Innate immune proteins C1q and mannan-binding lectin enhance clearance of atherogenic lipoproteins by human monocytes and macrophages.
ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that is characterized by the accumulation of modified lipoproteins in the arterial intima. C1q and mannan-binding lectin (MBL) are not only recognition components involved in activation of inflammation via the complement cascade, but they are also able to directly modulate phagocyte activation. Studies in C1q(-/-) and MBL(-/-) mice suggest that these molecules play a protective role in the early atherosclerotic lesion in the absence of, or prior to, expression of other complement components. However, in later stages, complement activation becomes an inappropriate inflammatory response, contributing to disease pathology. Therefore, to investigate possible molecular interactions of C1q and MBL in atherosclerotic lesions, we examined the influence of C1q and MBL in the clearance of native and modified lipoproteins by human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Both C1q and MBL are shown to bind and enhance the monocyte/monocyte-derived macrophage clearance of modified forms of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), including oxidized LDL and acetylated LDL, but not native LDL. Modified forms of LDL activate the classical complement pathway, but no lectin pathway activation was detected. Interestingly, monocytes that ingested modified LDL in the presence of C1q or MBL upregulated surface CD80 and CD31, as well as CCL2 chemokine gene expression. However, C1q and MBL also significantly reduced levels of free cholesterol accumulation in monocytes and human monocyte-derived macrophages that ingested oxidized LDL, while enhancing high-density lipoprotein-specific cholesterol efflux from these cells. These results suggest a novel pathway in which C1q and MBL influence removal and metabolism of atherogenic forms of LDL in the early stages of atherosclerosis.
Project description:The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3), serum amyloid P component (SAP), and C-reactive protein belong to the pentraxin family of pattern recognition molecules involved in tissue homeostasis and innate immunity. They interact with C1q from the classical complement pathway. Whether this also occurs via the analogous mannose-binding lectin (MBL) from the lectin complement pathway is unknown. Thus, we investigated the possible interaction between MBL and the pentraxins. We report that MBL bound PTX3 and SAP partly via its collagen-like domain but not C-reactive protein. MBL-PTX3 complex formation resulted in recruitment of C1q, but this was not seen for the MBL-SAP complex. However, both MBL-PTX3 and MBL-SAP complexes enhanced C4 and C3 deposition and opsonophagocytosis of Candida albicans by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Interaction between MBL and PTX3 led to communication between the lectin and classical complement pathways via recruitment of C1q, whereas SAP-enhanced complement activation occurs via a hitherto unknown mechanism. Taken together, MBL-pentraxin heterocomplexes trigger cross-activation of the complement system.
Project description:Aspergillus fumigatus infections are associated with a high mortality rate for immunocompromised patients. The complement system is considered to be important in protection against this fungus, yet the course of activation is unclear. The aim of this study was to unravel the role of the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways under both immunocompetent and immunocompromised conditions to provide a relevant dual-perspective on the response against A. fumigatus. Conidia (spores) from a clinical isolate of A. fumigatus were combined with various human serum types (including serum deficient of various complement components and serum from umbilical cord blood). We also combined this with inhibitors against C1q, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and ficolin-2 before complement activation products and phagocytosis were detected by flow cytometry. Our results showed that alternative pathway amplified complement on A. fumigatus, but required classical and/or lectin pathway for initiation. In normal human serum, this initiation came primarily from the classical pathway. However, with a dysfunctional classical pathway (C1q-deficient serum), lectin pathway activated complement and mediated opsonophagocytosis through MBL. To model the antibody-decline in a compromised immune system, we used serum from normal umbilical cords and found MBL to be the key complement initiator. In another set of experiments, serum from patients with different kinds of immunoglobulin insufficiencies showed that the MBL lectin pathway contribution was highest in the samples with the lowest IgG/IgM binding. In conclusion, lectin pathway appears to be the primary route of complement activation in the absence of anti-A. fumigatus antibodies, whereas in a balanced immune state classical pathway is the main activator. This suggests a crucial role for the lectin pathway in innate immune protection against A. fumigatus in immunocompromised patients.
