Antigen expression from the ribosomal DNA repeat unit of Giardia intestinalis.
ABSTRACT: The amitochondrial human intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis is regarded to be the most ancient living example of single-celled eukaryotes and should display primitive features of pre-metazoan gene regulation. Characterization of E. coli clones which express Giardia antigens from plasmid vectors has revealed that an antigen is encoded by the rDNA repeat unit from the strand complementary to that encoding the rRNAs. The open reading frame (ORF) originates in the spacer region between the small (SS) and large (LS) subunit rRNA genes and terminates within the LS rRNA gene. The promoter region of this ORF has characteristics of both RNA polymerase (pol) II and pol III regulatory sequences, suggestive of gene regulation before these different promoter types evolved. The rDNA repeat unit is located on multiple chromosomal sites which are different in each isolate, although the electrophoretic karyotypes appear very stable in Giardia from both human and animal sources.
Project description:The identification of mitosomes in Giardia generated significant debate on the evolutionary origin of these organelles, whether they were highly reduced mitochondria or the product of a unique endosymbiotic event in an amitochondrial organism. As the protein import pathway is a defining characteristic of mitochondria, we sought to discover a TOM (translocase in the outer mitochondrial membrane) complex in Giardia. A Hidden Markov model search of the Giardia genome identified a Tom40 homologous sequence (GiTom40), where Tom40 is the protein translocation channel of the TOM complex. The GiTom40 protein is located in the membrane of mitosomes in a approximately 200-kDa TOM complex. As Tom40 was derived in the development of mitochondria to serve as the protein import channel in the outer membrane, its presence in Giardia evidences the mitochondrial ancestry of mitosomes.
Project description:The unrestrained proliferation of cancer cells requires a high level of ribosome biogenesis. The first stage of ribosome biogenesis is the transcription of the large ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs); the structural and functional components of the ribosome. Transcription of rRNA is carried out by RNA polymerase I (Pol-I) and its associated holoenzyme complex.Here we report that BRCA1, a nuclear phosphoprotein, and a known tumour suppressor involved in variety of cellular processes such as DNA damage response, transcriptional regulation, cell cycle control and ubiquitylation, is associated with rDNA repeats, in particular with the regulatory regions of the rRNA gene.We demonstrate that BRCA1 interacts directly with the basal Pol-I transcription factors; upstream binding factor (UBF), selectivity factor-1 (SL1) as well as interacting with RNA Pol-I itself. We show that in response to DNA damage, BRCA1 occupancy at the rDNA repeat is decreased and the observed BRCA1 interactions with the Pol-I transcription machinery are weakened.We propose, therefore, that there is a rDNA associated fraction of BRCA1 involved in DNA damage dependent regulation of Pol-I transcription, regulating the stability and formation of the Pol-I holoenzyme during initiation and/or elongation in response to DNA damage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like proteins (Ub-L) are critical regulators of complex cellular processes such as the cell cycle, DNA repair, transcription, chromatin remodeling, signal translation, and protein degradation. Giardia intestinalis possesses an experimentally proven Ub-conjugation system; however, a limited number of enzymes involved in this process were identified using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). This is due to the limitations of BLAST's ability to identify homologous functional regions when similarity between the sequences dips to < 30%. In addition Ub-Ls and their conjugating enzymes have not been fully elucidated in Giardia. OBJETIVE:To identify the enzymes involved in the Ub and Ub-Ls conjugation processes using intelligent systems based on the hidden Markov models (HMMs). METHODS:We performed an HMM search of functional Pfam domains found in the key enzymes of these pathways in Giardia's proteome. Each open reading frame identified was analysed by sequence homology, domain architecture, and transcription levels. FINDINGS:We identified 118 genes, 106 of which corresponded to the ubiquitination process (Ub, E1, E2, E3, and DUB enzymes). The E3 ligase group was the largest group with 82 members; 71 of which harbored a characteristic RING domain. Four Ub-Ls were identified and the conjugation enzymes for NEDD8 and URM1 were described for first time. The 3D model for Ub-Ls displayed the ?-grasp fold typical. Furthermore, our sequence analysis for the corresponding activating enzymes detected the essential motifs required for conjugation. MAIN CONCLUSIONS:Our findings highlight the complexity of Giardia's Ub-conjugation system, which is drastically different from that previously reported, and provides evidence for the presence of NEDDylation and URMylation enzymes in the genome and transcriptome of G. intestinalis.
Project description:Mitochondria are archetypal organelles of endosymbiotic origin in eukaryotic cells. Some unicellular eukaryotes (protists) were considered to be primarily amitochondrial organisms that diverged from the eukaryotic lineage before the acquisition of the premitochondrial endosymbiont, but their amitochondrial status was recently challenged by the discovery of mitochondria-like double membrane-bound organelles called mitosomes. Here, we report that proteins targeted into mitosomes of Giardia intestinalis have targeting signals necessary and sufficient to be recognized by the mitosomal protein import machinery. Expression of these mitosomal proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis results in targeting to hydrogenosomes, a hydrogen-producing form of mitochondria. We identify, in Giardia and Trichomonas, proteins related to the component of the translocase in the inner membrane from mitochondria and the processing peptidase. A shared mode of protein targeting supports the hypothesis that mitosomes, hydrogenosomes, and mitochondria represent different forms of the same fundamental organelle having evolved under distinct selection pressures.
