Calpastatin controls polymicrobial sepsis by limiting procoagulant microparticle release.
ABSTRACT: Sepsis, a leading cause of death worldwide, involves widespread activation of inflammation, massive activation of coagulation, and lymphocyte apoptosis. Calpains, calcium-activated cysteine proteases, have been shown to increase inflammatory reactions and lymphocyte apoptosis. Moreover, calpain plays an essential role in microparticle release.We investigated the contribution of calpain in eliciting tissue damage during sepsis.To test our hypothesis, we induced polymicrobial sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture in wild-type (WT) mice and transgenic mice expressing high levels of calpastatin, a calpain-specific inhibitor.In WT mice, calpain activity increased transiently peaking at 6 hours after cecal ligation and puncture surgery. Calpastatin overexpression improved survival, organ dysfunction (including lung, kidney, and liver damage), and lymphocyte apoptosis. It decreased the sepsis-induced systemic proinflammatory response and disseminated intravascular coagulation, by reducing the number of procoagulant circulating microparticles and therefore delaying thrombin generation. The deleterious effect of microparticles in this model was confirmed by transferring microparticles from septic WT to septic transgenic mice, worsening their survival and coagulopathy.These results demonstrate an important role of the calpain/calpastatin system in coagulation/inflammation pathways during sepsis, because calpain inhibition is associated with less severe disseminated intravascular coagulation and better overall outcomes in sepsis.
Project description:Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, is often accompanied by abnormalities of blood coagulation. Prior work with a mouse model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) suggested that the protease factor XIa contributed to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and to the cytokine response during sepsis. We investigated the importance of factor XI to cytokine and coagulation responses during the first 24 hours after CLP. Compared to wild type littermates, factor XI-deficient (FXI-/-) mice had a survival advantage after CLP, with smaller increases in plasma levels of TNF-? and IL-10 and delayed IL-1? and IL-6 responses. Plasma levels of serum amyloid P, an acute phase protein, were increased in wild type mice 24 hours post-CLP, but not in FXI-/- mice, supporting the impression of a reduced inflammatory response in the absence of factor XI. Surprisingly, there was little evidence of DIC in mice of either genotype. Plasma levels of the contact factors factor XII and prekallikrein were reduced in WT mice after CLP, consistent with induction of contact activation. However, factor XII and PK levels were not reduced in FXI-/- animals, indicating factor XI deficiency blunted contact activation. Intravenous infusion of polyphosphate into WT mice also induced changes in factor XII, but had much less effect in FXI deficient mice. In vitro analysis revealed that factor XIa activates factor XII, and that this reaction is enhanced by polyanions such polyphosphate and nucleic acids. These data suggest that factor XI deficiency confers a survival advantage in the CLP sepsis model by altering the cytokine response to infection and blunting activation of the contact (kallikrein-kinin) system. The findings support the hypothesis that factor XI functions as a bidirectional interface between contact activation and thrombin generation, allowing the two processes to influence each other.
Project description:Abdominal sepsis is associated with dysfunctional hemostasis. Thrombin generation (TG) is a rate-limiting step in systemic coagulation. Neutrophils can expell neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and/or microparticles (MPs) although their role in pathological coagulation remains elusive. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced TG in vivo was reflected by a reduced capacity of plasma from septic animals to generate thrombin. Depletion of neutrophils increased TG in plasma from CLP mice. Sepsis was associated with increased histone 3 citrullination in neutrophils and plasma levels of cell-free DNA and DNA-histone complexes and administration of DNAse not only eliminated NET formation but also elevated TG in sepsis. Isolated NETs increased TG and co-incubation with DNAse abolished NET-induced formation of thrombin. TG triggered by NETs was inhibited by blocking factor XII and abolished in factor XII-deficient plasma but intact in factor VII-deficient plasma. Activation of neutrophils simultaneously generated large amount of neutrophil-derived MPs, which were found to bind to NETs via histone-phosphatidylserine interactions. These findings show for the first time that NETs and MPs physically interact, and that NETs might constitute a functional assembly platform for MPs. We conclude that NET-MP complexes induce TG via the intrinsic pathway of coagulation and that neutrophil-derived MPs play a key role in NET-dependent coagulation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Sepsis-induced multi-organ failure continues to have a high mortality. The liver is an organ central to the disease pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to identify the liver proteins that change in abundance with sepsis and subsequently identify new drug targets. DESIGN:Proteomic discovery study and drug target validation. For the proteomics study, three biological replicate mice were used per group. SETTING:Research institute laboratory. SUBJECTS:Three-month-old C57BL/6 mice. INTERVENTIONS:We used a mouse model of sepsis based on cecal ligation and puncture, but with fluid and antibiotic resuscitation. Liver proteins that changed in abundance were identified by difference in gel electrophoresis. We compared liver proteins from 6-hr post-cecal ligation and puncture to sham-operated mice ("early proteins") and 24-hr post-cecal ligation and puncture with 6-hr post-cecal ligation and puncture ("late proteins"). Proteins that changed in abundance were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. We then inhibited the receptor for one protein and determined the effect on sepsis-induced organ dysfunction. RESULTS:The liver proteins that changed in abundance after sepsis had a range of functions such as acute phase response, coagulation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial electron transfer proteins, and nitric oxide metabolism. We found that cyclophilin increased in abundance after cecal ligation and puncture. When the receptor for this protein, CD147, was inhibited, sepsis-induced renal dysfunction was reduced. There was also a significant reduction in serum cytokine production when CD147 was inhibited. CONCLUSION:By applying proteomics to a clinically relevant mouse model of sepsis, we identified a number of novel proteins that changed in abundance. The inhibition of the receptor for one of these proteins, cyclophilin, attenuated sepsis-induced acute renal failure. The application of proteomics to sepsis research can facilitate the discovery of new therapeutic targets.
