Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-activated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase regulates manganese superoxide dismutase ubiquitination: implication for mitochondrial redox status and apoptosis.
ABSTRACT: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) modulates intracellular redox status and induces apoptosis in endothelial cells. However, the signal pathways and molecular mechanism remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) on oxLDL-induced apoptosis via c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated ubiquitin/proteasome pathway.OxLDL induced JNK phosphorylation that peaked at 30 minutes in human aortic endothelial cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed that oxLDL increased mitochondrial superoxide production by 1.88+/-0.19-fold and mitochondrial membrane potential by 18%. JNK small interference RNA (siJNK) reduced oxLDL-induced mitochondrial superoxide production by 88.4% and mitochondrial membrane potential by 61.7%. OxLDL did not affect Mn-SOD mRNA expression, but it significantly reduced Mn-SOD protein level, which was restored by siJNK. Immunoprecipitation by ubiquitin antibody revealed that oxLDL increased ubiquitination of Mn-SOD, which was inhibited by siJNK. OxLDL-induced caspase-3 activities were also attenuated by siJNK but were enhanced by Mn-SOD small interfering RNA. Furthermore, overexpression of Mn-SOD abrogated oxLDL-induced caspase-3 activities.OxLDL-induced JNK activation regulates mitochondrial redox status and Mn-SOD protein degradation via JNK-dependent ubiquitination, leading to endothelial cell apoptosis.
Project description:Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induces endothelial cell death through the activation of NF-?B and AP-1 pathways. TRAF3IP2 is a redox-sensitive cytoplasmic adapter protein and an upstream regulator of IKK/NF-?B and JNK/AP-1. Here we show that oxLDL-induced death in human primary coronary artery endothelial cells (ECs) was markedly attenuated by the knockdown of TRAF3IP2 or the lectin-like oxLDL receptor 1 (LOX-1). Further, oxLDL induced Nox2/superoxide-dependent TRAF3IP2 expression, IKK/p65 and JNK/c-Jun activation, and LOX-1 upregulation, suggesting a reinforcing mechanism. Similarly, the lysolipids present in oxLDL (16:0-LPC and 18:0-LPC) and minimally modified LDL also upregulated TRAF3IP2 expression. Notably, whereas native HDL3 reversed oxLDL-induced TRAF3IP2 expression and cell death, 15-lipoxygenase-modified HDL3 potentiated its proapoptotic effects. The activators of the AMPK/Akt pathway, adiponectin, AICAR, and metformin, attenuated superoxide generation, TRAF3IP2 expression, and oxLDL/TRAF3IP2-mediated EC death. Further, both HDL3 and adiponectin reversed oxLDL/TRAF3IP2-dependent monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro. Importantly, TRAF3IP2 gene deletion and the AMPK activators reversed oxLDL-induced impaired vasorelaxation ex vivo. These results indicate that oxLDL-induced endothelial cell death and dysfunction are mediated via TRAF3IP2 and that native HDL3 and the AMPK activators inhibit this response. Targeting TRAF3IP2 could potentially inhibit progression of atherosclerotic vascular diseases.
Project description:Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion increase superoxide anions (O(2)(*-)) in brain mitochondria. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD; SOD2), a primary mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, scavenges superoxide radicals and its overexpression provides neuroprotection. However, the regulatory mechanism of Mn-SOD expression during cerebral ischemia and reperfusion is still unclear. In this study, we identified the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as a transcription factor of the mouse Mn-SOD gene, and elucidated the mechanism of O(2)(*-) overproduction after transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI). We found that Mn-SOD expression is significantly reduced by reperfusion in the cerebral ischemic brain. We also found that activated STAT3 is usually recruited into the mouse Mn-SOD promoter and upregulates transcription of the mouse Mn-SOD gene in the normal brain. However, at early postreperfusion periods after tFCI, STAT3 was rapidly downregulated, and its recruitment into the Mn-SOD promoter was completely blocked. In addition, transcriptional activity of the mouse Mn-SOD gene was significantly reduced by STAT3 inhibition in primary cortical neurons. Moreover, we found that STAT3 deactivated by reperfusion induces accumulation of O(2)(*-) in mitochondria. The loss of STAT3 activity induced neuronal cell death by reducing Mn-SOD expression. Using SOD2-/+ heterozygous knock-out mice, we found that Mn-SOD is a direct target of STAT3 in reperfusion-induced neuronal cell death. Our study demonstrates that STAT3 is a novel transcription factor of the mouse Mn-SOD gene and plays a crucial role as a neuroprotectant in regulating levels of reactive oxygen species in the mouse brain.
