Methylcap-seq reveals novel DNA methylation markers for the diagnosis and recurrence prediction of bladder cancer in a Chinese population.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: There is a need to supplement or supplant the conventional diagnostic tools, namely, cystoscopy and B-type ultrasound, for bladder cancer (BC). We aimed to identify novel DNA methylation markers for BC through genome-wide profiling of BC cell lines and subsequent methylation-specific PCR (MSP) screening of clinical urine samples. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The methyl-DNA binding domain (MBD) capture technique, methylCap/seq, was performed to screen for specific hypermethylated CpG islands in two BC cell lines (5637 and T24). The top one hundred hypermethylated targets were sequentially screened by MSP in urine samples to gradually narrow the target number and optimize the composition of the diagnostic panel. The diagnostic performance of the obtained panel was evaluated in different clinical scenarios. RESULTS: A total of 1,627 hypermethylated promoter targets in the BC cell lines was identified by Illumina sequencing. The top 104 hypermethylated targets were reduced to eight genes (VAX1, KCNV1, ECEL1, TMEM26, TAL1, PROX1, SLC6A20, and LMX1A) after the urine DNA screening in a small sample size of 8 normal control and 18 BC subjects. Validation in an independent sample of 212 BC patients enabled the optimization of five methylation targets, including VAX1, KCNV1, TAL1, PPOX1, and CFTR, which was obtained in our previous study, for BC diagnosis with a sensitivity and specificity of 88.68% and 87.25%, respectively. In addition, the methylation of VAX1 and LMX1A was found to be associated with BC recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a promising diagnostic marker panel for early non-invasive detection and subsequent BC surveillance.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to identify novel DNA methylation markers in bladder cancer (BCa) through genome-wide profiling of bladder cancer cell lines and subsequent MSP screening in urine samples. Experimental Design: MBD methylCap/seq was carried out to screen differentially methylated CpG islands using two BCa cell lines (5637 and T24) and two normal bladder mucosa (BM) samples. The top one hundred most hypermethylated targets were screened using Methylation Specific PCR (MSP) in small and big cohort of urine samples from BCa patients and normal controls. The diagnostic performance of the gene panel was further evaluated in different clinical scenarios. Results: In total, 1,627 gene promoter regions hypermethylated in BCa cell line were identified in genomic level methylation profiling. The followed screening procedure in clinical urine sample generated eight genes (VAX1, KCNV1, ECEL1, TMEM26, TAL1, PROX1, SLC6A20, and LMX1A) capable of differentiating BCa from normal control. Subsequent validation in a large sample size enabled the optimisation of 5 methylation targets (VAX1, KCNV1, TAL1, PPOX1 and CFTR) for BCa diagnosis with sensitivity and specificity of 86.32% and 87.13%, respectively. In addition, VAX1 and LMX1A methylation could predict the tumour recurrence. Conclusions: Tumor specific biomarkers of BCa could be established by first performing genome level methylation profiling with cell lines and then screening the potential targets in urine samples. The panel of methylated genes identified was promising for the early non-invasive detection and surveillance of BCa. Overall design: MBD methylCap/seq was carried out to screen differentially methylated CpG islands using two BCa cell lines (5637 and T24), and two normal bladder tissue mix as control.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to identify novel DNA methylation markers in bladder cancer (BCa) through genome-wide profiling of bladder cancer cell lines and subsequent MSP screening in urine samples. Experimental Design: MBD methylCap/seq was carried out to screen differentially methylated CpG islands using two BCa cell lines (5637 and T24) and two normal bladder mucosa (BM) samples. The top one hundred most hypermethylated targets were screened using Methylation Specific PCR (MSP) in small and big cohort of urine samples from BCa patients and normal controls. The diagnostic performance of the gene panel was further evaluated in different clinical scenarios. Results: In total, 1,627 gene promoter regions hypermethylated in BCa cell line were identified in genomic level methylation profiling. The followed screening procedure in clinical urine sample generated eight genes (VAX1, KCNV1, ECEL1, TMEM26, TAL1, PROX1, SLC6A20, and LMX1A) capable of differentiating BCa from normal control. Subsequent validation in a large sample size enabled the optimisation of 5 methylation targets (VAX1, KCNV1, TAL1, PPOX1 and CFTR) for BCa diagnosis with sensitivity and specificity of 86.32% and 87.13%, respectively. In addition, VAX1 and LMX1A methylation could predict the tumour recurrence. Conclusions: Tumor specific biomarkers of BCa could be established by first performing genome level methylation profiling with cell lines and then screening the potential targets in urine samples. The panel of methylated genes identified was promising for the early non-invasive detection and surveillance of BCa. MBD methylCap/seq was carried out to screen differentially methylated CpG islands using two BCa cell lines (5637 and T24), and two normal bladder tissue mix as control.
