MS/MS library facilitated MRM quantification of native peptides prepared by denaturing ultrafiltration.
ABSTRACT: Naturally occurring native peptides provide important information about physiological states of an organism and its changes in disease conditions but protocols and methods for assessing their abundance are not well-developed. In this paper, we describe a simple procedure for the quantification of non-tryptic peptides in body fluids. The workflow includes an enrichment step followed by two-dimensional fractionation of native peptides and MS/MS data management facilitating the design and validation of LC- MRM MS assays. The added value of the workflow is demonstrated in the development of a triplex LC-MRM MS assay used for quantification of peptides potentially associated with the progression of liver disease to hepatocellular carcinoma.
Project description:Quantitative MS assays for Igs are compared with existing clinical methods in samples from patients with plasma cell dyscrasias, for example, multiple myeloma (MM).Using LC-MS/MS data, Ig constant region peptides, and transitions were selected for LC-MRM MS. Quantitative assays were used to assess Igs in serum from 83 patients. RNA sequencing and peptide-based LC-MRM are used to define peptides for quantification of the disease-specific Ig.LC-MRM assays quantify serum levels of Igs and their isoforms (IgG1-4, IgA1-2, IgM, IgD, and IgE, as well as kappa (?) and lambda (?) light chains). LC-MRM quantification has been applied to single samples from a patient cohort and a longitudinal study of an IgE patient undergoing treatment, to enable comparison with existing clinical methods. Proof-of-concept data for defining and monitoring variable region peptides are provided using the H929 MM cell line and two MM patients.LC-MRM assays targeting constant region peptides determine the type and isoform of the involved Ig and quantify its expression; the LC-MRM approach has improved sensitivity compared with the current clinical method, but slightly higher inter-assay variability. Detection of variable region peptides is a promising way to improve Ig quantification, which could produce a dramatic increase in sensitivity over existing methods, and could further complement current clinical techniques.
Project description:Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry coupled with stable isotope dilution (SID) and liquid chromatography (LC) is increasingly used in biological and clinical studies for precise and reproducible quantification of peptides and proteins in complex sample matrices. Robust LC-SID-MRM-MS-based assays that can be replicated across laboratories and ultimately in clinical laboratory settings require standardized protocols to demonstrate that the analysis platforms are performing adequately. We developed a system suitability protocol (SSP), which employs a predigested mixture of six proteins, to facilitate performance evaluation of LC-SID-MRM-MS instrument platforms, configured with nanoflow-LC systems interfaced to triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. The SSP was designed for use with low multiplex analyses as well as high multiplex approaches when software-driven scheduling of data acquisition is required. Performance was assessed by monitoring of a range of chromatographic and mass spectrometric metrics including peak width, chromatographic resolution, peak capacity, and the variability in peak area and analyte retention time (RT) stability. The SSP, which was evaluated in 11 laboratories on a total of 15 different instruments, enabled early diagnoses of LC and MS anomalies that indicated suboptimal LC-MRM-MS performance. The observed range in variation of each of the metrics scrutinized serves to define the criteria for optimized LC-SID-MRM-MS platforms for routine use, with pass/fail criteria for system suitability performance measures defined as peak area coefficient of variation <0.15, peak width coefficient of variation <0.15, standard deviation of RT <0.15 min (9 s), and the RT drift <0.5min (30 s). The deleterious effect of a marginally performing LC-SID-MRM-MS system on the limit of quantification (LOQ) in targeted quantitative assays illustrates the use and need for a SSP to establish robust and reliable system performance. Use of a SSP helps to ensure that analyte quantification measurements can be replicated with good precision within and across multiple laboratories and should facilitate more widespread use of MRM-MS technology by the basic biomedical and clinical laboratory research communities.
Project description:Multiple (selected) reaction monitoring (MRM/SRM) of peptides is a growing technology for target protein quantification because it is more robust, precise, accurate, high-throughput, and multiplex-capable than antibody-based techniques. The technique has been applied clinically to the large-scale quantification of multiple target proteins in different types of fluids. However, previous MRM-based studies have placed less focus on sample-preparation workflow and analytical performance in the precise quantification of proteins in saliva, a noninvasively sampled body fluid. In this study, we evaluated the analytical performance of a simple and robust multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based targeted proteomics approach incorporating liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (LC-MRM/MS). This platform was used to quantitatively assess the biomarker potential of a group of 56 salivary proteins that have previously been associated with human cancers. To further enhance the development of this technology for assay of salivary samples, we optimized the workflow for salivary protein digestion and evaluated quantification performance, robustness and technical limitations in analyzing clinical samples. Using a clinically well-characterized cohort of two independent clinical sample sets (total n = 119), we quantitatively characterized these protein biomarker candidates in saliva specimens from controls and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. The results clearly showed a significant elevation of most targeted proteins in saliva samples from OSCC patients compared with controls. Overall, this platform was capable of assaying the most highly multiplexed panel of salivary protein biomarkers, highlighting the clinical utility of MRM in oral cancer biomarker research.
