Early treatment with olmesartan prevents juxtamedullary glomerular podocyte injury and the onset of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic rats.
ABSTRACT: Studies were performed to determine if early treatment with an angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blocker (ARB), olmesartan, prevents the onset of microalbuminuria by attenuating glomerular podocyte injury in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.OLETF rats were treated with either a vehicle, olmesartan (10 mg/kg/day) or a combination of nonspecific vasodilators (hydralazine 15 mg/kg/day, hydrochlorothiazide 6 mg/kg/day, and reserpine 0.3 mg/kg/day; HHR) from the age of 7-25 weeks.OLETF rats were hypertensive and had microalbuminuria from 9 weeks of age. At 15 weeks, OLETF rats had higher Ang II levels in the kidney, larger glomerular desmin-staining areas (an index of podocyte injury), and lower gene expression of nephrin in juxtamedullary glomeruli, than nondiabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. At 25 weeks, OLETF rats showed overt albuminuria, and higher levels of Ang II in the kidney and larger glomerular desmin-staining areas in superficial and juxtamedullary glomeruli compared to LETO rats. Reductions in mRNA levels of nephrin were also observed in superficial and juxtamedullary glomeruli. Although olmesartan did not affect glucose metabolism, it decreased blood pressure and prevented the renal changes in OLETF rats. HHR treatment also reduced blood pressure, but did not affect the renal parameters.This study demonstrated that podocyte injury occurs in juxtamedullary glomeruli prior to superficial glomeruli in type 2 diabetic rats with microalbuminuria. Early treatment with an ARB may prevent the onset of albuminuria through its protective effects on juxtamedullary glomerular podocytes.
Project description:Whether temporary angiotensin II (AngII) blockade at the prediabetic stage attenuates renal injury in type 2 diabetic OLETF rats later in life was investigated. OLETF rats were treated with an AT(1) receptor antagonist (olmesartan, 0.01% in food), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (temocapril, 0.01% in food), a combination of the two, or hydralazine (25 mg/kg per d) at the prediabetic stage (4 to 11 wk of age) and then monitored without further treatment until 50 wk of age. At 11 wk of age, blood glucose levels and urinary protein excretion (U(protein)V) were similar between OLETF and control LETO rats. However, OLETF rats showed higher kidney AngII contents and type IV collagen mRNA expression than LETO rats at this age. These decreased with olmesartan, temocapril, and a combination of these but not with hydralazine. At 50 wk of age, diabetic OLETF rats showed higher BP, U(protein)V, and intrarenal AngII levels than LETO rats. Temporary AngII blockade did not affect glucose metabolism or the development of hypertension in OLETF rats but significantly suppressed proteinuria and ameliorated glomerular injury. However, no parameters were affected by temporary hydralazine treatment. The present study demonstrated that intrarenal AngII and type IV collagen expression are already augmented long before diabetes becomes apparent in OLETF rats. Furthermore, temporary AngII blockade at the prediabetic stage attenuates the progression of renal injury in these animals. These data suggest that early AngII blockade could be an effective strategy for preventing the development of type 2 diabetic renal injury later in life.
Project description:In the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, angiotensinogen levels are well known to be increased in diabetes, and these enhanced intrarenal angiotensinogen levels may initiate the development and accelerate the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, the specific localization of the augmented angiotensinogen in proximal tubule segments in diabetes is still unknown. We investigated the detailed localization of angiotensinogen in 3 proximal tubule segments in the diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats and the control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. We also prepared OLETF rats treated with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, olmesartan or with a combination of vasodilator agents. Moreover, biopsied samples of human kidney cortex were used to confirm the results of animal studies. We examined the co-localization of angiotensinogen with segment-specific markers by double staining using fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or immunofluorescence. Angiotensinogen mRNA expression was barely detectable in segment 1. In segment 3, the area of angiotensinogen mRNA expression was augmented in the OLETF rats compared with the LETO rats. Angiotensinogen protein expression areas in segments 1 and 3 were also increased in the OLETF rats compared with the LETO rats. Chronic treatment with olmesartan ameliorated these areas of augmented angiotensinogen expression. Biopsied human kidney samples showed similar results. These data suggest that the augmented angiotensinogen mRNA levels in segment 3 and angiotensinogen protein levels in segments 1 and 3 may contribute to the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
Project description:Previous reports have shown that the early postnatal environment has the ability to modify the obesity phenotype of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. To determine whether this early postnatal environment affects hypothalamic signaling systems involved in energy balance, OLETF pups and lean Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) pups were cross-fostered to same or opposite strain Dams (designated as LdLp: LETO pups with LETO dams; LdOp: OLETF pups with LETO dams; OdLp: LETO pups with OLETF dams; and OdOp: OLETF pups with OLETF dams). Hypothalamic gene expression was examined at postnatal day 23 (PND 23) and PND 90 as OdOp rats started to gain more body weight at PND 23 and developed obesity at PND 90 relative to lean control LdLp rats. On PND 23, neuropeptide Y (Npy) gene expression was significantly increased in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) in both LdOp and OdOp pups compared to LdLp pups. Maternal environment did not affect DMH Npy expression in LETO weanlings. On PND 90, maternal environment during the cross-fostering period had a major effect on DMH Npy expression. Levels were significantly increased in both OdOp and OdLp rats relative to those in LdOp rats and LdLp controls. Reduced expression of Npy in the DMH of LdOp rats was consistent with their reduction of body weight compared to OdOp rats. In contrast to DMH Npy, gene expression for Npy and proopiomelanocortin in the arcuate nucleus appeared to appropriately respond to alterations in body weight and plasma leptin levels. Levels of oxytocin gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus were lower in offspring raised by LETO dams apparently responding to the higher DMH NPY levels. Together, our results demonstrate effects of both genotype and early postnatal environment on obesity of OLETF rats and further suggest an important role of DMH NPY in the development of obesity of OLETF rats.
