Design of substituted bis-Tetrahydrofuran (bis-THF)-derived Potent HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors, Protein-ligand X-ray Structure, and Convenient Syntheses of bis-THF and Substituted bis-THF Ligands.
ABSTRACT: We investigated substituted bis-THF-derived HIV-1 protease inhibitors in order to enhance ligand-binding site interactions in the HIV-1 protease active site. In this context, we have carried out convenient syntheses of optically active bis-THF and C4-substituted bis-THF ligands using a [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement as the key step. The synthesis provided convenient access to a number of substituted bis-THF derivatives. Incorporation of these ligands led to a series of potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Inhibitor 23c turned out to be the most potent (K(i) = 2.9 pM; IC(50) = 2.4 nM) among the inhibitors. An X-ray structure of 23c-bound HIV-1 protease showed extensive interactions of the inhibitor with the protease active site, including a unique water-mediated hydrogen bond to the Gly-48 amide NH in the S2 site.
Project description:A series of darunavir analogues featuring a substituted bis-THF ring as P2 ligand have been synthesized and evaluated. High affinity protease inhibitors (PIs) with an interesting activity on wild-type HIV and a panel of multi-PI resistant HIV-1 mutants containing clinically observed, primary mutations were identified using a cell-based assay. A number of PIs have been synthesized that show equivalent and greater activity for HIV-1 mutant strains as compared to wild-type HIV-1. The activity on the purified enzyme was confirmed for a selection of analogues.
Project description:An extremely drug resistant mutant of HIV-1 protease (PR) bearing 20 mutations (PR20) has been studied with two potent antiviral investigational inhibitors. GRL-5010A and GRL-4410A were designed to introduce hydrogen bond interactions with the flexible flaps of the PR by incorporating gem-difluorines and alkoxy, respectively, at the C4 position of the bis-THF of darunavir. PR20 provides an excellent model for high level resistance, since clinical inhibitors are >1000-fold less active on PR20 than on wild-type enzyme. GRL-5010A and GRL-4410A show inhibition constants of 4.3 ± 7.0 and 1.7 ± 1.8 nM, respectively, for PR20, compared to the binding affinity of 41 ± 1 nM measured for darunavir. Crystal structures of PR20 in complexes with the two inhibitors confirmed the new hydrogen bond interactions with Gly 48 in the flap of the enzyme. The two new compounds are more effective than darunavir in inhibiting mature PR20 and show promise for further development of antiviral agents targeting highly resistant PR mutants.
Project description:Combination antiretroviral therapy has achieved dramatic reductions in the mortality and morbidity in people with HIV-1 infection. Darunavir (DRV) represents a most efficacious and well-tolerated protease inhibitor (PI) with a high genetic barrier to the emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1. However, highly DRV-resistant variants have been reported in patients receiving long-term DRV-containing regimens. Here, we report three novel HIV-1 PIs (GRL-057-14, GRL-058-14, and GRL-059-14), all of which contain a P2-amino-substituted-bis-tetrahydrofuranylurethane (bis-THF) and a P2'-cyclopropyl-amino-benzothiazole (Cp-Abt). These PIs not only potently inhibit the replication of wild-type HIV-1 (50% effective concentration [EC50], 0.22?nM to 10.4?nM) but also inhibit multi-PI-resistant HIV-1 variants, including highly DRV-resistant HIVDRV R P51 (EC50, 1.6?nM to 30.7?nM). The emergence of HIV-1 variants resistant to the three compounds was much delayed in selection experiments compared to resistance to DRV, using a mixture of 11 highly multi-PI-resistant HIV-1 isolates as a starting HIV-1 population. GRL-057-14 showed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity and greatest thermal stability with wild-type protease, and potently inhibited HIV-1 protease's proteolytic activity (Ki value, 0.10?nM) among the three PIs. Structural models indicate that the C-5-isopropylamino-bis-THF moiety of GRL-057-14 forms additional polar interactions with the active site of HIV-1 protease. Moreover, GRL-057-14's P1-bis-fluoro-methylbenzene forms strong hydrogen bonding and effective van der Waals interactions. The present data suggest that the combination of C-5-aminoalkyl-bis-THF, P1-bis-fluoro-methylbenzene, and P2'-Cp-Abt confers highly potent activity against wild-type and multi-PI-resistant HIV strains and warrant further development of the three PIs, in particular, that of GRL-057-14, as potential therapeutic for HIV-1 infection and AIDS.
