Observational cohort study of the safety of digoxin use in women with heart failure.
ABSTRACT: This study aims to assess whether digoxin has a different effect on mortality risk for women than it does for men in patients with heart failure (HF).This study uses the UK-based The Health Information Network population database in a cohort study of the impact of digoxin exposure on mortality for men and women who carry the diagnosis of HF. Digoxin exposure was assessed based on prescribing data. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess whether there was an interaction between sex and digoxin affecting mortality hazard.The setting was primary care outpatient practices.The study cohort consisted of 17?707 men and 19?227 women with the diagnosis of HF who contributed only time without digoxin exposure and 9487 men and 10?808 women with the diagnosis of HF who contributed time with digoxin exposure.The main outcome measure was all-cause mortality.The primary outcome of this study was the absence of a large interaction between digoxin use and sex affecting mortality. For men, digoxin use was associated with a HR for mortality of 1.00, while for women, the HR was also 1.00 (p value for interaction 0.65). The results of sensitivity analyses were consistent with those of the primary analysis.Observational data do not support the concern that there is a substantial increased risk of mortality due to the use of digoxin in women. This finding is consistent with previous observational studies but discordant with results from a post hoc analysis of a randomised controlled trial of digoxin versus placebo.
Project description:Protective effects have been suggested for digoxin against prostate cancer risk. However, few studies have evaluated the possible effects on prostate cancer-specific survival. We studied the association between use of digoxin or beta-blocker sotalol and prostate cancer-specific survival as compared with users of other antiarrhythmic drugs in a retrospective cohort study.Our study population consisted of 6537 prostate cancer cases from the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer diagnosed during 1996-2009 (485 digoxin users). The median exposure for digoxin was 480 DDDs (interquartile range 100-1400 DDDs). During a median follow-up of 7.5 years after diagnosis, 617 men (48 digoxin users) died of prostate cancer. We collected information on antiarrhythmic drug purchases from the national prescription database. Both prediagnostic and postdiagnostic drug usages were analysed using the Cox regression method.No association was found for prostate cancer death with digoxin usage before (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.56-1.80) or after (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.43-1.51) prostate cancer diagnosis. The results were also comparable for sotalol and antiarrhythmic drugs in general. Among men not receiving hormonal therapy, prediagnostic digoxin usage was associated with prolonged prostate cancer survival (HR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.86).No general protective effects against prostate cancer were observed for digoxin or sotalol usage.
Project description:Digoxin is still commonly used in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with and without heart failure (HF) for heart rate control. Studies concerning the detrimental effects of digoxin therapy in AF patients are inconsistent. This updated meta-analysis examined the association of digoxin therapy with all-cause mortality in AF patients, stratified by heart function status. We included observational studies with multivariate-adjusted data on digoxin and all-cause mortality in the analysis. The relative risks (RRs) of all-cause mortality were calculated and reported with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Seventeen studies comprising 408,660 patients were included. Overall, in AF patients, digoxin treatment was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality after multivariate-adjustment (RR?=?1.22; 95% CI 1.15-1.30). When stratified by heart function status, digoxin treatment was associated with a 14% increase in all-cause mortality in AF patients with HF (RR?=?1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.24), and a 36% increase in those without HF (RR?=?1.36, 95% CI 1.18-1.56). The increased risk of all-cause mortality was significantly higher in AF patients without HF compared with those with HF (P for interaction?=?0.04). This meta-analysis demonstrates that digoxin therapy was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality in AF patients, especially in those without HF. Given other available options, digoxin should be avoided as a first-line agent for heart rate control in AF patients.