Project description:Cardiac dysfunction caused by the impairment of myocardial contractility has been recognized as an important factor contributing to the high mortality in sepsis. Calpain activation in the heart takes place in response to increased intracellular calcium influx resulting in proteolysis of structural and contractile proteins with subsequent myocardial dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that increased levels of calpain in the septic heart leads to disruption of structural and contractile proteins and that administration of calpain inhibitor-1 (N-acetyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-norleucinal (ALLN)) after sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture prevents cardiac protein degradation. We also tested the hypothesis that calpain plays a role in the modulation of protein synthesis/degradation through the activation of proteasome-dependent proteolysis and inhibition of the mTOR pathway. Severe sepsis significantly increased heart calpain-1 levels and promoted ubiquitin and Pa28? over-expression with a reduction in the mTOR levels. In addition, sepsis reduced the expression of structural proteins dystrophin and ?-dystroglycan as well as the contractile proteins actin and myosin. ALLN administration prevented sepsis-induced increases in calpain and ubiquitin levels in the heart, which resulted in decreased of structural and contractile proteins degradation and basal mTOR expression levels were re-established. Our results support the concept that increased calpain concentrations may be part of an important mechanism of sepsis-induced cardiac muscle proteolysis.
Project description:Heat shock protein A12B (HSPA12B) is predominately expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) and has been reported to protect against cardiac dysfunction from endotoxemia or myocardial infarction. This study investigated the mechanisms by which endothelial HSPA12B protects polymicrobial sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy. Wild-type (WT) and endothelial HSPA12B knockout (HSPA12B-/-) mice were subjected to polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Cecal ligation and puncture sepsis accelerated mortality and caused severe cardiac dysfunction in HSPA12B-/- mice compared with WT septic mice. The levels of adhesion molecules and the infiltrated immune cells in the myocardium of HSPA12B-/- septic mice were markedly greater than in WT septic mice. The levels of microRNA-126 (miR-126), which targets adhesion molecules, in serum exosomes from HSPA12B-/- septic mice were significantly lower than in WT septic mice. Transfection of ECs with adenovirus expressing HSPA12B significantly increased miR-126 levels. Increased miR-126 levels in ECs prevented LPS-stimulated expression of adhesion molecules. In vivo delivery of miR-126 carried by exosomes into the myocardium of HSPA12B-/- mice significantly attenuated CLP sepsis increased levels of adhesion molecules, and improved CLP sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. The data suggest that HSPA12B protects against sepsis-induced severe cardiomyopathy via regulating miR-126 expression which targets adhesion molecules, thus decreasing the accumulation of immune cells in the myocardium.
Project description:The adipose-derived hormone leptin is well known for its contribution to energy metabolism and satiety signaling in the hypothalamus. Previous studies suggested that obesity is an independent risk factor for sepsis morbidity and mortality, and it is associated with elevated baseline levels of circulating leptin in normal, nonseptic patients. In mouse endotoxemia and cecal ligation puncture models of sepsis, we observed elevated levels of leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sLR). Exogenously administered leptin increased mortality in endotoxemia and cecal ligation puncture models and was associated with increased expression of adhesion and coagulation molecules, macrophage infiltration into the liver and kidney, and endothelial barrier dysfunction. Conversely, longform leptin receptor-deficient mice were protected from sepsis morbidity and mortality and had less endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, an in vitro study revealed that leptin-induced endothelial dysfunction is likely mediated, at least in part, by monocytes. Moreover, administration of an sLR conferred a survival benefit. Human septic patients have increased circulating sLR concentrations, which were correlated with disease severity indices. Together, these data support a pathogenic role for leptin signaling during sepsis.
Project description:In the early stages of sepsis, lymphocytes undergo apoptosis, resulting in lymphopenia and immunosuppression. The trigger for septic lymphopenia is unknown. Using the polymicrobial model of murine sepsis, we investigated the role of C5a receptors in septic lymphopenia. In wild-type mice, cecal ligation and puncture resulted in splenocyte apoptosis and significant lymphopenia after 3 d, which was not observed in C5aR1(-/-) or C5aR2(-/-) mice. Our data show that mouse neutrophils exposed to recombinant mouse C5a cause release of histones in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Histone levels in spleen were significantly elevated following cecal ligation and puncture but were reduced by the absence of C5aR1. Histones induced significant lymphocyte apoptosis in vitro. Ab-mediated neutralization of histones prevented the development of lymphopenia in sepsis. Together, these results describe a new pathway of septic lymphopenia involving complement and extracellular histones. Targeting of this pathway may have therapeutic benefit for patients with sepsis or other serious illness.
