experiments suggest that the mode of interaction between Atg8 and Atg3 is quite similar to that between Atg8/LC3 and the Atg8 family interacting motif (AIM) conserved in autophagic receptors, such as Atg19 and p62. Thus, the WEDL sequence in Atg3 is a canonical AIM. In vitro analyses showed that Atg3 AIM is crucial for the transfer of Atg8 from the Atg8?Atg3 thioester intermediate to phosphatidylethanolamine but not for the formation of the intermediate. Intriguingly, in vivo experiments showed that it is necessary for the Cvt pathway but not for starvation-induced autophagy. Atg3 AIM attenuated the inhibitory effect of Atg19 on Atg8 lipidation in vitro, suggesting that Atg3 AIM may be important for the lipidation of Atg19-bound Atg8 during the Cvt pathway.
Project description:Huntington disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the protein huntingtin (Htt), which leads to its aggregation in nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. We recently identified 52 loss-of-function mutations in yeast genes that enhance the toxicity of a mutant Htt fragment. Here we report the results from a genome-wide loss-of-function suppressor screen in which we identified 28 gene deletions that suppress toxicity of a mutant Htt fragment. The suppressors are known or predicted to have roles in vesicle transport, vacuolar degradation, transcription and prion-like aggregation. Among the most potent suppressors was Bna4 (kynurenine 3-monooxygenase), an enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation that has been linked directly to the pathophysiology of Huntington disease in humans by a mechanism that may involve reactive oxygen species. This finding is suggestive of a conserved mechanism of polyglutamine toxicity from yeast to humans and identifies new candidate therapeutic targets for the treatment of Huntington disease.