Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3/suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (STAT3/SOCS3) axis in myeloid cells regulates neuroinflammation.
ABSTRACT: Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are feedback inhibitors of the JAK/STAT pathway. SOCS3 has a crucial role in inhibiting STAT3 activation, cytokine signaling, and inflammatory gene expression in macrophages/microglia. To determine the role of SOCS3 in myeloid cells in neuroinflammation, mice with conditional SOCS3 deletion in myeloid cells (LysMCre-SOCS3(fl/fl)) were tested for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The myeloid-specific SOCS3-deficient mice are vulnerable to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE, with a severe, nonresolving atypical form of disease. In vivo, enhanced infiltration of inflammatory cells and demyelination is prominent in the cerebellum of myeloid-specific SOCS3-deficient mice, as is enhanced STAT3 signaling and expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and an immune response dominated by Th1 and Th17 cells. In vitro, SOCS3-deficient macrophages exhibit heightened STAT3 activation and are polarized toward the classical M1 phenotype. SOCS3-deficient M1 macrophages provide the microenvironment to polarize Th1 and Th17 cells and induce neuronal death. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of M2 macrophages into myeloid SOCS3-deficient mice leads to delayed onset and reduced severity of atypical EAE by decreasing STAT3 activation, Th1/Th17 cells, and proinflammatory mediators in the cerebellum. These findings indicate that myeloid cell SOCS3 provides protection from EAE through deactivation of neuroinflammatory responses.
Project description:Suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) negatively regulates STAT3 activation in response to several cytokines such as those in the gp130-containing IL-6 receptor family. Thus, SOCS3 may play a major role in immune responses to pathogens. In the present study, the role of SOCS3 in M. tuberculosis infection was examined. All Socs3(fl/fl) LysM cre, Socs3(fl/fl) lck cre (with SOCS3-deficient myeloid and lymphoid cells, respectively) and gp130(F/F) mice, with a mutation in gp130 that impedes binding to SOCS3, showed increased susceptibility to infection with M. tuberculosis. SOCS3 binding to gp130 in myeloid cells conveyed resistance to M. tuberculosis infection via the regulation of IL-6/STAT3 signalling. SOCS3 was redundant for mycobacterial control by macrophages in vitro. Instead, SOCS3 expression in infected macrophages and DCs prevented the IL-6-mediated inhibition of TNF and IL-12 secretion and contributed to a timely CD4+ cell-dependent IFN-? expression in vivo. In T cells, SOCS3 expression was essential for a gp130-independent control of infection with M. tuberculosis, but was neither required for the control of infection with attenuated M. bovis BCG nor for M. tuberculosis in BCG-vaccinated mice. Socs3(fl/fl) lck cre mice showed an increased frequency of ??+ T cells in different organs and an enhanced secretion of IL-17 by ??+ T cells in response to infection. Socs3(fl/fl) lck cre ??+ T cells impaired the control of infection with M. tuberculosis. Thus, SOCS3 expression in either lymphoid or myeloid cells is essential for resistance against M. tuberculosis via discrete mechanisms.
Project description:STAT3 is a master regulator of the immune responses. Here we show that M. tuberculosis-infected stat3fl/fl lysm cre mice, defective for STAT3 in myeloid cells, contained lower bacterial load in lungs and spleens, reduced granuloma extension but higher levels of pulmonary neutrophils. STAT3-deficient macrophages showed no improved control of intracellular mycobacterial growth. Instead, protection associated to elevated ability of stat3fl/fl lysm cre antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to release IL-6 and IL-23 and to stimulate IL-17 secretion by mycobacteria-specific T cells. The increased IL-17 secretion accounted for the improved control of infection since neutralization of IL-17 receptor A in stat3fl/fl lysm cre mice hampered bacterial control. APCs lacking SOCS3, which inhibits STAT3 activation via several cytokine receptors, were poor inducers of priming and of the IL-17 production by mycobacteria-specific T cells. In agreement, socs3fl/fl cd11c cre mice deficient of SOCS3 in DCs showed increased susceptibility to M. tuberculosis infection. While STAT3 in APCs hampered IL-17 responses, STAT3 in mycobacteria-specific T cells was critical for IL-17 secretion, while SOCS3 in T cells impeded IL-17 secretion. Altogether, STAT3 signalling in myeloid cells is deleterious in the control of infection with M. tuberculosis.
