Prevention of type 1 diabetes in the rat with an allele-specific anti-T-cell receptor antibody: V?13 as a therapeutic target and biomarker.
ABSTRACT: In earlier studies of the Iddm14 diabetes susceptibility locus in the rat, we identified an allele of the T-cell receptor (TCR) ?-chain, Tcrb-V13S1A1, as a candidate gene. To establish its importance, we treated susceptible rats with a depleting anti-rat V?13 monoclonal antibody and then exposed them to either polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid or a diabetogenic virus to induce diabetes. The overall frequency of diabetes in the controls was 74% (n = 50), compared with 17% (n = 30) in the anti-V?13-treated animals, with minimal islet pathology in nondiabetic treated animals. T cells isolated from islets on day 5 after starting induction showed a greater proportion of V?13(+) T cells than did peripheral lymph node T cells. V?13 transcripts recovered from day 5 islets revealed focused J? usage and less CDR3 diversity than did transcripts from peripheral V?13(+) T cells. CDR3 usage was not skewed in control V?16 CDR3 transcripts. Anti-rat V?13 antibody also prevented spontaneous diabetes in BBDP rats. The Iddm14 gene is likely to be Tcrb-V13, indicating that TCR ?-chain usage is a determinant of susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes in rats. It may be possible to prevent autoimmune diabetes by targeting a limited element of the T-cell repertoire.
Project description:The earliest events leading to autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) are not known in any species. A T-cell receptor (TCR)-variable region, TCR-V?13, is required for susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes in rats, and selective depletion of V?13(+) T cells with an allele-specific monoclonal antibody prevents disease in multiple rat strains. To investigate the role of V?13 early in diabetes, we examined islet T-cell transcripts in susceptible (LEW.1WR1) and resistant (LEW.1W and Wistar Furth) strains induced with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid. V?13(+) T cells displayed antigenic focusing in LEW.1WR1 islets 5 days postinduction and were characterized by a substantial decrease in complementarity determining region 3 diversity. This occurred prior to significant islet T-cell accumulation (day 7) or frank diabetes (days 10-14). V?13(+) transcripts increased in LEW.1WR1 islets during diabetes progression, but not in resistant rats. We also analyzed transcript clonality of rat TCR-V?5, an ortholog of the dominant TCR-V? chain found on insulin B:9-23-reactive T cells in nonobese diabetic rat islets. We observed clonal expansion of V?5(+) transcripts in prediabetic LEW.1WR1 islets, suggesting that rat V?5 is also an important component of islet autoantigen recognition. These data provide additional evidence that genome-encoded TCR sequences are important determinants of genetic susceptibility to T1D.
Project description:Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are direct effectors of tumor immunity, and their characterization is important for further development of immunotherapy. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have enabled a comprehensive analysis of T-cell receptor (TCR) complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequences, which may provide information of therapeutic importance. We developed a high-fidelity target sequencing method with the ability for absolute quantitation, and performed large-scale sequencing of TCR beta chain (TCRB) CDR3 regions in TILs and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). The estimated TCRB repertoire sizes of PBLs from four healthy individuals and TILs from four colorectal cancer tissue samples were 608,664-1,003,098 and 90,228-223,757, respectively. The usage of J- and V-regions was similar in PBLs and TILs. Proportions of CDR3 amino acid (aa) sequences occupying more than 0.01% of the total molecular population were 0.33-0.43% in PBLs and 1.3-3.6% in TILs. Additional low coverage sequencing of 15 samples identified five CDR3 aa sequences that were shared by nine patients, one sequence shared by 10 patients, and one sequence shared by 12 patients. The estimated size of the TCRB repertoire in TILs was significantly smaller than that in PBLs. The proportion of abundant species (>0.01%) in TILs was larger than that in PBLs. Shared CDR3 aa sequences represent a response to common antigens, and the identification of such CDR3 sequences may be beneficial in developing clinical biomarkers.
