Identification of BC005512 as a DNA damage responsive murine endogenous retrovirus of GLN family involved in cell growth regulation.
ABSTRACT: Genotoxicity assessment is of great significance in drug safety evaluation, and microarray is a useful tool widely used to identify genotoxic stress responsive genes. In the present work, by using oligonucleotide microarray in an in vivo model, we identified an unknown gene BC005512 (abbreviated as BC, official full name: cDNA sequence BC005512), whose expression in mouse liver was specifically induced by seven well-known genotoxins (GTXs), but not by non-genotoxins (NGTXs). Bioinformatics revealed that BC was a member of the GLN family of murine endogenous retrovirus (ERV). However, the relationship to genotoxicity and the cellular function of GLN are largely unknown. Using NIH/3T3 cells as an in vitro model system and quantitative real-time PCR, BC expression was specifically induced by another seven GTXs, covering diverse genotoxicity mechanisms. Additionally, dose-response and linear regression analysis showed that expression level of BC in NIH/3T3 cells strongly correlated with DNA damage, measured using the alkaline comet assay,. While in p53 deficient L5178Y cells, GTXs could not induce BC expression. Further functional studies using RNA interference revealed that down-regulation of BC expression induced G1/S phase arrest, inhibited cell proliferation and thus suppressed cell growth in NIH/3T3 cells. Together, our results provide the first evidence that BC005512, a member from GLN family of murine ERV, was responsive to DNA damage and involved in cell growth regulation. These findings could be of great value in genotoxicity predictions and contribute to a deeper understanding of GLN biological functions.
Project description:Comparison of the gene expression in the two pancreatic lymph nodes: gastric lymph node (GLN) and pancreatico-duodenal lymph node (PDLN) in NOD mice. The analysis was done in an attempt to explain the preferential homing of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells to the GLN after intravenous injection. Overall design: GLN and PDLN were excised from 4 individual 12-wk old female NOD mice and RNA was extracted after tissue homogenization in Trizol for processing onto microarray (Agilent 4x44K). Each array corresponds to one single mouse, thus this study comprise 4 biological replicates.
Project description:The DBA/2 mouse Rmcf gene is responsible for in vivo and in vitro resistance to infection by the polytropic mink cell focus-forming (MCF) virus subgroup of murine leukemia viruses (MLVs). Previous studies suggested that Rmcf resistance is mediated by expression of an interfering MCF MLV envelope (Env) gene. To characterize this env gene, we examined resistance in crosses between Rmcf(r) DBA/2 mice and Mus castaneus, a species that lacks endogenous MCF env sequences. In backcross progeny, inheritance of Rmcf resistance correlated with inheritance of a specific endogenous MCF virus env-containing 4.6-kb EcoRI fragment. This fragment was present in the DBA/2N substrain with Rmcf-mediated resistance but not in virus-susceptible DBA/2J substrain mice. This fragment contains a provirus with a 5' long terminal repeat and the 5' half of env; the gag and pol genes have been partially deleted. The Env sequence is identical to that of a highly immunogenic viral glycoprotein expressed in the DBA/2 cell line L5178Y and closely resembles the env genes of modified polytropic proviruses. The coding sequence for the full-length Rmcf Env surface subunit was amplified from DNAs from virus-resistant backcross mice and was cloned into an expression vector. NIH 3T3 and BALB 3T3 cells stably transfected with this construct showed significant resistance to infection by MCF MLV but not by amphotropic MLV. This study identifies an Rmcf-linked MCF provirus and indicates that, like the ecotropic virus resistance gene Fv4, Rmcf may mediate resistance through an interference mechanism.
