ABSTRACT: Free tissue transfer has revolutionized the management of complex head and neck defects. Perforator flaps represent the most recent advance in the development of free flap surgery. These flaps are based on perforating vessels and can be harvested without significant damage to associated muscles, thereby reducing the postoperative morbidity associated with muscle-based flaps. Elevation of perforator flaps requires meticulous technique and can be more challenging than raising muscle-based flaps. Use of a Doppler device enables reliable identification of the perforating vessels and aids in the design of free-style free flaps, where the flaps are designed purely according to the perforator located. The major advantage of free-style free flaps is that an unlimited number of flaps can potentially be designed on much shorter pedicles. The anterolateral thigh flap is the most commonly used perforator flap in head and neck reconstruction. Its use is described in detail, as is use of other less common perforator flaps. This article also describes head and neck reconstruction in a region-specific manner and gives a short-list of suitable flaps based on the location of the defect.
Project description:The ability to directly harvest thin and superthin perforator flaps without jeopardizing their vascularity depends on knowledge of the microsurgical vascular anatomy of each perforator within the subcutaneous tissue up to the dermis. In this paper, we report our experience with ultrahigh-frequency ultrasound (UHF-US) in the preoperative planning of thin and superthin flaps. Between May 2017 and September 2018, perforators of seven patients were preoperatively evaluated by both ultrasound (using an 18-MHz linear probe) and UHF-US (using 48- and 70-MHz linear probes). Thin flaps (two cases) and superthin flaps (five cases) were elevated for the reconstruction of head and neck oncologic defects and lower limb traumatic defects. The mean flap size was 6.5×15 cm (range, 5×8 to 7.5×23 cm). No complications occurred, and all flaps survived completely. In all cases, we found 100% agreement between the preoperative UHF-US results and the intraoperative findings. The final reconstructive outcomes were considered satisfactory by both the surgeon and the patients. In conclusion, UHF-US was found to be very useful in the preoperative planning of thin and superthin free flaps, as it allows precise anticipation of very superficial microvascular anatomy. UHF-US may represent the next frontier in thin, superthin, and pure skin perforator flap design.
Project description:The use of perforator flaps is a common surgical technique in wound repair. However, the area surrounding the multiterritory perforating flap often becomes necrotic due to ischemia. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), a traditional Chinese medicine extracted from edible safflower, can be used medicinally to promote angiogenesis, inhibit apoptosis, and alleviate oxidative stress and other biological activities. Here, we investigated the effect of HSYA on perforator flap survival and its potential mechanism. Our results demonstrate that HSYA significantly improves the survival area of perforator flaps, increases blood supply, reduces tissue edema, and increases mean vascular density. HSYA treatment promotes angiogenesis and inhibits oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy in perforator flaps, suggesting many potential mechanisms for flap survival.
Project description:Reconstruction of a complex defect around the knee, particularly involving a large soft-tissue defect or disruption of the extensor mechanism, is always a challenging problem. The purpose of this study was to introduce the use of a customized free perforator flap for complex soft-tissue reconstruction around the knee. Between June 2010 and March 2017, 16 patients underwent this procedure. The choice of flap design is based on the location of the wound, the required pedicle length, the missing tissue components and their volumes, and the risk of donor-site morbidity. The reconstruction was performed using anterolateral thigh perforator (ALTP) flaps in five cases, modified ALTP flaps in two cases, chimeric ALTP flaps in four cases, dual-skin paddle ALTP flaps in two cases, and chimeric thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps in two cases. Multiple perforator flaps and vascularized fascia lata were used in one case. All flaps survived postoperatively. No vascular congestion was observed, and partial necrosis was observed in only one case. Primary closure of the donor site was performed for all patients. At a mean follow-up time of 16.5 months, most cases showed satisfactory flap contours and acceptable functional outcomes. A free perforator flap is a reliable option for repairing complex soft-tissue defects in the knee region, especially when local and pedicled flaps are unavailable. Various flap designs allow for more individualized treatment approaches and can achieve better results.
