Regulation of APC/CCdc20 activity by RASSF1A-APC/CCdc20 circuitry.
ABSTRACT: RASSF1A is a key tumor-suppressor gene that is often inactivated in a wide variety of solid tumors. Studies have illustrated that RASSF1A plays vital roles in the regulation of cell-cycle progression and functions as a guardian of mitosis. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism of RASSF1A-dependent regulation of mitosis remains largely unclear. APC/C(Cdc20) is the master switch and regulator of mitosis. The activity of APC/C(Cdc20) is tightly controlled by phosphorylation and specific inhibitors to ensure the sequential ubiquitination of downstream targets. Here, we report on the novel finding of a regulated circuitry that controls the timely expression and hence activity of APC/C(Cdc20) during mitosis. Our study showed that RASSF1A and APC/C(Cdc20) form a molecular relay that regulates the APC/C(Cdc20) activity at early mitosis. We found that RASSF1A inhibits APC/C(Cdc20) function through its D-box motifs. Paradoxically, RASSF1A was also demonstrated to be ubiquitinated by APC/C(Cdc20) in vitro and degraded at prometaphase despite of active spindle checkpoint presence. The first two unique D-boxes at the N-terminal of RASSF1A served as specific degron recognized by APC/C(Cdc20). Importantly, we found that Aurora A and Aurora B directly phosphorylate RASSF1A, a critical step by which RASSF1A switches from being an inhibitor to a substrate of APC/C(Cdc20) during the course of mitotic progression. As a result of RASSF1A degradation, APC/C(Cdc20) can then partially activate the ubiquitination of Cyclin A in the presence of spindle checkpoint. This circuitry is essential for the timely degradation of Cyclin A. To conclude, our results propose a new model for RASSF1A-APC/C(Cdc20) interaction in ensuring the sequential progression of mitosis.
Project description:Chromosome segregation and mitotic exit are initiated by the 1.2-MDa ubiquitin ligase APC/C (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome) and its coactivator CDC20 (cell division cycle 20). To avoid chromosome missegregation, APC/C(CDC20) activation is tightly controlled. CDC20 only associates with APC/C in mitosis when APC/C has become phosphorylated and is further inhibited by a mitotic checkpoint complex until all chromosomes are bioriented on the spindle. APC/C contains 14 different types of subunits, most of which are phosphorylated in mitosis on multiple sites. However, it is unknown which of these phospho-sites enable APC/C(CDC20) activation and by which mechanism. Here we have identified 68 evolutionarily conserved mitotic phospho-sites on human APC/C bound to CDC20 and have used the biGBac technique to generate 47 APC/C mutants in which either all 68 sites or subsets of them were replaced by nonphosphorylatable or phospho-mimicking residues. The characterization of these complexes in substrate ubiquitination and degradation assays indicates that phosphorylation of an N-terminal loop region in APC1 is sufficient for binding and activation of APC/C by CDC20. Deletion of the N-terminal APC1 loop enables APC/C(CDC20) activation in the absence of mitotic phosphorylation or phospho-mimicking mutations. These results indicate that binding of CDC20 to APC/C is normally prevented by an autoinhibitory loop in APC1 and that its mitotic phosphorylation relieves this inhibition. The predicted location of the N-terminal APC1 loop implies that this loop controls interactions between the N-terminal domain of CDC20 and APC1 and APC8. These results reveal how APC/C phosphorylation enables CDC20 to bind and activate the APC/C in mitosis.
Project description:The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a ubiquitin ligase that initiates anaphase and mitotic exit. APC/C is activated by Cdc20 and inhibited by the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which delays mitotic exit when the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is activated. We previously identified apcin as a small molecule ligand of Cdc20 that inhibits APC/CCdc20 and prolongs mitosis. Here we find that apcin paradoxically shortens mitosis when SAC activity is high. These opposing effects of apcin arise from targeting of a common binding site in Cdc20 required for both substrate ubiquitination and MCC-dependent APC/C inhibition. Furthermore, we found that apcin cooperates with p31comet to relieve MCC-dependent inhibition of APC/C. Apcin therefore causes either net APC/C inhibition, prolonging mitosis when SAC activity is low, or net APC/C activation, shortening mitosis when SAC activity is high, demonstrating that a small molecule can produce opposing biological effects depending on regulatory context.