Project description:Complement receptor type 1 (CR1) is a multi modular membrane receptor composed of 30 homologous complement control protein modules (CCP) organized in four different functional regions called long homologous repeats (LHR A, B, C, and D). CR1 is a receptor for complement-opsonins C3b and C4b and specifically interacts through pairs of CCP modules located in LHR A, B, and C. Defense collagens such as mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolin-2, and C1q also act as opsonins and are involved in immune clearance through binding to the LHR-D region of CR1. Our previous results using deletion variants of CR1 mapped the interaction site for MBL and ficolin-2 on CCP24-25. The present work aimed at deciphering the interaction of C1q with CR1 using new CR1 variants concentrated around CCP24-25. CR1 bimodular fragment CCP24-25 and CR1 CCP22-30 deleted from CCP24-25 produced in eukaryotic cells enabled to highlight that the interaction site for both MBL and C1q is located on the same pair of modules CCP24-25. C1q binding to CR1 shares with MBL a main common interaction site on the collagen stalks but also subsidiary sites most probably located on C1q globular heads, contrarily to MBL.
Project description:The defence collagens C1q and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) are immune recognition proteins that associate with the serine proteinases C1r/C1s and MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) to trigger activation of complement, a major innate immune system. Bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1)/tolloid-like proteinases (BTPs) are metalloproteinases with major roles in extracellular matrix assembly and growth factor signalling. Despite their different functions, C1r/C1s/MASPs and BTPs share structural similarities, including a specific CUB-EGF-CUB domain arrangement found only in these enzymes that mediates interactions with collagen-like proteins, suggesting a possible functional relationship. Here we investigated the potential interactions between the defence collagens C1q and MBL and the BTPs BMP-1 and mammalian tolloid-like-1 (mTLL-1). C1q and MBL bound to immobilized BMP-1 and mTLL-1 with nanomolar affinities. These interactions involved the collagen-like regions of the defence collagens and were inhibited by pre-incubation of C1q or MBL with their cognate complement proteinases. Soluble BMP-1 and mTLL-1 did not inhibit complement activation and the defence collagens were neither substrates nor inhibitors of BMP-1. Finally, C1q co-localized with BMP-1 in skin biopsies following melanoma excision and from patients with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. The observed interactions provide support for a functional link between complement and BTPs during inflammation and tissue repair.
Project description:The lectin complement pathway in innate immunity is closely related to the classical complement pathway in adaptive immunity, with respect to the structures and functions of their components. Both pathways are initiated by complexes consisting of collagenous proteins and serine proteases of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease (MASP)/C1r/C1s family. It has been speculated that the classical pathway emerged after the lectin pathway, and that the activation mechanism of the latter was partially conserved. The classical and lectin pathways can be traced back to at least cartilaginous fish and ascidian (urochordata), respectively. To elucidate the evolution of the complement system, we isolated and characterized a GlcNAc-binding lectin from sera of lamprey (agnathans), the most primitive vertebrate that lacks the classical pathway. Lamprey GlcNAc-binding lectin was an oligomer consisting of 24-kDa subunits. cDNA and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the lamprey GlcNAc-binding lectin is an orthologue of mammalian C1q, a collagenous subcomponent of the first component involved in binding to immunoglobulins in the classical pathway. Lamprey C1q copurified with MASP-A, a serine protease of the MASP/C1r/C1s family, which exhibited proteolytic activity against lamprey C3. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that lamprey C1q specifically bound to GlcNAc, but not various other carbohydrates tested. These results suggest that C1q may have emerged as a lectin and may have functioned as an initial recognition molecule of the complement system in innate immunity before the establishment of adaptive immunity such as immunoglobulins in the cartilaginous fish.
Project description:The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA), also known as gp340, salivary agglutinin and deleted in malignant brain tumor 1, is a 340-kDa glycoprotein expressed on mucosal surfaces and secreted into several body fluids. SALSA binds to a broad variety of microbes and endogenous ligands, such as complement factor C1q, surfactant proteins D and A, and IgA. Our search for novel ligands of SALSA by direct protein-interaction studies led to the identification of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) as a new binding partner. We observed that surface-associated SALSA activates complement via binding of MBL. On the other hand, soluble SALSA was found to inhibit Candida albicans-induced complement activation. Thus, SALSA has a dual complement activation modifying function. It activates the lectin pathway when bound to a surface and inhibits it when free in the fluid phase. These activities are mediated via a direct interaction with MBL. This suggests that SALSA could target the innate immune responses to certain microorganisms and simultaneously limit complement activation in the fluid phase.