Project description:Epigenetic modification is considered a major mechanism of the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes that finally contributes to carcinogenesis. LIM homeobox transcription factor 1? (LMX1A) is one of the LIM-homeobox-containing genes that is a critical regulator of growth and differentiation. Recently, LMX1A was shown to be hypermethylated and functioned as a tumor suppressor in cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and gastric cancer. However, its role in lung cancer has not yet been clarified. In this study, we used public databases, methylation-specific PCR (MSP), reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and bisulfite genomic sequencing to show that LMX1A was downregulated or silenced due to promoter hypermethylation in lung cancers. Treatment of lung cancer cells with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored LMX1A expression. In the lung cancer cell lines H23 and H1299, overexpression of LMX1A did not affect cell proliferation but suppressed colony formation and invasion. These suppressive effects were reversed after inhibition of LMX1A expression in an inducible expression system in H23 cells. The quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) data showed that LMX1A could modulate epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) through E-cadherin (CDH1) and fibronectin (FN1). NanoString gene expression analysis revealed that all aberrantly expressed genes were associated with processes related to cancer progression, including angiogenesis, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, EMT, cancer metastasis, and hypoxia-related gene expression. Taken together, these data demonstrated that LMX1A is inactivated through promoter hypermethylation and functions as a tumor suppressor. Furthermore, LMX1A inhibits non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell invasion partly through modulation of EMT, angiogenesis, and ECM remodeling.
Project description:Using pharmacological unmasking microarray, we identified promoter DNA methylation of cysteine dioxygenase 1 (CDO1) gene in human cancer. In this study, we assessed the clinicopathological significance of CDO1 methylation in primary breast cancer (BC) with no prior chemotherapy. The CDO1 DNA methylation was quantified by TaqMan methylation specific PCR (Q-MSP) in 7 BC cell lines and 172 primary BC patients with no prior chemotherapy. Promoter DNA of the CDO1 gene was hypermethylated in 6 BC cell lines except SK-BR3, and CDO1 gene expression was all silenced at mRNA level in the 7 BC cell lines. Quantification of CDO1 methylation was developed using Q-MSP, and assessed in primary BC. Among the clinicopathologic factors, CDO1 methylation level was not statistically significantly associated with any prognostic factors. The log-rank plot analysis elucidated that the higher methylation the tumors harbored, the poorer prognosis the patients exhibited. Using the median value of 58.0 as a cut-off one, disease specific survival in BC patients with CDO1 hypermethylation showed significantly poorer prognosis than those with hypomethylation (p = 0.004). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model identified that CDO1 hypermethylation was prognostic factor as well as Ki-67 and hormone receptor status. The most intriguingly, CDO1 hypermethylation was of robust prognostic relevance in triple negative BC (p = 0.007). Promoter DNA methylation of CDO1 gene was robust prognostic indicator in primary BC patients with no prior chemotherapy. Prognostic relevance of the CDO1 promoter DNA methylation is worthy of being paid attention in triple negative BC cancer.