Project description:RATIONALE:BMX (bone marrow kinase on the X chromosome) is highly expressed in the arterial endothelium from the embryonic stage to the adult stage in mice. It is also expressed in microvessels and the lymphatics in response to pathological stimuli. However, its role in endothelial permeability and sepsis remains unknown. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to delineate the function of BMX in thrombin-mediated endothelial permeability and the vascular leakage that occurs with sepsis in cecal ligation and puncture models. METHODS AND RESULTS:The cecal ligation and puncture model was applied to WT (wild type) and BMX-KO (BMX global knockout) mice to induce sepsis. Meanwhile, the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing assay was used to detect transendothelial electrical resistance in vitro and, the modified Miles assay was used to evaluate vascular leakage in vivo. We showed that BMX loss caused lung injury and inflammation in early cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis. Disruption of BMX increased thrombin-mediated permeability in mice and cultured endothelial cells by 2- to 3-fold. The expression of BMX in macrophages, neutrophils, platelets, and lung epithelial cells was undetectable compared with that in endothelial cells, indicating that endothelium dysfunction, rather than leukocyte and platelet dysfunction, was involved in vascular permeability and sepsis. Mechanistically, biochemical and cellular analyses demonstrated that BMX specifically repressed thrombin-PAR1 (protease-activated receptor-1) signaling in endothelial cells by directly phosphorylating PAR1 and promoting its internalization and deactivation. Importantly, pretreatment with the selective PAR1 antagonist SCH79797 rescued BMX loss-mediated endothelial permeability and pulmonary leakage in early cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis. CONCLUSIONS:Acting as a negative regulator of PAR1, BMX promotes PAR1 internalization and signal inactivation through PAR1 phosphorylation. Moreover, BMX-mediated PAR1 internalization attenuates endothelial permeability to protect vascular leakage during early sepsis.
Project description:Nitric oxide-mediated activation of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels is considered an important underlying mechanism of sepsis-induced hypotension. Indeed, the nonselective K-channel inhibitor, tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), has been proposed as a potential treatment to raise blood pressure in septic shock by virtue of its ability to inhibit BK channels. As experimental evidence has so far relied on pharmacological inhibition, we examined the effects of channel deletion using BK? subunit knockout (?, Slo) mice in two mouse models of polymicrobial sepsis, namely, intraperitoneal fecal slurry and cecal ligation and puncture. Comparison was made against TEA treatment in wild-type (WT) mice. Following slurry, BK? and WT mice developed similar degrees of hypotension over 10 h with no difference in cardiac output as assessed by echocardiography between groups. Tetraethylammonium chloride raised blood pressure significantly in septic WT mice, but had no effect on survival. However, following cecal ligation and puncture, a significantly reduced survival was seen in both BK? mice and (high-dose) TEA-treated WT mice compared with untreated WT animals. In conclusion, the BK channel does not appear to be integral to sepsis-induced hypotension but does affect survival through other mechanisms. The pressor effect of TEA may be related to effects on other potassium channels.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Our goal was to "reverse translate" the human response to surgical sepsis into the mouse by modifying a widely adopted murine intra-abdominal sepsis model to engender a phenotype that conforms to current sepsis definitions and follows the most recent expert recommendations for animal preclinical sepsis research. Furthermore, we aimed to create a model that allows the study of aging on the long-term host response to sepsis. DESIGN:Experimental study. SETTING:Research laboratory. SUBJECTS:Young (3-5 mo) and old (18-22 mo) C57BL/6j mice. INTERVENTIONS:Mice received no intervention or were subjected to polymicrobial sepsis with cecal ligation and puncture followed by fluid resuscitation, analgesia, and antibiotics. Subsets of mice received daily chronic stress after cecal ligation and puncture for 14 days. Additionally, modifications were made to ensure that "Minimum Quality Threshold in Pre-Clinical Sepsis Studies" recommendations were followed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Old mice exhibited increased mortality following both cecal ligation and puncture and cecal ligation and puncture + daily chronic stress when compared with young mice. Old mice developed marked hepatic and/or renal dysfunction, supported by elevations in plasma aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine, 8 and 24 hours following cecal ligation and puncture. Similar to human sepsis, old mice demonstrated low-grade systemic inflammation 14 days after cecal ligation and puncture + daily chronic stress and evidence of immunosuppression, as determined by increased serum concentrations of multiple pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines when compared with young septic mice. In addition, old mice demonstrated expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cell populations and sustained weight loss following cecal ligation and puncture + daily chronic stress, again similar to the human condition. CONCLUSIONS:The results indicate that this murine cecal ligation and puncture + daily chronic stress model of surgical sepsis in old mice adhered to current Minimum Quality Threshold in Pre-Clinical Sepsis Studies guidelines and met Sepsis-3 criteria. In addition, it effectively created a state of persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and weight loss, thought to be a key aspect of chronic sepsis pathobiology and increasingly more prevalent after human sepsis.