Project description:Epidemiological data on the association between body mass index (BMI) and heart failure (HF) risk among diabetic patients are rare.We performed a prospective cohort study of risk for HF among 31 155 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (11 468 men and 19 687 women). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the association of different levels of BMI with HF risk. During a mean follow-up of 7.8 years, 5834 subjects developed HF (2379 men and 3455 women). The multivariable-adjusted (age, race, smoking, income, and type of insurance) hazard ratios of HF associated with BMI levels (18.5-22.9, 23-24.9, 25-29.9 [reference group], 30-34.9, 35-39.9, and ?40 kg/m(2)) at baseline were 0.95, 1.00, 1.00, 1.16, 1.64, and 2.02 (Ptrend<0.001) for men and 1.16, 1.16, 1.00, 1.23, 1.55, and 2.01 (Pnonlinear<0.001) for women, respectively. When we used an updated mean value of BMI, the association of HF risk with BMI did not change. When stratified by age, race, smoking status, and use of antidiabetic drugs, the positive associations among men and the J-shaped associations among women were still present.Our study suggests a positive association between BMI and HF risk among men and a J-shaped association between BMI and HF risk among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Project description:AIMS:The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of digoxin use on the outcomes of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and its possible interaction with atrial fibrillation or use of currently guideline-recommended treatments in the real world in China. METHODS AND RESULTS:Patients hospitalized with HFrEF from 45 hospitals participating in the China National Heart Failure Registration Study (CN-HF) were enrolled to assess the all-cause mortality, HF mortality, all-cause re-hospitalization, and HF re-hospitalization associated with digoxin use. Eight hundred eighty-two eligible HFrEF patients in the CN-HF registry were included: 372 patients with digoxin and 510 patients without digoxin. Among them, 794 (90.0%) patients were followed up for the endpoint events, with a median follow-up of 28.6 months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the all-cause mortality (P < 0.001) and all-cause re-hospitalization (P = 0.020) were significantly higher in digoxin group than non-digoxin group, while HF mortality (P = 0.232) and HF re-hospitalization (P = 0.098) were similar between the two groups. The adjusted Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis demonstrated that digoxin use remained as an independent risk factor for increased all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-2.44; P = 0.001] and all-cause re-hospitalization (HR 1.27; 95% CI 1.03-1.57; P = 0.029) in HFrEF patients and the predictive value of digoxin for all-cause mortality irrespective of rhythm or in combination with other guideline-recommended therapies. CONCLUSIONS:Digoxin use is independently associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and all-cause re-hospitalization in HFrEF patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study prospectively examined physical activity levels and the incidence of heart failure (HF) in 137,303 women, ages 50 to 79 years, and examined a subset of 35,272 women who, it was determined, had HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF with reduced EF (HFrEF). BACKGROUND:The role of physical activity in HF risk among older women is unclear, particularly for incidence of HFpEF or HFrEF. METHODS:Women were free of HF and reported ability to walk at least 1 block without assistance at baseline. Recreational physical activity was self-reported. The study documented 2,523 cases of total HF, and 451 and 734 cases of HFrEF and HFpEF, respectively, during a mean 14-year follow-up. RESULTS:After controlling for age, race, education, income, smoking, alcohol, hormone therapy, and hysterectomy status, compared with women who reported no physical activity (reference group), inverse associations were observed across incremental tertiles of total physical activity for overall HF (hazard ratio [HR]: Tertile 1 = 0.89, Tertile 2 = 0.74, Tertile 3 = 0.65; trend p < 0.001), HFpEF (HR: 0.93, 0.70, 0.68; p < 0.001), and HFrEF (HR: 0.81, 0.59, 0.68; p = 0.01). Additional controlling for potential mediating factors included attenuated time-varying coronary heart disease (CHD) (nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization) diagnosis but did not eliminate the inverse associations. Walking, the most common form of physical activity in older women, was also inversely associated with HF risks (overall: 1.00, 0.98, 0.93, 0.72; p < 0.001; HFpEF: 1.00, 0.98, 0.87, 0.67; p < 0.001; HFrEF: 1.00, 0.75, 0.78, 0.67; p = 0.01). Associations between total physical activity and HF were consistent across subgroups, defined by age, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, physical function, and CHD diagnosis. Analysis of physical activity as a time-varying exposure yielded findings comparable to those of baseline physical activity. CONCLUSIONS:Higher levels of recreational physical activity, including walking, are associated with significantly reduced HF risk in community-dwelling older women.