Project description:Background:Multicomponent defects of the head and neck involving the cervical skin pose a reconstructive challenge for microsurgeons and usually requires two flaps. However, many patients who undergo such surgical treatment had prior treatment with radiotherapy and the availability of recipient vessels for free flap reconstruction may be limited. The purpose of this study was to review our experience in the reconstruction of these extensive head and neck defects using a single ALT free flap. Methods:A total of 21 patients with complex defects of the head and neck involving multiple anatomical subunits, including the overlying cervical skin, underwent reconstruction with a single ALT flap. The clinical, functional, and aesthetic outcomes of these patients were reviewed. Results:The mean hospital stay was 24 days. There was one total flap loss due to pedicle thrombosis. The patient underwent a further ALT reconstruction with no postoperative complications. Cervical fistulas occurred in three patients, and all fistulas were healed by simple wound packing. Three patients with tracheal defect had a functional tracheostoma with adequate stomal patency. A modified barium swallowing study was performed on each patient, and all of them achieved total oral intake. Among them, two patients tolerated only a pureed diet. Conclusions:Complex neck reconstruction can be accomplished with a single ALT flap with good clinical and functional results, minimal morbidity and quick recovery.
Project description:Post-traumatic soft tissue defects sometimes require sequential flap coverage to achieve complete healing. In the era of propeller flaps, which were developed to reduce donor site morbidity, Feng et al. introduced the concept of the free-style puzzle flap, in which a previously harvested flap becomes its own donor site by recycling the perforator. However, when a perforator cannot be found with a Doppler device, we suggest performing a new type of flap, the flip-flap puzzle flap, which combines two concepts: the free-style puzzle flap and the flip-flap flap described by Voche et al. in the 1990s. We present the cases of three patients who achieved complete healing through this procedure.
Project description:Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The interdisciplinary treatment is based on the histological tumor type, the TNM classification, and the patient's wishes. Following tumor resection and (neo-) adjuvant therapy strategies, breast reconstruction represents the final step in the individual interdisciplinary treatment plan. Although manifold flaps have been described, abdominal free flaps, such as the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) or the muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (ms-TRAM) flap, are the current gold standard for autologous breast reconstruction. This retrospective study focuses on the safety of autologous breast reconstruction upon mastectomy using abdominal free flaps. Methods: From April 2012 until December 2018, 193 women received 217 abdominal free flaps for autologous breast reconstruction at the University Hospital of Erlangen. For perforator mapping, we performed computed tomography angiography (CTA). Venous anastomosis was standardized using a ring pin coupler system, and flap perfusion was assessed with fluorescence angiography. A retrospective analysis was performed based on medical records, the surgery report, and follow-up of outpatient course. Results: In most cases, autologous breast reconstruction was performed as a secondary reconstructive procedure after mastectomy and radiotherapy. In total, 132 ms1-TRAM, 23 ms2-TRAM, and 62 DIEP flaps were performed with 21 major complications (10%) during hospital stay including five free flap losses (2.3%). In all cases of free flap loss, we found an arterial thrombosis as the main cause. In 24 patients a bilateral breast reconstruction was performed without free flap loss. The majority of free flaps (96.7%) did not need additional supercharging or turbocharging to improve venous outflow. Median venous coupler size was 2.5 mm (range, 1.5-3.5 mm). Conclusion: Using CTA, intraoperative fluorescence angiography, titanized hernia meshes for rectus sheath reconstruction, and venous coupler systems, autologous breast reconstruction with DIEP or ms-TRAM free flaps is a safe and standardized procedure in high-volume microsurgery centers.
Project description:This article reviews methods of voice reconstruction. Nonsurgical methods of voice reconstruction include electrolarynx, pneumatic artificial larynx, and esophageal speech. Surgical methods of voice reconstruction include neoglottis, tracheoesophageal puncture, and prosthesis. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be performed in patients with pedicled flaps such as colon interposition, jejunum, or gastric pull-up or in free flaps such as perforator flaps, jejunum, and colon flaps. Other flaps for voice reconstruction include the ileocolon flap and jejunum. Laryngeal transplantation is also reviewed.