Project description:The mitochondria are a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Superoxide anion (O2 •-) is produced by the process of oxidative phosphorylation associated with glucose, amino acid, and fatty acid metabolism, resulting in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the mitochondria. Excess production of reactive oxidants in the mitochondria, including O2 •-, and its by-product, peroxynitrite (ONOO-), which is generated by a reaction between O2 •- with nitric oxide (NO•), alters cellular function via oxidative modification of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Mitochondria maintain an antioxidant enzyme system that eliminates excess ROS; manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) is one of the major components of this system, as it catalyzes the first step involved in scavenging ROS. Reduced expression and/or the activity of Mn-SOD results in diminished mitochondrial antioxidant capacity; this can impair the overall health of the cell by altering mitochondrial function and may lead to the development and progression of kidney disease. Targeted therapeutic agents may protect mitochondrial proteins, including Mn-SOD against oxidative stress-induced dysfunction, and this may consequently lead to the protection of renal function. Here, we describe the biological function and regulation of Mn-SOD and review the significance of mitochondrial oxidative stress concerning the pathogenesis of kidney diseases, including chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI), with a focus on Mn-SOD dysfunction.
Project description:The therapeutic potential of nonthermal plasma for cancer treatment has been reported recently. The heterogeneity of cancer cells need to be addressed to design effective anticancer treatments. Here, we show that treatment with nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma dissolved in a liquid (liquid plasma) induces oxidative stress in heterogeneous populations of cancer cells and ultimately kills these cells via apoptosis, regardless of genetic status, e.g., mutations in p53 and other DNA-damage-response genes. We found that liquid plasma markedly increased the concentration of intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), reflecting an influx from the extracellular milieu. Liquid plasma contributed to mitochondrial accumulation of ROS and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential with consequent cell death. Healthy normal cells, however, were hardly affected by the liquid-plasma treatment. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine blocked liquid-plasma-induced cell death. A knockdown of CuZn-superoxide dismutase or Mn-SOD enhanced the plasma-induced cell death, whereas expression of exogenous CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD, or catalase blocked the cell death. These results suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by ROS production is a key contributor to liquid-plasma-induced apoptotic cell death, regardless of genetic variation. Thus, liquid plasma may have clinical applications, e.g., the development of therapeutic strategies and prevention of disease progression despite tumor heterogeneity.
Project description:A key contributor to the pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy, mitochondrial superoxide can be adequately countered by Mn-superoxide dismutase, which constitutes the first line of defense against mitochondrial oxidative stress. Our group has recently synthesized low molecular weight SOD mimics, demonstrating superior protection against oxidative damages to kidney cells. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the protective effect of the SOD mimic ML1 against high glucose induced cardiomyopathy in diabetes. Mechanistic studies using rat cardiac myoblast H9c2 showed that ML1 markedly inhibited High Glucose (HG) induced cytotoxicity. This was associated with increased Mn-SOD expression along with decreased mitochondrial [Formula: see text], ONOO- and Ca2+ accumulation, unveiling its anti-oxidant potentials. ML1 also attenuated HG-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and release of cytochrome c, suggesting that ML1 effectuates its cytoprotective action via the preservation of mitochondrial function. In an ex-vivo model normal adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs) were isolated and cultured in either normal glucose (5.5 mmol/l glucose) or HG (25.5 mmol/l glucose) conditions and the efficiency of ML-1 was analyzed by studying contractile function and calcium indices. Mechanical properties were assessed using a high-speed video-edge detection system, and intracellular Ca2+ transients were recorded in fura-2-loaded myocytes. Pretreatment of myocytes with ML1 (10 nM) ameliorated HG induced abnormalities in relaxation including depressed peak shortening, prolonged time to 90% relenghthening, and slower Ca2+ transient decay. Thus, ML1 exhibits significant cardio protection against oxidative damage, perhaps through its potent antioxidant action via activation of Mn-SOD.