Project description:Defects in T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire are proposed to predispose to autoimmunity. Here we show, by analyzing >2?×?108 TCRB sequences of circulating naive, central memory, regulatory and stem cell-like memory CD4+ T cell subsets from patients with type 1 diabetes and healthy donors, that patients have shorter TCRB complementarity-determining region 3s (CDR3), in all cell subsets, introduced by increased deletions/reduced insertions during VDJ rearrangement. High frequency of short CDR3s is also observed in unproductive TCRB sequences, which are not subjected to thymic culling, suggesting that the shorter CDR3s arise independently of positive/negative selection. Moreover, TCRB CDR3 clonotypes expressed by autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells are shorter compared with anti-viral T cells, and with those from healthy donors. Thus, early events in thymic T cell development and repertoire generation are abnormal in type 1 diabetes, which suggest that short CDR3s increase the potential for self-recognition, conferring heightened risk of autoimmune disease.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systematic autoimmune disease, predominantly causing chronic polyarticular inflammation and joint injury of patients. For the treatment of RA, biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) have been used to reduce inflammation and to interfere with disease progression through targeting and mediating the immune system. Although the therapeutic effects of bDMARDs in RA patients have been widely reported, whether these drugs also play important roles in T-cell repertoire status is still unclear. We therefore designed the study to identify the role of T-cell repertoire profiles in RA patients with different types of bDMARD treatments. A high-throughput sequencing approach was applied to profile the T-cell receptor beta chain (TCRB) repertoire of circulating T lymphocytes in eight patients given adalimumab (anti-TNF-?) with/without the following use of either rituximab (anti-CD20) or tocilizumab (anti-IL6R). We subsequently analyzed discrepancies in the clonal diversity and CDR3 length distribution as well as usages of the V and J genes of TCRB repertoire and interrogated the association between repertoire diversity and disease activities followed by the treatment of bDMARDs in these RA patients. All groups of patients showed well-controlled DAS28 scores (<2.6) after different treatment regimens of drugs and displayed no significant statistical differences in repertoire diversity, distribution of CDR3 lengths, and usage of V and J genes of TCRB. Nonetheless, a trend between overall TCRB repertoire diversity and disease activity scores in all bDMARD-treated RA patients was observed. Additionally, age was found to be associated with repertoire diversity in RA patients treated with bDMARDs. Through the profiling of the TCR repertoire in RA patients receiving different biologic medications, our study indicated an inverse tendency between TCR repertoire diversity and disease activity after biologic treatment in RA patients.
Project description:Clonal CD8(+)/T-cell receptor (TCR)??(+) T-cell large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) proliferations constitute the most common subtype of T-LGL leukemia. Although the etiology of T-LGL leukemia is largely unknown, it has been hypothesized that chronic antigenic stimulation contributes to the pathogenesis of this disorder. In the present study, we explored the association between expanded TCR-V? and TCR-V? clonotypes in a cohort of 26 CD8(+)/TCR??(+) T-LGL leukemia patients, in conjunction with the HLA-ABC genotype, to find indications for common antigenic stimuli. In addition, we applied purpose-built sophisticated computational tools for an in-depth evaluation of clustering of TCR? (TCRB) complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) amino-acid LGL clonotypes. We observed a lack of clear TCRA and TCRB CDR3 homology in CD8(+)/TCR??(+) T-LGL, with only low level similarity between small numbers of cases. This is in strong contrast to the homology that is seen in CD4(+)/TCR??(+) T-LGL and TCR??(+) T-LGL and thus underlines the idea that the LGL types have different etiopathogenesis. The heterogeneity of clonal CD8(+)/TCR??(+) T-LGL proliferations might in fact suggest that multiple pathogens or autoantigens are involved.
Project description:CD4 T lymphocyte activation requires T cell receptor (TCR) engagement by peptide/MHC (major histocompatibility complex) (pMHC). The TCR complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) contains variable ? and ? loops critical for pMHC recognition. During any immune response, tuning of TCR usage through progressive clonal selection occurs. Th1 and Th2 cells operate at different avidities for activation and display distinct transcriptional programs, although polarization may be plastic, influenced by pathogens and cytokines. We therefore hypothesized that CDR3?? sequence features may intrinsically influence CD4 phenotype during progression of a response.We show that CD4 polarization involves distinct CDR3? usage: Th1 and Th17 cells favored short TCR CDR3? sequences of 12 and 11 amino acids, respectively, while Th2 cells favored elongated CDR3? loops of 14 amino acids, with lower predicted affinity. The dominant Th2- and Th1-derived TCR? sequences with 14 amino acid CDR3 loops and 12 amino acid CDR3 loops, respectively, were expressed in TCR transgenics. The functional impact of these TCR? transgenes was assessed after in vivo priming with a peptide/adjuvant. The short, Th1-derived receptor transgenic T cell lines made IFN?, but not IL-4, 5 or 13, while the elongated, Th2-derived receptor transgenic T cell lines made little or no IFN?, but increased IL-4, 5 and 13 with progressive re-stimulations, mirrored by GATA-3 up-regulation. T cells from primed Th2 TCR? transgenics selected dominant TCR V? expansions, allowing us to generate TCR?? transgenics carrying the favored, Th2-derived receptor heterodimer. Primed T cells from TCR?? transgenics made little or no IL-17 or IFN?, but favored IL-9 after priming with Complete Freund's adjuvant and IL-4, 5, 9, 10 and 13 after priming with incomplete Freund's. In tetramer-binding studies, this transgenic receptor showed low binding avidity for pMHC and polarized T cell lines show TCR avidity for Th17 > Th1 > Th2. While transgenic expression of a Th2-derived, 'elongated' TCR-CDR3? and the TCR?? pair, clearly generated a program shifted away from Th1 immunity and with low binding avidity, cytokine-skewing could be over-ridden by altering peptide challenge dose.We propose that selection from responding clones with distinctive TCRs on the basis of functional avidity can direct a preference away from Th1 effector responses, favoring Th2 cytokines.