Project description:Pathological activation of the renin-angiotensin system and inflammation are associated with hypertension and the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The contributions of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) activation, independent of blood pressure, and inflammation to glucose intolerance and renal damage are not well defined. Using a rat model of MetS, we hypothesized that the onset of glucose intolerance is primarily mediated by AT1 activation and inflammation independent of elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP). To address this hypothesis, we measured changes in SBP, adiposity, plasma glucose and triglyceride levels, and glucose tolerance in six groups of rats: 1) lean, strain control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO; n = 5), 2) obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF; n = 8), 3) OLETF + angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB; 10 mg olmesartan/kg; n = 8), 4) OLETF + tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) inhibitor (ETAN; 1.25 mg etanercept/kg; n = 6), 5) OLETF + TNF-? inhibitor + angiotensin receptor blocker (ETAN+ARB; 1.25 mg etanercept/kg + 10 mg olmesartan/kg; n = 6), and 6) OLETF + calcium channel blocker (CCB; 5 mg amlodipine/kg; n = 7). ARB and ETAN+ARB were most effective at decreasing SBP in OLETF, and ETAN did not offer any additional reduction. Glucose tolerance improved in ARB, ETAN, and ETAN+ARB compared with OLETF, whereas CCB had no detectable effect. Furthermore, all treatments reduced adiposity, whereas ETAN alone normalized urinary albumin excretion. These results suggest that AT1 activation and inflammation are primary factors in the development of glucose intolerance in a setting of MetS and that the associated increase in SBP is primarily mediated by AT1 activation.
Project description:We employed next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology to determine the influence of obesity on global gene expression in skeletal muscle feed arteries. Transcriptional profiles of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle feed arteries (GFA and SFA, respectively) and aortic endothelial cell-enriched samples from obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and lean Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were examined. Obesity produced 282 upregulated and 133 downregulated genes in SFA and 163 upregulated and 77 downregulated genes in GFA [false discovery rate (FDR) < 10%] with an overlap of 93 genes between the arteries. In LETO rats, there were 89 upregulated and 114 downregulated genes in the GFA compared with the SFA. There were 244 upregulated and 275 downregulated genes in OLETF rats (FDR < 10%) in the GFA compared with the SFA, with an overlap of 76 differentially expressed genes common to both LETO and OLETF rats in both the GFA and SFA. A total of 396 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed between LETO and OLETF in aortic endothelial cell-enriched samples. Overall, we found 1) the existence of heterogeneity in the transcriptional profile of the SFA and GFA within healthy LETO rats, 2) that this between-vessel heterogeneity was markedly exacerbated in the hyperphagic, obese OLETF rat, and 3) a greater number of genes whose expression was altered by obesity in the SFA compared with the GFA. Also, results indicate that in OLETF rats the GFA takes on a relatively more proatherogenic phenotype compared with the SFA.
Project description:Chronic heavy alcohol consumption may raise the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Saponins inhibit apoptosis of pancreatic islet cells and reduce lipid parameters. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of saponin on chronic ethanol-treated diabetic rats.Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (LETO) and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were pair-fed a Lieber-DeCarli diet with and without 5% ethanol for 12 wks. Two weeks after starting the pair-feeding with the Lieber-DeCarli diet, intraperitoneal injection of saponin was performed for 10 wks. To perform the experiments, rats were divided as follows: LETO-Control (LC), LETO-Ethanol (LE), LETO-Ethanol-Saponin (LES), OLETF-Control (OC), OLETF-Ethanol (OE), and OLETF-Ethanol-Saponin (OES).The weights of epididymal and mesenteric fat tissue in LES and OES rats were the lightest from among the LETO and OLETF groups, respectively. The secretion of alanine aminotransferase and cholesterol in OES rats decreased significantly compared to their secretion in OC and OE rats, respectively. The islets of the pancreas in LE and OE rats showed clean, unclear, and smaller morphology compared to those of LC, LES, OC, and OES rats. In addition, the expression of insulin in the islets of the pancreas in LC, LES, OC, and OES rats was higher than in LE and OE rats.Saponin may not only be helpful in alleviating the rapid progress of diabetes due to chronic alcohol consumption in diabetic patients, but may also show potential as an antidiabetic drug candidate for diabetic patients who chronically consume alcohol.