Project description:T cell receptor (TCR)-initiated signal transduction is reported to increase production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide (O2?(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as second messengers. Although H2O2 can modulate signal transduction by inactivating protein phosphatases, the mechanism and the subcellular localization of intracellular H2O2 as a second messenger of the TCR are not known. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the dismutation of highly reactive O2?(-) into H2O2 and thus acts as an intracellular generator of H2O2. As charged O2?(-) is unable to diffuse through intracellular membranes, cells express distinct SOD isoforms in the cytosol (Cu,Zn-SOD) and mitochondria (Mn-SOD), where they locally scavenge O2?(-) leading to production of H2O2. A 2-fold organelle-specific overexpression of either SOD in Jurkat T cell lines increases intracellular production of H2O2 but does not alter the levels of intracellular H2O2 scavenging enzymes such as catalase, membrane-bound peroxiredoxin1 (Prx1), and cytosolic Prx2. We report that overexpression of Mn-SOD enhances tyrosine phosphorylation of TCR-associated membrane proximal signal transduction molecules Lck, LAT, ZAP70, PLC?1, and SLP76 within 1 min of TCR cross-linking. This increase in mitochondrial H2O2 specifically modulates MAPK signaling through the JNK/cJun pathway, whereas overexpressing Cu,Zn-SOD had no effect on any of these TCR-mediated signaling molecules. As mitochondria translocate to the immunological synapse during TCR activation, we hypothesize this translocation provides the effective concentration of H2O2 required to selectively modulate downstream signal transduction pathways.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction is intimately involved in cardiovascular diseases. Mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) is coupled with oxidative phosphorylation to drive ATP synthesis. In this study, we examined the effect of physiological pulsatile shear stress (PSS) on DeltaPsi(m) and the role of Mn-SOD expression on DeltaPsi(m). Confluent human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were exposed to PSS, and DeltaPsi(m) was monitored using tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM(+)), a mitochondrial membrane potential probe. PSS significantly increased DeltaPsi(m) and the change in DeltaPsi(m) was a dynamic process. DeltaPsi(m) returned to baseline level after PSS for 2h followed by static state for 4h. Mitochondrial Mn-SOD expression and activities were also significantly up-regulated in response to PSS. Silencing Mn-SOD attenuated PSS-mediated DeltaPsi(m) increase while adding Mn-SOD mimetic, MnTMPyP, increased DeltaPsi(m) to the similar extent as induced by PSS. Our findings suggest that PSS-increased mitochondrial DeltaPsi(m), in part, via Mn-SOD up-regulation.