Project description:The JAK/STAT pathway is critical for development, regulation, and termination of immune responses, and dysregulation of the JAK/STAT pathway, that is, hyperactivation, has pathological implications in autoimmune and neuroinflammatory diseases. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) regulates STAT3 activation in response to cytokines that play important roles in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory diseases, including IL-6 and IL-23. We previously demonstrated that myeloid lineage-specific deletion of SOCS3 resulted in a severe, nonresolving atypical form of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), characterized by lesions, inflammatory infiltrates, elevated STAT activation, and elevated cytokine and chemokine expression in the cerebellum. Clinically, these mice exhibit ataxia and tremors. In this study, we provide a detailed analysis of this model, demonstrating that the atypical EAE observed in LysMCre-SOCS3(fl/fl) mice is characterized by extensive neutrophil infiltration into the cerebellum and brainstem, increased inducible NO synthase levels in the cerebellum and brainstem, and prominent axonal damage. Importantly, infiltrating SOCS3-deficient neutrophils produce high levels of CXCL2, CCL2, CXCL10, NO, TNF-?, and IL-1?. Kinetic studies demonstrate that neutrophil infiltration into the cerebellum and brainstem of LysMCre-SOCS3(fl/fl) mice closely correlates with atypical EAE clinical symptoms. Ab-mediated depletion of neutrophils converts the atypical phenotype to the classical EAE phenotype and, in some cases, a mixed atypical/classical phenotype. Blocking CXCR2 signaling ameliorates atypical EAE development by reducing neutrophil infiltration into the cerebellum/brainstem. Thus, neutrophils lacking SOCS3 display elevated STAT3 activation and expression of proinflammatory mediators and play a critical role in the development of atypical EAE.
Project description:Dysregulation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway is associated with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and its mouse model, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). Suppressors Of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) negatively regulate the JAK/STAT pathway. We previously reported a severe, brain-targeted, atypical form of EAE in mice lacking Socs3 in myeloid cells (Socs3?LysM), which is associated with cerebellar neutrophil infiltration. There is emerging evidence that neutrophils are detrimental in the pathology of MS/EAE, however, their exact function is unclear. Here we demonstrate that neutrophils from the cerebellum of Socs3?LysM mice show a hyper-activated phenotype with excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the peak of EAE. Neutralization of ROS in vivo delayed the onset and reduced severity of atypical EAE. Mechanistically, Socs3-deficient neutrophils exhibit enhanced STAT3 activation, a hyper-activated phenotype in response to G-CSF, and upon G-CSF priming, increased ROS production. Neutralization of G-CSF in vivo significantly reduced the incidence and severity of the atypical EAE phenotype. Overall, our work elucidates that hypersensitivity of G-CSF/STAT3 signaling in Socs3?LysM mice leads to atypical EAE by enhanced neutrophil activation and increased oxidative stress, which may explain the detrimental role of G-CSF in MS patients.
Project description:CD4(+) Th17 are heterogeneous in terms of cytokine production and capacity to initiate autoimmune diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here we demonstrate that experimental priming of encephalitogenic Th cells expressing ROR?t and T-bet and producing IL-17A, IFN-? and GM-CSF but not IL-10 (Th1/Th17), is dependent on the presence of pertussis toxin (PTX) at the time of immunization. PTX induces early production of IL-1? by CD11b(+)CCR2(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells, which are rapidly recruited to antigen-draining lymph nodes. PTX-induced generation of Th1/Th17 cells is impaired in IL-1?- and ASC-deficient mice and in mice in which myeloid cells are depleted or fail to migrate to lymph nodes and requires expression of IL-1R1 and MyD88 on both T cells and non-T cells. Collectively, these data shed light on the enigmatic function of PTX in EAE induction and suggest that inflammatory monocytes and microbial infection can influence differentiation of pathogenic Th1/Th17 cells in autoimmune diseases through production of IL-1?.
Project description:In glioma, microglia and macrophages are the largest population of tumor-infiltrating cells, referred to as glioma associated macrophages (GAMs). Herein, we sought to determine the role of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 (SOCS3), a negative regulator of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), in GAM functionality in glioma. We utilized a conditional model in which SOCS3 deletion is restricted to the myeloid cell population. We found that SOCS3-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages display enhanced and prolonged expression of pro-inflammatory M1 cytokines when exposed to glioma tumor cell conditioned medium in vitro. Moreover, we found that deletion of SOCS3 in the myeloid cell population delays intracranial tumor growth and increases survival of mice bearing orthotopic glioma tumors in vivo. Although intracranial tumors from mice with SOCS3-deficient myeloid cells appear histologically similar to control mice, we observed that loss of SOCS3 in myeloid cells results in decreased M2 polarized macrophage infiltration in the tumors. Furthermore, loss of SOCS3 in myeloid cells results in increased CD8+ T-cell and decreased regulatory T-cell infiltration in the tumors. These findings demonstrate a beneficial effect of M1 polarized macrophages on suppressing glioma tumor growth, and highlight the importance of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment.
Project description:Notch signaling is involved in regulating TLR-mediated responses in activated macrophages. In this study, we investigated the impact of Notch signaling in macrophages in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. To examine the impact of deficiency in Notch signaling in activated macrophages in EAE, an adoptive transfer of activated macrophages derived from Notch1(fl/fl) × Mx1cre(+/-) (Notch1 knockout [N1KO]) or CSL/Rbp-j?(fl/fl) × Mx1cre(+/-) (CSL/RBP-J? KO) mice was performed prior to induction of EAE. Mice receiving activated N1KO macrophages showed decreased severity of EAE compared with mice receiving wild-type or CSL/RBP-J? KO macrophages. In vitro restimulation of splenocytes by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 peptide from these mice revealed that cells from mice receiving N1KO macrophages produced significantly less IL-17 compared with the control mice, whereas IFN-? production was similar in both groups. We found that activated N1KO, but not CSL/RBP-J? KO, macrophages produced less IL-6 and had lower CD80 expression compared with wild-type and did not exhibit any defect in IL-12p40/70 production, whereas activated macrophages from CSL/RBP-J? KO mice phenocopied ?-secretase inhibitor treatment for reduced IL-12p40/70 production. Furthermore, the nuclear translocation of the NF-?B subunit c-Rel was compromised in ?-secretase inhibitor-treated and CSL/RBP-J? KO but not N1KO macrophages. These results suggest that Notch1 and CSL/RBP-J? in macrophages may affect the severity of EAE differently, possibly through modulating IL-6 and CD80 expression, which is involved in the Th17 but not Th1 response.