Project description:Injury to podocytes is considered a major contributor to diabetic kidney disease: their loss causes proteinuria and progressive glomerulosclerosis. Podocyte depletion may result from improper calcium handling due to abnormal activation of the calcium permeant TRPC (Transient Receptor Potential Canonical) channels. Angiotensin II (Ang II) levels are found to be elevated in diabetes; furthermore, it was reported that Ang II causes activation of TRPC6 in podocytes. We hypothesized here that Ang II-mediated calcium influx is aggravated in the podocytes under the conditions of type 1 diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetes was induced in the Dahl Salt-Sensitive rats by an injection of streptozotocin (STZ-SS). Eleven weeks post treatment was sufficient for the animals to develop hyperglycemia, excessive urination, weight loss, microalbuminuria, nephrinuria and display renal histological lesions typical for patients with DN. Patch-clamp electrophysiology performed on podocytes of the freshly isolated glomeruli showed enhanced basal TRPC channel activity in the STZ-SS rats, and increased response to Ang II; total calcium influx triggered by Ang II application was also augmented in podocytes of these rats. Our studies have a strong potential for advancing the understanding of TRPC-mediated effects on podocytopenia in DN initiation.
Project description:Obese female Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats display increased nursing time and frequency compared to lean LETO controls, suggesting a maternal contribution to pup preobesity. In previous studies, OLETF pups presented high adiposity, showed greater suckling efficiency, initiative and weight gain from nursing than controls throughout lactation. To further elucidate maternal-infant interactions contributing to pup preobesity, we cross-fostered pups a day after birth and examined maternal behavior. Nursing frequency decreased in OLETF dams raising LETO pups (OdLp) in the third postnatal week, while LETO dams raising OLETF pups showed no significant changes. Fat % was greater in the milk of OLETF versus LETO dams. OdLp pups showed long-term body weight (BW) increase, suggesting that maternal environment can induce BW increases even in the absence of a genetic tendency. Additionally, interaction between OLETF dams and pups produces high nursing frequency, exposing the pups to abundant high-fat milk, thus strengthening their preobese phenotype.
Project description:Alteration in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in diabetic hearts and its effect on cytoprotective signaling are unclear. Here, we examine the hypothesis that ER stress in diabetic hearts impairs phospho-glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta-mediated suppression of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, compromising myocardial response to cytoprotective signaling.A rat model of type 2 diabetes (OLETF) and its control (LETO) were treated with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) (100 mg . kg(-1) . day(-1) for 7 days), an ER stress modulator. Infarction was induced by 20-min coronary occlusion and 2-h reperfusion.Levels of ER chaperones (GRP78 and GRP94) in the myocardium and level of nonphoshopho-GSK-3beta in the mitochondria were significantly higher in OLETF than in LETO rats. TUDCA normalized levels of GRP78 and GRP94 and mitochondrial GSK-3beta in OLETF rats. Administration of erythropoietin (EPO) induced phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta and reduced infarct size (% risk area) from 47.4 +/- 5.2% to 23.9 +/- 3.5% in LETO hearts. However, neither phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta nor infarct size limitation was induced by EPO in OLETF rats. The threshold for mPTP opening was significantly lower in mitochondria from EPO-treated OLETF rats than in those from EPO-treated LETO rats. TUDCA restored responses of GSK-3beta, mPTP opening threshold, and infarct size to EPO receptor activation in OLETF rats. There was a significant correlation between mPTP opening threshold and phospho-GSK-3beta-to-total GSK-3beta ratio in the mitochondrial fraction.Disruption of protective signals leading to GSK-3beta phosphorylation and increase in mitochondrial GSK-3beta are dual mechanisms by which increased ER stress inhibits EPO-induced suppression of mPTP opening and cardioprotection in diabetic hearts.
Project description:Uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP) plays an important role in controlling vascular tone; however, UDP-mediated response in metabolic syndromes, including obesity and type 2 diabetes in females, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated UDP-mediated response in the aorta of female obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. In OLETF rat aortas precontracted by phenylephrine (PE) (vs. LETO), (1) UDP-induced relaxation was increased, whereas acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation was decreased; (2) no UDP- or ACh-induced relaxations were observed in endothelial denudation, whereas UDP-induced small contraction was observed; and (3) NG-nitro-L-arginine [L-NNA, a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor] eliminated UDP-induced relaxation and small contraction, whereas caused contrasting responses by ACh, including slight relaxations (LETO) and contractions (OLETF). Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, eliminated the difference in UDP- and ACh-induced relaxations between the groups by increased UDP-induced relaxation in the LETO group and increased ACh-induced relaxation in the OLETF group. MRS2578, a P2Y6 receptor antagonist, eliminated the difference in UDP-induced relaxations between the groups by decreasing UDP-induced relaxation in the OLETF group. MRS2578 had no effect on UDP-induced contraction in endothelium-denuded aortas. Therefore, these findings demonstrate opposite trends of relaxations by UDP and ACh in OLETF and LETO rat aortas. These differences may be attributed to the imbalance between NO and vasoconstrictor prostanoids upon stimulations. Increased UDP-induced relaxation in OLETF rat aorta may be caused by the activation of endothelial MRS2578-sensitive P2Y6 receptor.