Project description:Mps1 is a dual specificity protein kinase with key roles in regulating the spindle assembly checkpoint and chromosome-microtubule attachments. Consistent with these mitotic functions, Mps1 protein levels fluctuate during the cell cycle, peaking at early mitosis and abruptly declining during mitotic exit and progression into the G(1) phase. Although evidence in budding yeast indicates that Mps1 is targeted for degradation at anaphase by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC)-c(Cdc20) complex, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms that govern Mps1 protein levels in human cells. Here, we provide evidence for the ubiquitin ligase/proteosome pathway in regulating human Mps1 levels during late mitosis through G(1) phase. First, we showed that treatment of HEK 293T cells with the proteosome inhibitor MG132 resulted in an increase in both the polyubiquitination and the accumulation of Mps1 protein levels. Next, Mps1 was shown to co-precipitate with APC and its activators Cdc20 and Cdh1 in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Consistent with this, overexpression of Cdc20 or Cdh1 led to a marked reduction of endogenous Mps1 levels during anaphase or G(1) phase, respectively. In contrast, depletion of Cdc20 or Cdh1 by RNAi treatment both led to the stabilization of Mps1 protein during mitosis or G(1) phase, respectively. Finally, we identified a single D-box motif in human Mps1 that is required for its ubiquitination and degradation. Failure to appropriately degrade Mps1 is sufficient to trigger centrosome amplification and mitotic abnormalities in human cells. Thus, our results suggest that the sequential actions of the APC-c(Cdc20) and APC-c(Cdh1) ubiquitin ligases regulate the clearance of Mps1 levels and are critical for Mps1 functions during the cell cycle in human cells.
Project description:Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome (APC/C) is a representative E3 ubiquitin ligase, triggering the transition of metaphase to anaphase by regulating degradation and ensures the exit from mitosis. Cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) and Cell division cycle 20 related protein 1 (CDH1), as co-activators of APC/C, play significant roles in the spindle assembly checkpoint, guiding ubiquitin-mediated degradation, together with CDC23. During the embryonic development of the brine shrimp, Artemia sinica, CDC20, CDH1 and CDC23 participate in cell cycle regulation, but the specific mechanisms of their activities remain unknown. Herein, the full-length cDNAs of cdc20 and cdc23 from A. sinica were cloned. Real-time PCR analyzed the expression levels of As-cdc20 and As-cdc23. The locations of CDH1, CDC20 and CDC23 showed no tissue or organ specificity. Furthermore, western blotting showed that the levels of As-CDC20, securin, cyclin B, CDK1, CDH1, CDC14B, CDC23 and geminin proteins conformed to their complicated degradation relationships during different embryo stages. Our research revealed that As-CDC20, As-CDH1 and APC mediate the mitotic progression, downstream proteins degradation and cellular differentiation in the process of embryonic development in A. sinica.
Project description:When cells enter mitosis, the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is activated by phosphorylation and binding of Cdc20. The RXXL destruction box (D-box) of cyclin B1 only binds Cdc20 after release of the spindle checkpoint in metaphase, initiating cyclin B1 ubiquitination upon chromosome bi-orientation. However, we found that cyclin B1, through Cdk1 and Cks, is targeted to the phosphorylated APC/C(Cdc20) at the start of prometaphase, when the spindle checkpoint is still active. Here, we show that MASTL is essential for cyclin B1 recruitment to the mitotic APC/C and that this occurs entirely independently of Cdc20. Importantly, MASTL-directed binding of cyclin B1 to spindle checkpoint-inhibited APC/C(Cdc20) critically supports efficient cyclin B1 destruction after checkpoint release. A high incidence of anaphase bridges observed in response to MASTL RNAi may result from cyclin B1 remaining after securin destruction, which is insufficient to keep MASTL-depleted cells in mitosis but delays the activation of separase.
Project description:The mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) coordinates proper chromosome biorientation on the spindle with ubiquitination activities of CDC20-activated anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C(CDC20)). APC/C(CDC20) and two E2s, UBE2C and UBE2S, catalyze ubiquitination through distinct architectures for linking ubiquitin (UB) to substrates and elongating polyUB chains, respectively. MCC, which contains a second molecule of CDC20, blocks APC/C(CDC20)-UBE2C-dependent ubiquitination of Securin and Cyclins, while differentially determining or inhibiting CDC20 ubiquitination to regulate spindle surveillance, checkpoint activation, and checkpoint termination. Here electron microscopy reveals conformational variation of APC/C(CDC20)-MCC underlying this multifaceted regulation. MCC binds APC/C-bound CDC20 to inhibit substrate access. However, rotation about the CDC20-MCC assembly and conformational variability of APC/C modulate UBE2C-catalyzed ubiquitination of MCC's CDC20 molecule. Access of UBE2C is limiting for subsequent polyubiquitination by UBE2S. We propose that conformational dynamics of APC/C(CDC20)-MCC modulate E2 activation and determine distinctive ubiquitination activities as part of a response mechanism ensuring accurate sister chromatid segregation.