Project description:In vitro mammalian cytogenetic tests detect chromosomal aberrations and are used for testing the genotoxicity of compounds. This study aimed to identify a supportive genomic biomarker could minimize the risk of misjudgments and aid appropriate decision making in genotoxicity testing. Human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells were treated with each of six DNA damage-inducing genotoxins (clastogens) or two genotoxins that do not cause DNA damage. Cells were exposed to each compound for 4 h, and gene expression was comprehensively examined using Affymetrix U133A microarrays. Toxicogenomic analysis revealed characteristic alterations in the expression of genes included in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A/p21)-centered network. The majority of genes included in this network were upregulated on treatment with DNA damage-inducing clastogens. The network, however, also included kinesin family member 20A (KIF20A) downregulated by treatment with all the DNA damage-inducing clastogens. Downregulation of KIF20A expression was successfully confirmed using additional DNA damage-inducing clastogens. Our analysis also demonstrated that nucleic acid constituents falsely downregulated the expression of KIF20A, possibly via p16 activation, independently of the CDKN1A signaling pathway. Our results indicate the potential of KIF20A as a supportive biomarker for clastogenicity judgment and possible mechanisms involved in KIF20A downregulation in DNA damage and non-DNA damage signaling networks.
Project description:Comparison of the gene expression in the two pancreatic lymph nodes: gastric lymph node (GLN) and pancreatico-duodenal lymph node (PDLN) in NOD mice. The analysis was done in an attempt to explain the preferential homing of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells to the GLN after intravenous injection. GLN and PDLN were excised from 4 individual 12-wk old female NOD mice and RNA was extracted after tissue homogenization in Trizol for processing onto microarray (Agilent 4x44K). Each array corresponds to one single mouse, thus this study comprise 4 biological replicates.
Project description:Oncogenic transformation of hematopoietic cells by the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein directly involves the activation Jak2 tyrosine kinase and the Stat5 transcription factor. Both proteins are normally linked to the interleukin (IL)-3/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptors for growth and survival. Since fibroblastic cells are not targets of BCR-ABL-induced oncogenesis, we determined whether forced expression of the IL-3 receptor would allow oncogenic transformation of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts known to be resistant to transformation by BCR-ABL. NIH 3T3 cells transduced with the human IL-3 receptor alpha and beta chains were highly susceptible to oncogenic transformation by expression of BCR-ABL. Forced expression of both receptor chains but not either one alone allowed efficient foci formation of NIH 3T3 cells expressing BCR-ABL (triple positive cells), and these cells formed colonies in soft agar, whereas BCR-ABL+ NIH 3T3 cells lacking IL-3 receptor expression did not. Signaling studies indicate that the BCR-ABL/IL-3 receptor+ NIH 3T3 cells utilize the Gab2/PI-3 kinase pathway activated by Jak2, and the Stat5 pathway activated separately by Bcr-Abl, whereas BCR-ABL+ NIH 3T3 cells lacking the IL-3 receptor do not utilize the Jak2 pathway, but still maintain activation of Stat5. The Bcr-Abl kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (1 microM) and two Jak2 kinase inhibitors strongly inhibited agar colony formation and the activation of Gab2 caused by Jak2. All of these findings indicate that Bcr-Abl oncoprotein requires the IL-3 receptor/Jak2/Stat5 pathways for oncogenic transformation of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.
Project description:Purpose:The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the synergetic triple therapeutic combination encompassing bismuth oxide nanoparticles (BiONPs), cisplatin (Cis), and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy with Ir-192 source in breast cancer and normal fibroblast cell line. Methods:In vitro models of breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) and normal fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were employed. Cellular localization and cytotoxicity studies were conducted prior to inspection on the radiosensitization effects and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on three proposed radiosensitizers: BiONPs, Cis, and BiONPs-Cis combination (BC). The optimal, non-cytotoxic concentration of BiONPs (0.5 mM) and the 25% inhibitory concentration of Cis (1.30 µM) were applied. The radiosensitization effects were evaluated by using a 0.38 MeV Iridium-192 HDR brachytherapy source over a prescribed dose range of 0 Gy to 4 Gy. Results:The cellular localization of BiONPs was visualized by light microscopy and accumulation of the BiONPs within the vicinity of the nuclear membrane was observed. Quantification of the sensitization enhancement ratio extrapolated from the survival curves indicates radiosensitization effects for MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 when treated with BiONPs, Cis, and BC. However, NIH/3T3 cells exhibited contradictive behavior as it only reacted towards the BC combination. Nonetheless, the MCF-7 cell line loaded with BC shows the highest SER of 4.29. ROS production analysis, on the other hand, shows that Cis and BC radiosensitizers generated the highest free radicals in comparison to BiONPs alone. Conclusion:A BiONPs-Cis combination was unveiled as a novel approach that offers promising radiosensitization enhancement that will increase the efficiency of tumor control while preserving the normal tissue at a reduced dose. This data is the first precedent to prove the synergetic implication of BiONPs, Cis, and HDR brachytherapy that will be beneficial for future chemoradiotherapy strategies in cancer care.