Project description:Purpose:The purpose of this study was to examine the trends in heart failure (HF) epidemiology and diagnostic work-up in Sweden. Methods:Adults with incident HF (≥2 ICD-10 diagnostic codes) were identified from linked national health registers (cohort 1, 2005-2013) and electronic medical records (cohort 2, 2010-2015; primary/secondary care patients from Uppsala and Västerbotten). Trends in annual HF incidence rate and prevalence, risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related 1-year mortality and use of diagnostic tests 6 months before and after first HF diagnosis (cohort 2) were assessed. Results:Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar for cohort 1 (N=174,537) and 2 (N=8,702), with mean ages of 77.4 and 76.6 years, respectively; almost 30% of patients were aged ≥85 years. From 2010 to 2014, age-adjusted annual incidence rate of HF/1,000 inhabitants decreased (from 3.20 to 2.91, cohort 1; from 4.34 to 3.33, cohort 2), while age-adjusted prevalence increased (from 1.61% to 1.72% and from 2.15% to 2.18%, respectively). Age-adjusted 1-year all-cause and CVD-related mortality was higher in men than in women among patients in cohort 1 (all-cause mortality hazard ratio [HR] men vs women 1.07 [95% CI 1.06-1.09] and CVD-related mortality subdistribution HR for men vs women 1.04 [95% CI 1.02-1.07], respectively). While 83.5% of patients underwent N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide testing, only 36.4% of patients had an echocardiogram at the time of diagnosis, although this increased overtime. In the national prevalent HF population (patients with a diagnosis in 1997-2004 who survived into the analysis period; N=273,999), death from ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction declined between 2005 and 2013, while death from HF and atrial fibrillation/flutter increased (P<0.0001 for trends over time). Conclusion:The annual incidence rate of HF declined over time, while prevalence of HF has increased, suggesting that patients with HF were surviving longer over time. Our study confirms that previously reported epidemiological trends persist and remain to ensure proper diagnostic evaluation and management of patients with HF.
Project description:Although digoxin has long been used to treat atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF), its safety remains controversial.This study sought to describe digoxin use over time in patients with AF who were stratified by the presence or absence of HF, to characterize the predictors of digoxin use and initiation, and to correlate digoxin use with outcomes.Longitudinal patterns of digoxin use and its association with a variety of outcomes were assessed in a prospective outpatient registry conducted at 174 U.S. sites with enrollment from June 2010 to August 2011.Among 9,619 patients with AF and serial follow-up every 6 months for up to 3 years, 2,267 (23.6%) received digoxin at study enrollment, 681 (7.1%) were initiated on digoxin during follow-up, and 6,671 (69.4%) were never prescribed digoxin. After adjusting for other medications, heart rate was 72.9 beats/min among digoxin users and 71.5 beats/min among nonusers (p < 0.0001). Prevalent digoxin use at registry enrollment was not associated with subsequent onset of symptoms, hospitalization, or mortality (in patients with HF, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for death: 1.04; without HF, HR: 1.22). Incident digoxin use during follow-up was not associated with subsequent death in patients with HF (propensity adjusted HR: 1.05), but was associated with subsequent death in those without HF (propensity adjusted HR: 1.99).After adjustment for detailed clinical factors, digoxin use in registry patients with AF had a neutral association with outcomes under most circumstances. Because of the multiple conflicting observational reports about digoxin's safety and possible concerns in specific clinical situations, a large pragmatic trial of digoxin therapy in AF is needed.