Project description:Breast cancer (BC) is the foremost cause of cancer related deaths in women globally. Currently there is a scarcity of reliable biomarkers for its early stage diagnosis and theranostics monitoring. Altered DNA methylation patterns leading to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes are considered as an important mechanism underlying tumor development and progression in various cancer types, including BC. Very recently, epigenetic silencing of SHISA3, an antagonist of ?-catenin, has been reported in various types of tumor. However, the role of SHISA3 in BC has not been investigated yet. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the contribution of SHISA3 in BC causation by analyzing its expression and methylation levels in BC cell lines (MDA-MB231, MCF-7 and BT-474) and in 103 paired BC tissue samples. The SHISA3 expression and methylation status was determined by qPCR and methylation specific PCR (MSP) respectively. The role of SHISA3 in BC tumorigenesis was evaluated by proliferation and migration assays after ectopic expression of SHISA3. The association between SHISA3 hypermethylation and clinicopathological parameters of BC patients was also studied. The downregulation of SHISA3 expression was found in three BC cell lines used and in all BC tissue samples. However, SHISA3 promoter region was hypermethylated in 61% (63/103) tumorous tissues in comparison to the 18% of their matched normal tissues. The 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment restored SHISA3 expression by reversing promoter hypermethylation in both MDA-MB231 and MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of SHISA3 significantly reduced the proliferation and migration ability of these cells. Taken together, our findings for the first time reveal epigenetic silencing and tumor suppressing role of SHISA3 in BC. Henceforth, this study has identified SHISA3 as potentially powerful target for the development of new therapies against BC, as well as novel diagnostic and therapy response monitoring approaches.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world and the incidence is particularly high in southwestern Taiwan. Previous studies have identified several tumor-related genes that are hypermethylated in bladder cancer; however the DNA methylation profile of bladder cancer in Taiwan is not fully understood. METHODS: In this study, we compared the DNA methylation profile of multiple tumor suppressor genes (APC, DAPK, E-cadherin, hMLH1, IRF8, p14, p15, RASSF1A, SFRP1 and SOCS-1) in bladder cancer patients from different Chinese sub-populations including Taiwan (104 cases), Hong Kong (82 cases) and China (24 cases) by MSP. Two normal human urothelium were also included as control. To investigate the diagnostic potential of using DNA methylation in non-invasive detection of bladder cancer, degree of methylation of DAPK, IRF8, p14, RASSF1A and SFRP1 was also accessed by quantitative MSP in urine samples from thirty bladder cancer patients and nineteen non-cancer controls. RESULTS: There were distinct DNA methylation epigenotypes among the different sub-populations. Further, samples from Taiwan and China demonstrated a bimodal distribution suggesting that CpG island methylator phentotype (CIMP) is presented in bladder cancer. Moreover, the number of methylated genes in samples from Taiwan and Hong Kong were significantly correlated with histological grade (P < 0.01) and pathological stage (P < 0.01). Regarding the samples from Taiwan, methylation of SFRP1, IRF8, APC and RASSF1A were significantly associated with increased tumor grade, stage. Methylation of RASSF1A was associated with tumor recurrence. Patients with methylation of APC or RASSF1A were also significantly associated with shorter recurrence-free survival. For methylation detection in voided urine samples of cancer patients, the sensitivity and specificity of using any of the methylated genes (IRF8, p14 or sFRP1) by qMSP was 86.7% and 94.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that there are distinct methylation epigenotypes among different Chinese sub-populations. These profiles demonstrate gradual increases with cancer progression. Finally, detection of gene methylation in voided urine with these distinct DNA methylation markers is more sensitive than urine cytology.
Project description:Background:Genome-wide studies identified pan-cancer genes and shared biological networks affected by epigenetic dysregulation among diverse tumor entities. Here, we systematically screened for hypermethylation of DNA damage repair (DDR) genes in a comprehensive candidate-approach and exemplarily identify and validate candidate DDR genes as targets of epigenetic inactivation unique to bladder cancer (BLCA), which may serve as non-invasive biomarkers. Methods:Genome-wide DNA methylation datasets (2755 CpG probes of n?=?7819 tumor and n?=?659 normal samples) of the TCGA network covering 32 tumor entities were analyzed in silico for 177 DDR genes. Genes of interest were defined as differentially methylated between normal and cancerous tissues proximal to transcription start sites. The lead candidate gene was validated by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and/or bisulfite-pyrosequencing in different human cell lines (n?=?36), in primary BLCA tissues (n?=?43), and in voided urine samples (n?=?74) of BLCA patients. Urines from healthy donors and patients with urological benign and malignant diseases were included as controls (n?=?78). mRNA expression was determined using qRT-PCR in vitro before (n?=?5) and after decitabine treatment (n?=?2). Protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (n?=?42). R 3.2.0. was used for statistical data acquisition and SPSS 21.0 for statistical analysis. Results:Overall, 39 DDR genes were hypermethylated in human cancers. Most exclusively and frequently methylated (37%) in primary BLCA was RBBP8, encoding endonuclease CtIP. RBBP8 hypermethylation predicted longer overall survival (OS) and was found in 2/4 bladder cancer cell lines but not in any of 33 cancer cell lines from entities with another origin like prostate. RBBP8 methylation was inversely correlated with RBBP8 mRNA and nuclear protein expression while RBBP8 was re-expressed after in vitro demethylation. RBBP8 methylation was associated with histological grade in primary BLCA and urine samples. RBBP8 methylation was detectable in urine samples of bladder cancer patients achieving a sensitivity of 52%, at 91% specificity. Conclusions:RBBP8 was identified as almost exclusively hypermethylated in BLCA. RBBP8/CtIP has a proven role in homologous recombination-mediated DNA double-strand break repair known to sensitize cancer cells for PARP1 inhibitors. Since RBBP8 methylation was detectable in urines, it may be a complementary marker of high specificity in urine for BLCA detection.
