Structure of the tetradecanucleotide d(CCCCGGTACCGGGG)2 as an A-DNA duplex.
ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of the tetradecanucleotide sequence d(CCCCGGTACCGGGG)(2) has been determined at 2.5 Å resolution in the tetragonal space group P4(1). This sequence was designed with the expectation of a four-way junction. However, the sequence crystallized as an A-DNA duplex and represents more than one full turn of the A-helix. The crystallographic asymmetric unit consists of one tetradecanucleotide duplex. The structural parameters of the A-type DNA duplex structure and the crystal-packing arrangement are described. One Mn(2+) ion was identified with direct coordination to the N7 position of G(13) and a water molecule at the major-groove side of the C(2)·G(13) base pair.
Project description:Pig heart carbonyl reductase (PHCR), which belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family, has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two crystal forms (I and II) have been obtained in the presence of NADPH. Form I crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4(2), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.61, c = 94.31 A, and diffract to 1.5 A resolution. Form II crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 120.10, c = 147.00 A, and diffract to 2.2 A resolution. Both crystal forms are suitable for X-ray structure analysis at high resolution.
Project description:Many complex viruses package their genomes into empty protein shells and bacteriophages of the Cystoviridae family provide some of the simplest models for this. The cystoviral hexameric NTPase, P4, uses chemical energy to translocate single-stranded RNA genomic precursors into the procapsid. We previously dissected the mechanism of RNA translocation for one such phage, 12, and have now investigated three further highly divergent, cystoviral P4 NTPases (from 6, 8 and 13). High-resolution crystal structures of the set of P4s allow a structure-based phylogenetic analysis, which reveals that these proteins form a distinct subfamily of the RecA-type ATPases. Although the proteins share a common catalytic core, they have different specificities and control mechanisms, which we map onto divergent N- and C-terminal domains. Thus, the RNA loading and tight coupling of NTPase activity with RNA translocation in 8 P4 is due to a remarkable C-terminal structure, which wraps right around the outside of the molecule to insert into the central hole where RNA binds to coupled L1 and L2 loops, whereas in 12 P4, a C-terminal residue, serine 282, forms a specific hydrogen bond to the N7 of purines ring to confer purine specificity for the 12 enzyme.
Project description:Acridine-4-carboxamides form a class of known DNA mono-intercalating agents that exhibit cytotoxic activity against tumour cell lines due to their ability to inhibit topoisomerases. Previous studies of bis-acridine derivatives have yielded equivocal results regarding the minimum length of linker necessary between the two acridine chromophores to allow bis-intercalation of duplex DNA. We report here the 1.7 A resolution X-ray crystal structure of a six-carbon-linked bis(acridine-4-carboxamide) ligand bound to d(CGTACG)2 molecules by non-covalent duplex cross-linking. The asymmetric unit consists of one DNA duplex containing an intercalated acridine-4-carboxamide chromophore at each of the two CG steps. The other half of each ligand is bound to another DNA molecule in a symmetry-related manner, with the alkyl linker threading through the minor grooves. The two crystallographically independent ligand molecules adopt distinct side chain interactions, forming hydrogen bonds to either O6 or N7 on the major groove face of guanine, in contrast to the semi-disordered state of mono-intercalators bound to the same DNA molecule. The complex described here provides the first structural evidence for the non-covalent cross-linking of DNA by a small molecule ligand and suggests a possible explanation for the inconsistent behaviour of six-carbon linked bis-acridines in previous assays of DNA bis-intercalation.
Project description:The crystal structure of the tetradecanucleotide d(CCCCGGTACCGGGG)2 has previously been reported as an A-type double helix at a resolution of 2.5?Å in space group P41. Here, the structure of this sequence was determined at a significantly higher resolution of 1.65?Å in space group P4?2?2. The differences in crystal packing between the former and latter are described. The crystallographic asymmetric unit consists of one tetradecanucleotide duplex that spans more than one full turn of the A-helix. This structure allowed the unambiguous identification of solvent interactions.
Project description:The primary sequence of cytochrome c(6) from the brown alga Hizikia fusiformis has been determined by cDNA cloning and the crystal structure has been solved at 1.6 A resolution. The crystal belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 84.58, c = 232.91 A and six molecules per asymmetric unit. The genome code, amino-acid sequence and crystal structure of H. fusiformis cytochrome c(6) were most similar to those of red algal cytochrome c(6). These results support the hypothesis that brown algae acquired their chloroplasts via secondary endosymbiosis involving a red algal endosymbiont and a eukaryote host.