Project description:We designed, synthesized, and identified GRL-98065, a novel nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (PI) containing the structure-based designed privileged cyclic ether-derived nonpeptide P2 ligand, 3(R),3a(S),6a(R)-bis-tetrahydrofuranylurethane (bis-THF), and a sulfonamide isostere, which is highly potent against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (50% effective concentration [EC(50)], 0.0002 to 0.0005 microM) with minimal cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxicity, 35.7 microM in CD4(+) MT-2 cells). GRL-98065 blocked the infectivity and replication of each of the HIV-1(NL4-3) variants exposed to and selected by up to a 5 microM concentration of saquinavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, or ritonavir and a 1 microM concentration of lopinavir or atazanavir (EC(50), 0.0015 to 0.0075 microM), although it was less active against HIV-1(NL4-3) selected by amprenavir (EC(50), 0.032 microM). GRL-98065 was also potent against multiple-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients who had no response to existing antiviral regimens after having received a variety of antiviral agents, HIV-1 isolates of various subtypes, and HIV-2 isolates examined. Structural analyses revealed that the close contact of GRL-98065 with the main chain of the protease active-site amino acids (Asp29 and Asp30) is important for its potency and wide-spectrum activity against multiple-PI-resistant HIV-1 variants. The present data demonstrate that the privileged nonpeptide P2 ligand, bis-THF, is critical for the binding of GRL-98065 to the HIV protease substrate binding site and that this scaffold can confer highly potent antiviral activity against a wide spectrum of HIV isolates.
Project description:Structure-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of very potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors are described. In an effort to improve backbone ligand-binding site interactions, we have incorporated basic-amines at the C4 position of the bis-tetrahydrofuran (bis-THF) ring. We speculated that these substituents would make hydrogen bonding interactions in the flap region of HIV-1 protease. Synthesis of these inhibitors was performed diastereoselectively. A number of inhibitors displayed very potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity. Inhibitors 25f, 25i, and 25j were evaluated against a number of highly-PI-resistant HIV-1 strains, and they exhibited improved antiviral activity over darunavir. Two high resolution X-ray structures of 25f- and 25g-bound HIV-1 protease revealed unique hydrogen bonding interactions with the backbone carbonyl group of Gly48 as well as with the backbone NH of Gly48 in the flap region of the enzyme active site. These ligand-binding site interactions are possibly responsible for their potent activity.
Project description:The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel C3-substituted cyclopentyltetrahydrofuranyl (Cp-THF)-derived HIV-1 protease inhibitors are described. Various C3-functional groups on the Cp-THF ligand were investigated in order to maximize the ligand-binding site interactions in the flap region of the protease. Inhibitors 3c and 3d have displayed the most potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity. Both inhibitors have maintained impressive activity against a panel of multidrug resistant HIV-1 variants. A high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of 3c-bound HIV-1 protease revealed a number of important molecular insights into the ligand-binding site interactions.
Project description:We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of phenylcarboxylic acid and phenylboronic acid containing HIV-1 protease inhibitors and their functional effect on enzyme inhibition and antiviral activity in MT-2 cell lines. Inhibitors bearing bis-THF ligand as P2 ligand and phenylcarboxylic acids and carboxamide as the P2' ligands, showed very potent HIV-1 protease inhibitory activity. However, carboxylic acid containing inhibitors showed very poor antiviral activity relative to carboxamide-derived inhibitors which showed good antiviral IC50 value. Boronic acid derived inhibitor with bis-THF as the P2 ligand showed very potent enzyme inhibitory activity, but it showed lower antiviral activity than darunavir in the same assay. Boronic acid containing inhibitor with a P2-Crn-THF ligand also showed potent enzyme Ki but significantly decreased antiviral activity. We have evaluated antiviral activity against a panel of highly drug-resistant HIV-1 variants. One of the inhibitors maintained good antiviral activity against HIVDRV R P20 and HIVDRV R P30 viruses. We have determined high resolution X-ray structures of two synthetic inhibitors bound to HIV-1 protease and obtained molecular insight into the ligand-binding site interactions.