Project description:Digoxin is widely used in patients with atrial fibrillation despite the lack of randomized controlled trials. Observational studies report conflicting results regarding its association with mortality, perhaps because of residual confounding by the presence of heart failure (HF).In the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 (Effective Anticoagulation With Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 48) trial, clinical outcomes of patients with atrial fibrillation with and without HF were examined by baseline digoxin use during a median follow-up of 2.8 years. HF was defined at baseline as prior or current clinical stage C or D HF. Of 21 105 patients enrolled, 6327 (30%) were treated with digoxin at baseline. Among patients without HF (n=8981), digoxin use (20%) was independently associated with sudden cardiac death (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.10-2.08), with no significant interaction by age, sex, left ventricular ejection fraction, renal function, or concomitant medications (P>0.05 for each). Consistent results were observed using propensity matching (adjusted hazard ratio for sudden cardiac death, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.36-2.65). Among patients with HF (n=12 124), digoxin use (37%) was associated with an increase in all-cause death, cardiovascular death, sudden cardiac death, and death caused by HF/cardiogenic shock (P<0.01 for each), but not with noncardiovascular death, stroke/systemic embolism, or myocardial infarction.In this observational analysis of patients with atrial fibrillation without investigator-reported HF, digoxin use was significantly associated with sudden cardiac death. While residual confounding cannot be excluded, the association between digoxin use and worse clinical outcomes highlights the need to examine digoxin use, particularly when prescribed to control heart rate in patients with atrial fibrillation in a randomized trial.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00781391.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To characterise the comorbidities of heart failure (HF) in men and women, to explore their clustering into multimorbidity patterns, and to measure the impact of such patterns on the risk of hospitalisation and mortality. DESIGN:Observational retrospective population study based on electronic health records. SETTING:EpiChron Cohort (Aragón, Spain). PARTICIPANTS:All the primary and hospital care patients of the EpiChron Cohort with a diagnosis of HF on 1 January 2011 (ie, 8488 women and 6182 men). We analysed all the chronic diseases registered in patients' electronic health records until 31 December 2011. PRIMARY OUTCOME:We performed an exploratory factor analysis to identify the multimorbidity patterns in men and women, and logistic and Cox proportional-hazards regressions to investigate the association between the patterns and the risk of hospitalisation in 2012, and of 3-year mortality. RESULTS:Almost all HF patients (98%) had multimorbidity, with an average of 7.8 chronic diseases per patient. We identified six different multimorbidity patterns, named cardiovascular, neurovascular, coronary, metabolic, degenerative and respiratory. The most prevalent were the degenerative (64.0%) and cardiovascular (29.9%) patterns in women, and the metabolic (49.3%) and cardiovascular (43.2%) patterns in men. Every pattern was associated with higher hospitalisation risks; and the cardiovascular, neurovascular and respiratory patterns significantly increased the likelihood of 3-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Multimorbidity is the norm rather than the exception in patients with heart failure, whose comorbidities tend to cluster together beyond simple chance in the form of multimorbidity patterns that have different impact on health outcomes. This knowledge could be useful to better understand common pathophysiological pathways underlying this condition and its comorbidities, and the factors influencing the prognosis of men and women with HF. Further large scale longitudinal studies are encouraged to confirm the existence of these patterns as well as their differential impact on health outcomes.
Project description:This study sought to analyze recent trends over time in heart failure (HF) hospital stay rates, length of stay (LOS), and in-hospital mortality by age groups with a large national dataset of U.S. hospital discharges.Heart failure hospital stay rates, LOS, and mortality have fallen over the past decade for older Medicare beneficiaries, but whether this holds true for younger adults is unknown.From the National Inpatient Sample, we calculated HF hospital stay rates, LOS, and in-hospital mortality from 2001 to 2009 with survey data analysis techniques.Hospital stays (n = 1,686,089) with a primary discharge diagnosis of HF were identified from National Inpatient Sample data between 2001 and 2009. The overall national hospital stay rate decreased from 633 to 463 hospital stays/100,000 persons, (-26.9%, p-for-trend <0.001). However, statistically significant declines (p < 0.001) were only observed for patients 55 to 64 years of age (-36.5%) 65 to 74 years (-37.4%), and ? 75 years (-28.3%) but not for patients 18 to 44 years of age (-12.8%, p = 0.57) or 45 to 55 years (-16.2%, p = 0.04). Statistically significant declines in LOS were only observed for patients 65 years of age and older. Overall in-hospital mortality fell from 4.5% to 3.3%, a relative decline of -27.4%, (p-for-trend <0.001), but patients 18 to 44 years of age did not exhibit a significant decline (-8.1%, p-for-trend = 0.18). In secondary analyses significant declines in HF hospital stay rate over time were observed for white men, white women, and black women but not for black men (-9.5%, p-for-trend = 0.43).Younger patients have not experienced comparable declines in HF hospital stay, LOS, and in-hospital mortality as older patients. Black men remain a vulnerable population for HF hospital stay.