Project description:Development of liver disease is associated with the appearance of multiply fucosylated glycoforms of haptoglobin. To analyze the disease-related haptoglobin glycoforms in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, we have optimized an LC-MS-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) workflow for glycopeptide quantification. The final quantitative analysis included 24 site-specific glycoforms generated by treatment of a tryptic digest of haptoglobin with ?(2-3,6,8)-neuraminidase and ?(1-4)-galactosidase. The combination of LC-MS-MRM with exoglycosidase digests allowed resolution of isobaric glycoforms of the haptoglobin-T3 glycopeptide for quantification of the multiply fucosylated Lewis Y-containing glycoforms we have identified in the context of liver disease. Fourteen multiply fucosylated glycoforms of the 20 examined increased significantly in the liver disease group compared with healthy controls with an average 5-fold increase in intensity (p < 0.05). At the same time, two tri-antennary glycoforms without fucoses did not increase in the liver disease group, and two tetra-antennary glycoforms without fucoses showed a marginal increase (at most 40%) in intensity. Our analysis of 30 individual patient samples (10 healthy controls, 10 cirrhosis patients, and 10 hepatocellular carcinoma patients) showed that these glycoforms were substantially increased in a small subgroup of liver disease patients but did not significantly differ between the groups of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis patients. The tri- and tetra-antennary singly fucosylated glycoforms are associated with a MELD score and low platelet counts (p < 0.05). The exoglycosidase-assisted LC-MS-MRM workflow, optimized for the quantification of fucosylated glycoforms of haptoglobin, can be used for quantification of these glycoforms on other glycopeptides with appropriate analytical behavior.
Project description:Quantitative analysis of site specific glycoforms of proteins is technically challenging but highly desirable; resolution of the fucosylated glycoforms is of particular interest due to their biological importance. In this study, we developed a sensitive and specific LC-MS-MRM quantification method that distinguishes the outer arm and core fucosylated configurations of the N-glycopeptides. We take advantage of limited fragmentation of the glycopeptides at low collision energy CID to produce linkage-specific Y-ions. We select these informative ions as MRM transitions for the quantification of the outer arm and total fucosylation of 12 fucosylated glycoforms of 9 glycopeptides in 7 plasma proteins. Our workflow showed improved sensitivity and specificity of quantification of the glycopeptides compared to oxonium ion transitions which allowed us to quantify the glycoforms directly in plasma or serum without fractionation of the samples or glycopeptide enrichment. A pilot study of fucosylation in liver cirrhosis of the HCV and NASH etiologies confirms the quantitative capabilities of the method and shows that liver cirrhosis is consistently associated with increased outer arm fucosylation of majority of the analyzed proteins. The results show that the outer arm fucosylation of the A2G2F1 glycoform of the VDKDLQSLEDILHQVENK peptide of fibrinogen increases greater than 10-fold in the HCV and NASH patients compared to healthy controls.
Project description:Kidney injury is a complication frequently encountered in hospitalized patients. Early detection of kidney injury prior to loss of renal function is an unmet clinical need that should be targeted by a protein-based biomarker panel. In this study, we aim to quantitate urinary kidney injury biomarkers at the picomolar to nanomolar level by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode (LC-MRM-MS). Proteins were immunocaptured from urinary samples, denatured, reduced, alkylated, and digested into peptides before LC-MRM-MS analysis. Stable-isotope-labeled peptides functioned as internal standards, and biomarker concentrations were attained by an external calibration strategy. The method was evaluated for selectivity, carryover, matrix effects, linearity, and imprecision. The LC-MRM-MS method enabled the quantitation of KIM-1, NGAL, TIMP2, IGFBP7, CXCL9, nephrin, and SLC22A2 and the detection of TGF-β1, cubilin, and uromodulin. Two to three peptides were included per protein, and three transitions were monitored per peptide for analytical selectivity. The analytical carryover was <1%, and minimal urine matrix effects were observed by combining immunocapture and targeted LC-MRM-MS analysis. The average total CV of all quantifier peptides was 26%. The linear measurement range was determined per measurand and found to be 0.05-30 nmol/L. The targeted MS-based method enables the multiplex quantitation of low-abundance urinary kidney injury biomarkers for future clinical evaluation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The use of selective reaction monitoring (SRM) based LC-MS/MS analysis for the quantification of phosphorylation stoichiometry has been rapidly increasing. At the same time, the number of sites that can be monitored in a single LC-MS/MS experiment is also increasing. The manual processes associated with running these experiments have highlighted the need for computational assistance to quickly design MRM/SRM candidates. RESULTS: PChopper has been developed to predict peptides that can be produced via enzymatic protein digest; this includes single enzyme digests, and combinations of enzymes. It also allows digests to be simulated in 'batch' mode and can combine information from these simulated digests to suggest the most appropriate enzyme(s) to use. PChopper also allows users to define the characteristic of their target peptides, and can automatically identify phosphorylation sites that may be of interest. Two application end points are available for interacting with the system; the first is a web based graphical tool, and the second is an API endpoint based on HTTP REST. CONCLUSIONS: Service oriented architecture was used to rapidly develop a system that can consume and expose several services. A graphical tool was built to provide an easy to follow workflow that allows scientists to quickly and easily identify the enzymes required to produce multiple peptides in parallel via enzymatic digests in a high throughput manner.