Project description:We used GeneChip Rice Genome Array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA) to identify genes that were rapidly induced by glutamine in rice roots. Transcriptomic analysis of rice roots revealed that the expression of at least 35 genes involved in metabolism, transport, signal transduction, and stress responses was rapidly induced by glutamine within 30 minutes. Overall design: Total RNA from –N and Gln-treated roots (2.5 mM Gln, 30 min) was extracted using a phenol extraction protocol. RNA samples from two biological repeats were sent to the Affymetrix Gene Expression Service Lab at Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (http://ipmb.sinica.edu.tw/affy/) for target preparation, and hybridization to the GeneChip Rice Genome Array.
Project description:Aminoacylation of transfer RNA(Gln) (tRNA(Gln)) is performed by distinct mechanisms in different kingdoms and represents the most diverged route of aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis found in nature. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cytosolic Gln-tRNA(Gln) is generated by direct glutaminylation of tRNA(Gln) by glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS), whereas mitochondrial Gln-tRNA(Gln) is formed by an indirect pathway involving charging by a non-discriminating glutamyl-tRNA synthetase and the subsequent transamidation by a specific Glu-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase. Previous studies showed that fusion of a yeast non-specific tRNA-binding cofactor, Arc1p, to Escherichia coli GlnRS enables the bacterial enzyme to substitute for its yeast homologue in vivo. We report herein that the same fusion enzyme, upon being imported into mitochondria, substituted the indirect pathway for Gln-tRNA(Gln) synthesis as well, despite significant differences in the identity determinants of E. coli and yeast cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNA(Gln) isoacceptors. Fusion of Arc1p to the bacterial enzyme significantly enhanced its aminoacylation activity towards yeast tRNA(Gln) isoacceptors in vitro. Our study provides a mechanism by which trans-kingdom rescue of distinct pathways of Gln-tRNA(Gln) synthesis can be conferred by a single enzyme.
Project description:Introduction:Gln-1062 (MEMOGAIN) is an intranasally administered lipophilic prodrug of galantamine. Based on high brain-to-blood concentrations observed in pre-clinical studies, Gln-1062 is expected to have superior cognitive efficacy compared to oral galantamine. Methods:Forty-eight healthy elderly subjects were randomized 12:4 to Gln-1062 (5.5, 11, or 22 mg, b.i.d., for 7 days) or placebo. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics were assessed repeatedly. Pharmacokinetics were compared with 16 mg oral galantamine. Results:Gln-1062 up to 22 mg, b.i.d., was well tolerated. Gln-1062 plasma concentrations increased immediately following dosing (median Tmax of 0.5 hour [range 0.5-1.0]). Cmax and AUC0-last increased in a dose-linear manner over all three dose levels. Gln-1062 was rapidly cleaved into galantamine. Gln-1062 significantly improved adaptive tracking (sustained attention) with 1.95% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.630-3.279, P = 0.0055) compared to placebo after correction for individual baseline performance. Discussion:Gln-1062 was considered to be safe and caused fewer gastrointestinal side effects than oral galantamine. Gln-1062 behaved pharmacokinetically as expected and improved performance on cognitive tests.