Project description:DNA methylation analysis of full void urine and urine pellet seems promising for bladder cancer (BC) detection and surveillance. Urinary cell-free DNA from urine supernatant is now gaining interest for other molecular tests in BC. This study aims to evaluate which urine fraction is preferred for BC diagnosis using methylation markers: full void urine, urine pellet or supernatant. Methylation levels of nine markers were determined in the three urine fractions and correlated with their respective tumor tissues in BC patients and compared to controls. For all markers and marker panel GHSR/MAL, diagnostic performance was determined by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of the respective receiver operating characteristic curves. For most of the markers, there was a significant correlation between the methylation levels in each of the urine fractions and the matched tumor tissues. Urine pellet was the most representative fraction. Generally, AUCs for BC diagnosis were comparable among the fractions. The highest AUC was obtained for GHSR/MAL in urine pellet: AUC 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.00), corresponding to a sensitivity of 78.6% and a specificity of 91.7%. Our results demonstrate that cellular and cell-free DNA in urine can be used for BC diagnosis by urinary methylation analysis. Based on our comparative analysis and for practical reasons, we recommend the use of urine pellet.
Project description:Genome-wide methylation profiling is used in breast cancer (BC) studies, because DNA methylation is a crucial epigenetic regulator of gene expression, involved in many diseases including BC. We investigated genome-wide methylation profiles in both canine mammary tumor (CMT) tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and found unique CMT-enriched methylation signatures. A total of 2.2-4.2 million cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites were analyzed in both CMT tissues and PBMCs, which included 40,000 and 28,000 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with 341 and 247 promoters of differentially methylated genes (DMGs) in CMT tissues and PBMCs, respectively. Genes related to apoptosis and ion transmembrane transport were hypermethylated, but cell proliferation and oncogene were hypomethylated in tumor tissues. Gene ontology analysis using DMGs in PBMCs revealed significant methylation changes in the subset of immune cells and host defense system-related genes, especially chemokine signaling pathway-related genes. Moreover, a number of CMT tissue-enriched DMRs were identified from the promoter regions of various microRNAs (miRNAs), including cfa-mir-96 and cfa-mir-149, which were reported as cancer-associated miRNAs in humans. We also identified novel miRNAs associated with CMT which can be candidates for new miRNAs associated with human BC. This study may provide new insight for a better understanding of aberrant methylation associated with both human BC and CMT, as well as possible targets for methylation-based BC diagnostic markers.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Aberrant DNA methylation is frequently found in human malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). While most studies focus on later disease stages, the onset of aberrant DNA methylation events and their dynamics during leukemic progression are largely unknown. METHODS: We screened genome-wide for aberrant CpG island methylation in three disease stages of a murine AML model that is driven by hypomorphic expression of the hematopoietic transcription factor PU.1. DNA methylation levels of selected genes were correlated with methylation levels of CD34+ cells and lineage negative, CD127-, c-Kit+, Sca-1+ cells; common myeloid progenitors; granulocyte-macrophage progenitors; and megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors. RESULTS: We identified 1,184 hypermethylated array probes covering 762 associated genes in the preleukemic stage. During disease progression, the number of hypermethylated genes increased to 5,465 in the late leukemic disease stage. Using publicly available data, we found a significant enrichment of PU.1 binding sites in the preleukemic hypermethylated genes, suggesting that shortage of PU.1 makes PU.1 binding sites in the DNA accessible for aberrant methylation. Many known AML associated genes such as RUNX1 and HIC1 were found among the preleukemic hypermethylated genes. Nine novel hypermethylated genes, FZD5, FZD8, PRDM16, ROBO3, CXCL14, BCOR, ITPKA, HES6 and TAL1, the latter four being potential PU.1 targets, were confirmed to be hypermethylated in human normal karyotype AML patients, underscoring the relevance of the mouse model for human AML. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified early aberrantly methylated genes as potential contributors to onset and progression of AML.