Project description:The predominant product of aberrant DNA methylation is the genotoxic lesion N7-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (m7dG). M7dG is recognized and excised by lesion-specific DNA glycosylases, namely AlkA in E. coli and Aag in humans. Structural studies of m7dG recognition and catalysis by these enzymes have been hampered due to a lack of efficient means by which to incorporate the chemically labile m7dG moiety site-specifically into DNA on a preparative scale. Here we report a solution to this problem. We stabilized the lesion toward acid-catalyzed and glycosylase-catalyzed depurination by 2'-fluorination and toward base-catalyzed degradation using mild, nonaqueous conditions in the DNA deprotection reaction. Duplex DNA containing 2'-fluoro-m7dG (Fm7dG) cocrystallized with AlkA as a host-guest complex in which the lesion-containing segment of DNA was nearly devoid of protein contacts, thus enabling the first direct visualization of the N7-methylguanine lesion nucleobase in DNA. The structure reveals that the base-pairing mode of Fm7dG:C is nearly identical to that of G:C, and Fm7dG does not induce any apparent structural disturbance of the duplex structure. These observations suggest that AlkA and Aag must perform a structurally invasive interrogation of DNA in order to detect the presence of intrahelical m7dG lesions.
Project description:DNA interstrand cross-links have important biological consequences and are useful biotechnology tools. Phenylselenyl substituted derivatives of thymidine (1) and 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5) produce interstrand cross-links in duplex DNA when oxidized by NaIO4. The mechanism involves a [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of the respective selenoxides to the corresponding methide type intermediates, which ultimately produce the interstrand cross-links. Determination of the rate constants for the selenoxide rearrangements indicates that the rate-determining step for cross-linking is after methide formation. Cross-linking by the thymidine derivative in duplex DNA shows a modest kinetic preference when flanked by pyrimidines as opposed to purines. In contrast, the rate constant for cross-link formation from 5 opposite dG in duplex DNA is strongly dependent upon the flanking sequence and, in general, is at least an order of magnitude slower than that for 1 in an otherwise identical sequence. Introduction of mispairs at the base pairs flanking 5 or substitution of the opposing dG by dI significantly increases the rate constant and yield for cross-linking, indicating that stronger hydrogen bonding between the methide derived from it and dG compared to dA and the respective electrophile derived from 1 limits reaction by increasing the barrier to rotation into the required syn-conformation. Incorporation of 1 or 5 in triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) that utilize Hoogsteen base pairing also yields interstrand cross-links. The dC derivative produces ICLs approximately 10x faster than the thymidine derivative when incorporated at the 5'-termini of the TFOs and higher yields when incorporated at internal sites. The slower, less efficient ICL formation emanating from 1 is attributed to reaction at N1-dA, which requires local melting of the duplex. In contrast, 5 produces cross-links by reacting with N7-dG. The cross-linking reactions of 1 and 5 illustrate the versatility and utility of these molecules as mechanistic probes and tools for biotechnology.
Project description:Heat-resistant RNA-dependent ATPase (Hera) from Thermus thermophilus is a DEAD-box RNA helicase. Two constructs encompassing the second RecA-like domain and the C-terminal domain of Hera were overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Single crystals of both Hera constructs were obtained in three crystal forms. A tetragonal crystal form belonged to space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 65.5, c = 153.0 A, and contained one molecule per asymmetric unit. Two orthorhombic forms belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 62.8, b = 70.9, c = 102.3 A (form I) and a = 41.6, b = 67.6, c = 183.5 A (form II). Both orthorhombic forms contained two molecules per asymmetric unit. All crystals diffracted X-rays to beyond 3 A resolution, but the tetragonal data sets displayed high Wilson B values and high mean |E(2) - 1| values, indicating potential disorder and anisotropy. The tetragonal crystal was phased by MAD using a single selenium site.
Project description:Cyclohexene nucleic acid (CeNA) building blocks can be introduced into natural DNA sequences without a large conformational influence because of the ability of the six-membered sugar ring to mimic both the C2'-endo and C3'-endo conformations of the naturally occurring ribofuranose sugar ring. The non-self-complementary DNA sequence d[GCG(xT)GCG]/d(CGCACGC) with one incorporated CeNA (xT) moiety crystallizes in two forms: orthorhombic and tetragonal. The tetragonal form, which diffracts to 3 A resolution, is a kinetically stable polymorph of the orthorhombic form [Robeyns et al. (2010), Artificial DNA, 1, 1-7], which diffracts to 1.17 A resolution and is the thermodynamically stable form of the CeNA-incorporated duplex. Here, the two structures are compared, with special emphasis on the differences in crystal packing and the irreversible conversion of the kinetic form into the high-resolution diffracting thermodynamic form.
Project description:The X-ray crystal structure of the DNA tetradecamer sequence d(CCGGGGTACCCCGG)2 is reported at 1.4?Å resolution in the tetragonal space group P41212. The sequence was designed to fold as a four-way junction. However, it forms an A-type double helix in the presence of barium chloride. The metal ion could not be identified in the electron-density map. The crystallographic asymmetric unit consists of one A-type double helix with 12 base pairs per turn, in contrast to 11 base pairs per turn for canonical A-DNA. A large number of solvent molecules have been identified in both the grooves of the duplex and around the backbone phosphate groups.