Project description:Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) result from inactivating mutations in the merlin tumor suppressor gene. The merlin protein suppresses a variety of progrowth kinase-signaling cascades, including extracellular regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt. Recent studies indicate that ERKs and Akt are active in human VSs, and here we show that JNKs are also persistently active in human VS cells. With use of cultures of human VSs, we investigated the contribution of each of these signals to the proliferative and survival response of VS cells. Inhibition of ERK or Akt signaling reduced VS cell proliferation but did not increase apoptosis, whereas inhibition of JNK with SP600125, I-JIP, or siRNA knock-down reduced VS cell proliferation and survival by inducing apoptosis. By contrast, JNK activity promotes apoptosis in normal Schwann cells. Inhibition of JNK increased the fluorescence intensity of VS cells loaded with 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H(2)DCFDA), a fluorescent probe for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, ebselen, a ROS scavenger, rescued VS cells with suppressed JNK from apoptosis, suggesting that JNK activity protects VS cells from apoptosis by limiting accumulation of ROS. VS cultures treated with JNK inhibitors demonstrated significantly higher levels of MitoSOX Red fluorescence, implying that persistent JNK activity specifically suppresses superoxide production in the mitochondria. Overexpression of superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD; mitochondrial SOD) prevented apoptosis in VS cells with suppressed JNK signaling. Taken together, these results indicate that persistent JNK activity enhances VS cell survival, at least in part, by suppressing accumulation of mitochondrial superoxides.
Project description:Early growth response-1 (Egr-1), a transcription factor which often underlies the molecular basis of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and oxidative stress, is key to myocardial I/R injury. Silent information regulator of transcription 1(SIRT1) not only interacts with and is inhibited by Egr-1, but also downregulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the Forkhead box O1(FOXO1)/manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) signaling pathway. N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide (F2), a new patented compound, protects the myocardium against myocardial I/R injury in various animal I/R models in vivo and various heart-derived cell hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) models in vitro. In addition, F2 can regulate the abnormal ROS/Egr-1 signaling pathway in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) and H9c2 cells after H/R. We studied whether there is an inverse Egr-1/ROS signaling pathway in H9c2 cells and whether the SIRT1/FOXO1/Mn-SOD signaling pathway mediates this. We verified a ROS/Egr-1 signaling loop in H9c2 cells during H/R and that F2 protects against myocardial H/R injury by affecting SIRT1-related signaling pathways. Knockdown of Egr-1, by siRNA interference, reduced ROS generation, and alleviated oxidative stress injury induced by H/R, as shown by upregulated mitochondrial membrane potential, increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and total SOD anti-oxidative enzyme activity, and downregulated MDA. Decreases in FOXO1 protein expression and Mn-SOD activity occurred after H/R, but could be blocked by Egr-1 siRNA. F2 treatment attenuated H/R-induced Egr-1 expression, ROS generation and other forms of oxidative stress injury such as MDA, and prevented H/R-induced decreases in FOXO1 and Mn-SOD activity. Nuclear co-localization between Egr-1 and SIRT1 was increased by H/R and decreased by either Egr-1 siRNA or F2. Therefore, our results suggest that Egr-1 inhibits the SIRT1/FOXO1/Mn-SOD antioxidant signaling pathway to increase ROS and perpetuate I/R injury. F2 inhibits induction of Egr-1 by H/R, thereby activating SIRT1/FOXO1/Mn-SOD antioxidant signaling and decreasing H/R-induced ROS, demonstrating an important mechanism by which F2 protects against myocardial H/R injury.
Project description:An accumulating body of evidence has shown that capsaicin induces apoptosis in various tumor cells as a mechanism of its anti-tumor activity. However, the effects of capsaicin on osteosarcoma have not been studied extensively. In the current study, we explore the molecular mechanism of capsaicin-mediated tumor suppressive function in osteosarcoma. We found that capsaicin-induced apoptosis and the activation of transient receptor potential receptor vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human osteosarcoma MG63 cells <i>in vitro</i>. Blocking TRPV1 using capsazepine attenuated the capsaicin-induced cytotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. In addition, the results demonstrated that capsaicin induced the activation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), p53 and C-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In addition, Compound C (antagonist of AMPK) attenuated the activation of p53, which appeared to be TRPV1 independent. Taken together, the present study suggests that capsaicin effectively causes cell death in human osteosarcoma MG63 cells via the activation of TRPV1-dependent (mitochondrial dysfunction, and overproduction of ROS and JNK) and TRPV1-independent (AMPK-p53) pathways. Thus, capsaicin may be a potential anti-osteosarcoma agent.