Project description:The ideal reconstruction of lower limb defects should replace like with like and minimize morbidity to the donor site, achieving the best possible esthetic and functional outcome. The goal is to obtain stable healing and to resume daily life in an efficient manner. Although the classical local flaps such as gastrocnemius, soleus muscle flap, and the reverse sural flap have allowed to achieve those goals, perforator flaps are now added on to the armamentarium in lower extremity reconstruction using local flaps. A perforator-based local flap, such as a propeller or keystone flap, has made reconstruction efficient while further reducing donor-site morbidity. This article aims to provide a useful review of the best available local flaps for lower limb defects.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Previous studies have reported on the abundant cutaneous perforating blood vessels around the latissimus dorsi (LD) lateral border, such as a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) of septocutaneous type (TDAP-sc) and muscle-perforating type (TDAP-mp), or the lateral thoracic artery perforator (LTAP). These perforators have been clinically utilized for flap elevation; however, there have been few studies that accurately examined all the cutaneous perforators (TDAP-sc, TDAP-mp, LTAP) around the LD lateral border. Here, we propose a new "whole perforator system" (WPS) concept in the lateral thoracic region and a methodology that enables elevating large flaps with reliable perfusion in a muscle-preserving manner.<h4>Methods</h4>We first performed an anatomical study that verified the number and perforating points of all perforators around the LD lateral border using the results of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of patients with breast cancer. Following the anatomical evaluation, we performed large muscle-preserving flap transfer that contained all of the perforators around the LD lateral border in an actual clinical setting.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 175 latissimus dorsi from 98 patients were included. The mean number of perforators (TDAP-sc + TDAP-mp + LTAP) per side was 4.51±1.44 (2-9); TDAP-sc was present in 57.1% (100/175) of cases, and TDAP-mp in 76.6% (134/175); the TDAP total prevalence rate (TDAP-sc + TDAP-mp) was 96.0% (168/175). The LTAP existence rate was 94.3% (165/175). Distance from the axillary artery to the TDAP-sc was 148.7±56.3 mm, which was significantly proximal to the TDAP-mp (183.8±54.2 mm) and LTAP (172.2±81.3 mm).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The lateral thoracic region has an abundant cutaneous perforator system derived from the descending branch of the thoracodorsal and lateral thoracic arteries. Clinical application of the lateral thoracic WPS flap is promising, with a large survival area even with muscle-preserving procedures and requiring a relatively simple procedure.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Poland syndrome is a rare, challenging combination of chest wall and breast deformities for reconstructive surgeons and selecting the treatment can prove difficult. This study aims to help surgeons in choosing the best viable option for treatment by sharing our institutional experience and proposing a guiding algorithm.<h4>Methods</h4>A retrospective analysis of all patients with Poland syndrome undergoing treatment for breast and chest wall deformities at a single institution between December 2011 and May 2020 was performed. Medical charts were reviewed to allow for a description of patient demographics, treatment modalities and complications. A treatment algorithm to aid in selecting the adequate reconstructive option based on our institutional experience was formulated.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 22 patients (six male, 16 female) were identified who received treatment for Poland Syndrome related deformities. Nine received microsurgical free flap reconstruction (three Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator flaps, six Transverse Myocutaneous Gracilis flaps), two received reconstruction with a local flap (two Latissimus dorsi flaps), nine received implant based reconstruction, and two were treated with autologous free fat transfer only (17 in combination with other surgical methods).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Free flap reconstruction with the TMG flap is a valid option for patients with low Body Mass Index (BMI), while Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator flaps should be considered for patients with a higher BMI. Autologous free fat transfer proves to be a safe and efficient treatment option in mild cases of Poland syndrome for male and female patients, in combination with or without implant based reconstructive surgery. Multicentre studies should be conducted to achieve higher case numbers of this rare disease and support clinical decisions with more data.