Project description:The ?? T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire on mature T cells is selected in the thymus, but the basis for thymic selection of MHC-restricted TCRs from a randomly generated pre-selection repertoire is not known. Here we perform comparative repertoire sequence analyses of pre-selection and post-selection TCR from multiple MHC-sufficient and MHC-deficient mouse strains, and find that MHC-restricted and MHC-independent TCRs are primarily distinguished by features in their non-germline CDR3 regions, with many pre-selection CDR3 sequences not compatible with MHC-binding. Thymic selection of MHC-independent TCR is largely unconstrained, but the selection of MHC-specific TCR is restricted by both CDR3 length and specific amino acid usage. MHC-restriction disfavors TCR with CDR3 longer than 13 amino acids, limits positively charged and hydrophobic amino acids in CDR3?, and clonally deletes TCRs with cysteines in their CDR3 peptide-binding regions. Together, these MHC-imposed structural constraints form the basis to shape VDJ recombination sequences into MHC-restricted repertoires.
Project description:T-cell clonality of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is routinely evaluated with a PCR-based method using genomic DNA. However, there are limitations with this approach. The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of RNA-seq for assessing T-cell clonality and T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire of the neoplastic T-cells in 108 PTCL samples. TCR transcripts, including complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequences, were assessed. In normal T cells, the CDR3 sequences were extremely diverse, without any clonotype representing more than 2% of the overall TCR population. Dominant clones could be identified in 65 out of 76 PTCL cases (86%) with adequate TCR transcript expression. In monoclonal cases, the dominant clone varied between 11% and 99% of TCRβ transcripts. No unique Vα or Vβ usage was observed. Small T-cell clones were often observed in T- and NK-cell tumors in a percentage higher than observed in reactive conditions. γ chain expression was very low in tumors expressing TCRαβ, but its expression level was high and clonality was detected in a TCRγδ expressing tumor. NK cell lymphoma (NKCL) did not express significant levels of TCR Vβ or Vγ genes. RNA-seq is a useful tool for detecting and characterizing clonal TCR rearrangements in PTCL.
Project description:T-cell receptor (TCR) usage has an important role in determining the outcome of CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses to viruses and other pathogens. However, the characterization of TCR usage from which such conclusions are drawn is based on exclusive analysis of either the TCR? chain or, more commonly, the TCR? chain. Here, we have used a multiplexed reverse transcription-PCR protocol to analyse the CDR3 regions of both TCR? and ? chains from single naive or immune epitope-specific cells to provide a comprehensive picture of epitope-specific TCR usage and selection into the immune response. Analysis of TCR repertoires specific for three influenza-derived epitopes (D(b)NP(366), D(b)PA(224) and D(b)PB1-F2(62)) showed preferential usage of particular TCR?? proteins in the immune repertoire relative to the naive repertoire, in some cases, resulting in a complete shift in TRBV preference or CDR3 length, and restricted repertoire diversity. The NP(366)-specific TCR?? repertoire, previously defined as clonally restricted based on TCR? analysis, was similarly diverse as the PA(224)- and PB1-F2(62)-specific repertoires. Intriguingly, preferred TCR characteristics (variable gene usage, CDR3 length and junctional gene usage) appeared to be able to confer specificity either independently or in concert with one another, depending on the epitope specificity. These data have implications for established correlations between the nature of the TCR repertoire and response outcomes after infection, and suggest that analysis of a subset of cells or a single TCR chain does not accurately depict the nature of the antigen-specific TCR?? repertoire.
Project description:Little is known of the adaptive immune response to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study was the first to investigate whether T cell receptor (TCR) immune repertoire may provide a better understanding of T cell immunology in delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). We serially collected peripheral blood in five SAH patients with DCI. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the TCR ? chain (TCRB) complimentary determining regions (CDR) 3 repertoire. We evaluated the compositions and variations of the repertoire between admission and the DCI period, for severe DCI and non-severe DCI patients. Clonality did not differ significantly between admission and DCI. Severe DCI patients had significantly lower clonality than non-severe DCI patients (p value = 0.019). A read frequency of 0.005% ? - < 0.05% dominated the clonal expansion in non-severe DCI patients. Regarding repertoire diversity, severe DCI had a higher diversity score on admission than non-severe DCI. The CDR3 lengths were similar between admission and DCI. Among 728 annotated V-J gene pairs, we found that the relative frequencies of two V-J pairs were different at the occurrence of DCI than at admission, with T cells increasing by over 15%. TCRB CDR3 repertoires may serve as biomarkers to identify severe DCI patients.