Project description:We report genome-wide distribution of germ cell-specific linker histone variant H1T in cancer cell line AGS, MDA-MB-231, and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We found that H1T expressed not only testis but also non-germ cells such as cancer cells and pluripotent stem cells and showed the biased distribution at rDNA repeat unit. Moreover, on the rDNA region, H1T regulated the chromatin structure and pre-rRNA expression. This study using ChIP-seq analysis provides genomic distribution of H1T in non-germinal cells. ChIP-seq analysis of linker histone H1T in AGS, MDA-MB-231 and mESCs
Project description:We constructed yeast strains in which rRNA gene repeats are integrated at ectopic sites in the presence or absence of the native nucleolus. At all three ectopic sites analyzed, near centromere CEN5, near the telomere of chromosome VI-R, and in middle of chromosome V-R (mid-V-R), a functional nucleolus was formed, and no difference in the expression of rRNA genes was observed. When two ribosomal DNA (rDNA) arrays are present, one native and the other ectopic, there is codominance in polymerase I (Pol I) transcription. We also examined the expression of a single rDNA repeat integrated into ectopic loci in strains with or without the native RDN1 locus. In a strain with reduced rRNA gene copies at RDN1 (approximately 40 copies), the expression of a single rRNA gene copy near the telomere was significantly reduced relative to the other ectopic sites, suggesting a less-efficient recruitment of the Pol I machinery from the RDN1 locus. In addition, we found a single rRNA gene at mid-V-R was as active as that within the 40-copy RDN1. Combined with the results of activity analysis of a single versus two tandem copies at CEN5, we conclude that tandem repetition is not required for efficient rRNA gene transcription.
Project description:Pre-rRNA synthesis and processing are key steps in ribosome biogenesis. Although recent evidence in yeast suggests that these two processes are coupled, the nature of their association is unclear. In this report, we analyze the coordination between rDNA transcription and pre-rRNA processing in mammalian cells. We found that pol I transcription factor UBF interacts with pre-rRNA processing factors as analyzed by immunoprecipitations, and the association depends on active rRNA synthesis. In addition, injections of plasmids containing the human rDNA promoter and varying lengths of 18S rDNA into HeLa nuclei show that pol I transcription machinery can be recruited to rDNA promoters regardless of the product that is transcribed, whereas subgroups of pre-rRNA processing factors are recruited to plasmids only when specific pre-rRNA fragments are produced. Our observations suggest a model for sequential recruitment of pol I transcription factors and pre-rRNA processing factors to elongating pre-rRNA on an as-needed basis rather than corecruitment to sites of active transcription.
Project description:Upstream activating factor (UAF) is a multisubunit complex that functions in the activation of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). Cells lacking the Uaf30 subunit of UAF reduce the rRNA synthesis rate by approximately 70% compared to wild-type cells and produce rRNA using both Pol I and Pol II. Miller chromatin spreads demonstrated that even though there is an overall reduction in rRNA synthesis in uaf30 mutants, the active rDNA genes in such strains are overloaded with polymerases. This phenotype was specific to defects in Uaf30, as mutations in other UAF subunits resulted in a complete absence of rDNA genes with high or even modest Pol densities. The lack of Uaf30 prevented UAF from efficiently binding to the rDNA promoter in vivo, leading to an inability to activate a large number of rDNA genes. The relatively few genes that did become activated were highly transcribed, apparently to compensate for the reduced rRNA synthesis capacity. The results show that Uaf30p is a key targeting factor for the UAF complex that facilitates activation of a large proportion of rDNA genes in the tandem array.
Project description:Actin and nuclear myosin 1 (NM1) are emerging as regulators of transcription and chromatin organization. Using a genome-wide approach we report here that β-actin binds both intergenic and genic regions across the entire mammalian genome, associated with both protein-coding and rRNA genes. Across the rDNA transcription unit the distribution of β-actin correlated with NM1 and the other subunits of the B-WICH complex, WSTF and SNF2h. In β-actin-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we found that rRNA synthesis levels are down-regulated concomitantly with drops in Pol I and NM1 occupancies across the rRNA gene. In knock-in experiments, reintroduction of wild-type β-actin but not mutated forms with polymerization defects, rescued rRNA synthesis underscoring the direct role for β-actin in Pol I transcription and the importance of polymerization during the transcription process. The rRNA defects in the β-actin-/-MEFs are accompanied by epigenetic reprogramming that leads to up-regulation of the repressive mark H3K4me1. In addition, a high resolution chromatin accessibility assay showed that the absence of β-actin leads to a more compact chromatin at specific locations, including promoter-proximal enhancer (T0 sequence) and Sal boxes (T1-T10), disturbing binding of the transcription termination factor 1 (TTF1). We propose a novel mechanism where the polymerase-associated β-actin synergizes with NM1 to coordinate the establishment of permissive chromatin with the correct rDNA topology for Pol I transcription enhancement. Overall design: Association of beta-actin with the genome in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.
Project description:The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a specialized genomic region not only owing to its function as the nucleolar organizing region (NOR) but also because it is repetitive in nature and, at least in budding yeast, silenced for polymerase II (Pol II)-mediated transcription. Furthermore, cohesin-independent linkages hold the sister chromatids together at the rDNA loci, and their resolution requires the activity of the conserved protein phosphatase Cdc14. Here we show that rRNA transcription-dependent processes establish linkages at the rDNA, which affect segregation of this locus. Inactivation of Cfi1/Net1, a protein required for efficient rRNA transcription, or elimination of Pol I activity, which drives rRNA transcription, diminishes the need for CDC14 in rDNA segregation. Our results identify Pol I transcription-dependent processes as a novel means of establishing linkages between chromosomes.