Project description:Traditionally, studies of post translational modifications (PTMs) by mass analysis have been limited to modifications such as deamidation and oxidation that have a mass shift. Although Asp isomerization is an important PTM, the selective detection of Asp isomers by mass spectrometry was originally thought to be impossible due to the identical mass of the isomers. The recent development of an LC-MS-based method has facilitated rapid and accurate quantitative analysis of Asp isomers in long-lived proteins; however, because the quantification is based on the extracted ion chromatogram acquired by an MS1 scan, this methodology is not always efficient for detecting extremely low-abundance peptides in complex biological samples. In this paper, we evaluated Asp isomer-containing peptides of ?A-crystallin present in tryptic digests of human lens samples with different degrees of protein aggregation and different ages using LC coupled with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). In a single analysis, the LC-MRM method enabled three tryptic peptides containing isomers of Asp58, Asp91/92, and Asp151 to be detected simultaneously. The extent of isomerization and epimerization of these specific Asp sites in ?A-crystallin increased with the progress of ?-crystallin aggregation. For the analysis of samples known to isomerize at specific Asp residues, MRM gives a more rapid, less laborious, and high-quality separation of Asp isomer-containing peptides relative to the previous MS1-based quantitative method.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is one of the important aetiological agents of food intoxications in Europe and can cause gastro-enteritis through the production of various staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in foods. Due to their stability and ease of production and dissemination, some SEs have also been studied as potential agents for bioterrorism. Therefore, specific and accurate analytical tools are required to detect and quantify SEs. Online solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS) based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to detect and quantify two types of SE (A and B) spiked in milk and buffer solution. SE extraction and concentration was performed according to the European Screening Method developed by the European Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci. Trypsin digests were screened for the presence of SEs using selected proteotypic heavy-labeled peptides as internal standards. SEA and SEB were successfully detected in milk samples using LC-MS/MS in MRM mode. The selected SE peptides were proteotypic for each toxin, allowing the discrimination of SEA and SEB in a single run. The detection limit of SEA and SEB was approximately 8 and 4 ng/g, respectively.
Project description:Aberrant core fucosylation of proteins has been linked to liver diseases. In this study, we carried out multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) quantification of core fucosylated N-glycopeptides of serum proteins partially deglycosylated by a combination of endoglycosidases (endoF1, endoF2, and endoF3). To minimize variability associated with the preparatory steps, the analysis was performed without enrichment of glycopeptides or fractionation of serum besides the nanoRP chromatography. Specifically, we quantified core fucosylation of 22 N-glycopeptides derived from 17 proteins together with protein abundance of these glycoproteins in a cohort of 45 participants (15 disease-free control, 15 fibrosis and 15 cirrhosis patients) using a multiplex nanoUPLC-MS-MRM workflow. We find increased core fucosylation of 5 glycopeptides at the stage of liver fibrosis (i.e., N630 of serotransferrin, N107 of alpha-1-antitrypsin, N253 of plasma protease C1 inhibitor, N397 of ceruloplasmin, and N86 of vitronectin), increase of additional 6 glycopeptides at the stage of cirrhosis (i.e., N138 and N762 of ceruloplasmin, N354 of clusterin, N187 of hemopexin, N71 of immunoglobulin J chain, and N127 of lumican), while the degree of core fucosylation of 10 glycopeptides did not change. Interestingly, although we observe an increase in the core fucosylation at N86 of vitronectin in liver fibrosis, core fucosylation decreases on the N169 glycopeptide of the same protein. Our results demonstrate that the changes in core fucosylation are protein and site specific during the progression of fibrotic liver disease and independent of the changes in the quantity of N-glycoproteins. It is expected that the fully optimized multiplex LC-MS-MRM assay of core fucosylated glycopeptides will be useful for the serologic assessment of the fibrosis of liver. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: We have quantified the difference in core fucosylation among three comparison groups (healthy control, fibrosis and cirrhosis patients) using a sensitive and selective LC-MS-MRM method. Despite an overall increase in core fucosylation of many of the glycoproteins that we examined, core fucosylation changed in a protein- and site-specific manner. Moreover, increased and decreased fucosylation was observed on different N-glycopeptides of the same protein. Altered core fucosylation of N-glycopeptides might be used as an alternative serologic assay for the evaluation of fibrotic liver disease.