Project description:The completion of mitosis depends on protein ubiquitination by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). The APC is activated by association with Cdc20 in midmitosis and Cdh1 in late mitosis and G1. Here, we show that in budding yeast the activation of APC(Cdh1) is controlled in part by destruction of the Cdh1 inhibitor Acm1. We find that Acm1 uses pseudosubstrate and other sequence motifs to bind and inhibit Cdh1, but not Cdc20. Acm1 also contains a destruction sequence that promotes its ubiquitination by APC(Cdc20), resulting in the disappearance of Acm1 in early anaphase. Later in mitosis, Acm1 destruction is also promoted by APC(Cdh1). Finally, Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Acm1 modulates its localization and destruction. We conclude that ubiquitination of a Cdh1 inhibitor by APC(Cdc20) helps establish the order of activation of the two APC isoforms. We also speculate that the ability of APC(Cdh1) to target its own inhibitor enhances the bistability of the late mitotic regulatory system.
Project description:During mitosis, cells must segregate the replicated copies of their genome to their daughter cells with extremely high fidelity. Segregation errors lead to an abnormal chromosome number (aneuploidy), which typically results in disease or cell death . Chromosome segregation and anaphase onset are initiated through the action of the multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C ). The APC/C is inhibited by the spindle checkpoint in the presence of kinetochore attachment defects [3, 4]. Here we demonstrate that two non-essential APC/C subunits (Apc14 and Apc15) regulate association of spindle checkpoint proteins, in the form of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), with the APC/C. apc14? mutants display increased MCC association with the APC/C and are unable to silence the checkpoint efficiently. Conversely, apc15? mutants display reduced association between the MCC and APC/C, are defective in poly-ubiquitination of Cdc20, and are checkpoint defective. In vitro reconstitution studies have shown that human MCC-APC/C can contain two molecules of Cdc20 [5-7]. Using a yeast strain expressing two Cdc20 genes with different epitope tags, we show by co-immunoprecipitation that this is true in vivo. MCC binding to the second molecule of Cdc20 is mediated via the C-terminal KEN box in Mad3. Somewhat surprisingly, complexes containing both molecules of Cdc20 accumulate in apc15? cells, and the implications of this observation are discussed.
Project description:Cells control progression through late mitosis by regulating Cdc20 and Cdh1, the two mitotic activators of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). The control of Cdc20 protein levels during the cell cycle is not well understood.Here, we demonstrate that Cdc20 is degraded in budding yeast by multiple APC-dependent mechanisms. We find that the majority of Cdc20 turnover does not involve a second activator molecule but instead depends on in cis Cdc20 autoubiquitination while it is bound to its activator-binding site on the APC core. Unlike in trans ubiquitination of Cdc20 substrates, the APC ubiquitinates Cdc20 independent of APC activation by Cdc20's C box. Cdc20 turnover by this intramolecular mechanism is cell cycle regulated, contributing to the decline in Cdc20 levels that occurs after anaphase. Interestingly, high substrate levels in vitro significantly reduce Cdc20 autoubiquitination.We show here that Cdc20 fluctuates through the cell cycle via a distinct form of APC-mediated ubiquitination. This in cis autoubiquitination may preferentially occur in early anaphase, following depletion of Cdc20 substrates. This suggests that distinct mechanisms are able to target Cdc20 for ubiquitination at different points during the cell cycle.
Project description:The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in complex with its co-activator Cdc20 is responsible for targeting proteins for ubiquitin-mediated degradation during mitosis. The activity of APC/C-Cdc20 is inhibited during prometaphase by the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) yet certain substrates escape this inhibition. Nek2A degradation during prometaphase depends on direct binding of Nek2A to the APC/C via a C-terminal MR dipeptide but whether this motif alone is sufficient is not clear. Here, we identify Kif18A as a novel APC/C-Cdc20 substrate and show that Kif18A degradation depends on a C-terminal LR motif. However in contrast to Nek2A, Kif18A is not degraded until anaphase showing that additional mechanisms contribute to Nek2A degradation. We find that dimerization via the leucine zipper, in combination with the MR motif, is required for stable Nek2A binding to and ubiquitination by the APC/C. Nek2A and the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) have an overlap in APC/C subunit requirements for binding and we propose that Nek2A binds with high affinity to apo-APC/C and is degraded by the pool of Cdc20 that avoids inhibition by the SAC.