Project description:Effector functions of inflammatory IL-17-producing Th (Th17) cells have been linked to autoimmune diseases such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, what determines Th17 cell encephalitogenicity is still unresolved. Here, we show that after EAE induction, mice deficient for the NF-κB regulator MALT1 (Malt1-/- mice) exhibit strong lymphocytic infiltration in the CNS, but do not develop any clinical signs of EAE. Loss of Malt1 interfered with expression of the Th17 effector cytokines IL-17 and GM-CSF both in vitro and in vivo. In line with their impaired GM-CSF secretion, Malt1-/- Th cells failed to recruit myeloid cells to the CNS to sustain neuroinflammation, whereas autoreactive WT Th cells successfully induced EAE in Malt1-/- hosts. In contrast, Malt1 deficiency did not affect Th1 cells. Despite their significantly decreased secretion of Th17 effector cytokines, Malt1-/- Th17 cells showed normal expression of lineage-specific transcription factors. Malt1-/- Th cells failed to cleave RelB, a suppressor of canonical NF-κB, and exhibited altered cellular localization of this protein. Our results indicate that MALT1 is a central, cell-intrinsic factor that determines the encephalitogenic potential of inflammatory Th17 cells in vivo.
Project description:IL-17-producing CD4(+) T (Th17) cells, along with IFN-?-expressing Th1 cells, represent two major pathogenic T cell subsets in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The cytokines and transcription factors involved in the development and effector functions of Th1 and Th17 cells have been largely characterized. Among them, IL-23 is essential for the generation of stable and encephalitogenic Th17 cells and for the development of EAE. The IL-7/IL-7R signaling axis participates in cell survival, and perturbation of this pathway has been associated with enhanced susceptibility to MS. A link between IL-23-driven pathogenic T cells and IL-7/IL-7R signaling has previously been proposed, but has not been formally addressed. In the current study, we showed that Th17 cells from mice with EAE express high levels of IL-7R? compared with Th1 cells. Using mice that constitutively express IL-7R? on T cells, we determined that sustained IL-7R expression in IL-23R-deficient mice could not drive pathogenic T cells and the development of EAE. IL-7 inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cells, but promoted IFN-? and GM-CSF secretion in vitro. In vivo IL-7/anti-IL-7 mAb complexes selectively expanded and enhanced the proliferation of CXCR3-expressing Th1 cells, but did not impact Th17 cells and EAE development in wild-type and IL-23R-deficient mice. Importantly, high IL-7 expression was detected in the CNS during EAE and could drive the plasticity of Th17 cells to IFN-?-producing T cells. Together, these data address the contribution of IL-23/IL-23R and IL-7/IL-7R signaling in Th17 and Th1 cell dynamics during CNS autoimmunity.
Project description:The transcriptional repressor Bcl6 controls development of the follicular Th cell (T(FH)) lineage, but the precise mechanisms by which Bcl6 regulates this process are unclear. A model has been proposed whereby Bcl6 represses the differentiation of T cells into alternative effector lineages, thus favoring T(FH) cell differentiation. Analysis of T cell differentiation using Bcl6-deficient mice has been complicated by the strong proinflammatory phenotype of Bcl6-deficient myeloid cells. In this study, we report data from a novel mouse model where Bcl6 is conditionally deleted in T cells (Bcl6(fl/fl)Cre(CD4) mice). After immunization, programmed death -1 (PD-1)(high) T(FH) cells in Bcl6(fl/fl)Cre(CD4) mice are decreased >90% compared with control mice, and Ag-specific IgG is sharply reduced. Residual PD-1(high)CXCR5(+) T(FH) cells in Bcl6(fl/fl)Cre(CD4) mice show a significantly higher rate of apoptosis than do PD-1(high)CXCR5(+) T(FH) cells in control mice. Immunization of Bcl6(fl/fl)Cre(CD4) mice did not reveal enhanced differentiation into Th1, Th2, or Th17 lineages, although IL-10 expression by CD4 T cells was markedly elevated. Thus, T cell-extrinsic factors appear to promote the increased Th1, Th2, and Th17 responses in germline Bcl6-deficient mice. Furthermore, IL-10 may be a key target gene for Bcl6 in CD4 T cells, which enables Bcl6 to promote the T(FH) cell phenotype. Finally, our data reveal a novel mechanism for the role of Bcl6 in promoting T(FH) cell survival.