Project description:In the present study, GRL008, a novel nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (PI), and darunavir (DRV), both of which contain a P2-bis-tetrahydrofuranyl urethane (bis-THF) moiety, were found to exert potent antiviral activity (50% effective concentrations [EC50s], 0.029 and 0.002 ?M, respectively) against a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of HIV-1 (HIVA02) compared to ritonavir (RTV; EC50, >1.0 ?M) and tipranavir (TPV; EC50, 0.364 ?M). Additionally, GRL008 showed potent antiviral activity against an HIV-1 variant selected in the presence of DRV over 20 passages (HIVDRV(R)P20), with a 2.6-fold increase in its EC50 (0.097 ?M) compared to its corresponding EC50 (0.038 ?M) against wild-type HIV-1NL4-3 (HIVWT). Based on X-ray crystallographic analysis, both GRL008 and DRV showed strong hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) with the backbone-amide nitrogen/carbonyl oxygen atoms of conserved active-site amino acids G27, D29, D30, and D30' of HIVA02 protease (PRA02) and wild-type PR in their corresponding crystal structures, while TPV lacked H-bonds with G27 and D30' due to an absence of polar groups. The P2' thiazolyl moiety of RTV showed two conformations in the crystal structure of the PRA02-RTV complex, one of which showed loss of contacts in the S2' binding pocket of PRA02, supporting RTV's compromised antiviral activity (EC50, >1 ?M). Thus, the conserved H-bonding network of P2-bis-THF-containing GRL008 with the backbone of G27, D29, D30, and D30' most likely contributes to its persistently greater antiviral activity against HIVWT, HIVA02, and HIVDRV(R)P20.
Project description:The structure-based design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and X-ray structural studies of fluorine-containing HIV-1 protease inhibitors are described. The synthesis of both enantiomers of the gem-difluoro-bis-THF ligands was carried out in a stereoselective manner using a Reformatskii-Claisen reaction as the key step. Optically active ligands were converted into protease inhibitors. Two of these inhibitors, (3R,3aS,6aS)-4,4-difluorohexahydrofuro[2,3-b]furan-3-yl(2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-4-((N-isobutyl-4-methoxyphenyl)sulfonamido)-1-phenylbutan-2-yl) carbamate (3) and (3R,3aS,6aS)-4,4-difluorohexahydrofuro[2,3-b]furan-3-yl(2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-4-((N-isobutyl-4-aminophenyl)sulfonamido)phenylbutan-2-yl) carbamate (4), exhibited HIV-1 protease inhibitory Ki values in the picomolar range. Both 3 and 4 showed very potent antiviral activity, with respective EC50 values of 0.8 and 3.1?nM against the laboratory strain HIV-1LAI . The two inhibitors exhibited better lipophilicity profiles than darunavir, and also showed much improved blood-brain barrier permeability in an in vitro model. A high-resolution X-ray structure of inhibitor 4 in complex with HIV-1 protease was determined, revealing that the fluorinated ligand makes extensive interactions with the S2 subsite of HIV-1 protease, including hydrogen bonding interactions with the protease backbone atoms. Moreover, both fluorine atoms on the bis-THF ligand formed strong interactions with the flap Gly?48 carbonyl oxygen atom.
Project description:Structure-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors are described. In an effort to enhance interactions with protease backbone atoms, we have incorporated stereochemically defined methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and methyl oxazolidinone as the P1'-ligands. These ligands are designed to interact with Gly-27' carbonyl and Arg-8 side chain in the S1'-subsite of the HIV protease. We have investigated the potential of these ligands in combination with our previously developed bis-tetrahydrofuran (bis-THF) and cyclopentanyltetrahydrofuran (Cp-THF) as the P2-ligands. Inhibitor 19b with a (R)-aminomethyl-2-pyrrolidinone and a Cp-THF was shown to be the most potent compound. This inhibitor maintained near full potency against multi-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants. A high resolution protein-ligand X-ray crystal structure of 19b-bound HIV-1 protease revealed that the P1'-pyrrolidinone heterocycle and the P2-Cp-ligand are involved in several critical interactions with the backbone atoms in the S1' and S2 subsites of HIV-1 protease.