Project description:Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has been classified as one of the six most prevalent epidermal parasitic skin diseases infecting populations living in poverty by the World Health Organisation. The role of the complement system, a pivotal component of human innate immunity, as an important defence against invading pathogens has been well documented and many parasites have an arsenal of anti-complement defences. We previously reported on a family of scabies mite proteolytically inactive serine protease paralogues (SMIPP-Ss) thought to be implicated in host defence evasion. We have since shown that two family members, SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have the ability to bind the human complement components C1q, mannose binding lectin (MBL) and properdin and are capable of inhibiting all three human complement pathways. This investigation focused on inhibition of the lectin pathway of complement activation as it is likely to be the primary pathway affecting scabies mites. Activation of the lectin pathway relies on the activation of MBL, and as SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have previously been shown to bind MBL, the nature of this interaction was examined using binding and mutagenesis studies. SMIPP-S D1 bound MBL in complex with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and released the MASP-2 enzyme from the complex. SMIPP-S I1 was also able to bind MBL in complex with MASPs, but MASP-1 and MASP-2 remained in the complex. Despite these differences in mechanism, both molecules inhibited activation of complement components downstream of MBL. Mutagenesis studies revealed that both SMIPP-Ss used an alternative site of the molecule from the residual active site region to inhibit the lectin pathway. We propose that SMIPP-Ss are potent lectin pathway inhibitors and that this mechanism represents an important tool in the immune evasion repertoire of the parasitic mite and a potential target for therapeutics.
Project description:Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a plasma C-type lectin, plays an important role in innate immunity. However, the interaction, and the consequences of it, between MBL and the immune system remain ill defined. We have investigated the contributing mechanisms and effects of MBL on the proliferation of human monocytes. At lower concentrations (?4 ?g/ml) MBL was shown to partially enhance monocyte proliferation. By contrast, at higher concentrations (8-20 ?g/ml) of MBL, cell proliferation was markedly attenuated. MBL-induced growth inhibition was associated with G0/G1 arrest, down-regulation of cyclin D1/D3, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2/Cdk4 and up-regulation of the Cdk inhibitory protein Cip1/p21. Additionally, MBL induced apoptosis, and did so through caspase-3 activation and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Moreover, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 levels increased in the supernatants of MBL-stimulated monocyte cultures. We also found that MBL-dependent inhibition of monocyte proliferation could be reversed by the TGF-? receptor antagonist SB-431542, or by anti-TGF-?1 antibody, or by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors specific for p38 (SB203580), but not ERK (U0126) or JNK (SP600125). Thus, at high concentrations, MBL can affect the immune system by inhibiting monocyte proliferation, which suggests that MBL may exhibit anti-inflammatory effects.
Project description:Burn injury destroys skin, the second largest innate immune organ in the body, and triggers chaotic immune and inflammatory responses. The pattern recognition molecule, mannan-binding lectin (MBL), plays an important role in the first-line host defense against infectious agents. MBL initiates the lectin complement pathway and acts as an opsonin. Recent studies suggest that MBL also modulates inflammatory responses. We report that local responses after burn in MBL null mice differ from those found in wild-type (WT) mice in the following important biological markers: spontaneous eschar separation, thinned epidermis and dermis, upregulation of soluble factors including cytokines, chemokines, cell adhesion molecules, a growth factor-binding protein, and matrix metalloproteinases. Mice lacking C1q, C4, or C3 did not show the lack of eschar separation seen in MBL null-burn phenotype. These findings implicate MBL as an important molecule in the maintenance of the homeostatic balance.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Cutaneous ischemia/reperfusion (CI/R) injury has shown to play a significant role in chronic wounds such as decubitus ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, atherosclerotic lesions, and venous stasis wounds. CI/R also plays a role in free tissue transfer in reconstructive microsurgery and has been linked to clinical burn-depth progression after thermal injury. While the role of the complement system has been elucidated in multiple organ systems, evidence is lacking with respect to its role in the skin. Therefore, we evaluated the role of the complement system in CI/R injury.<h4>Methods</h4>Using a single pedicle skin flap mouse model of acute CI/R, we performed CI/R in wild-type (WT) mice and complement knock out (KO) mice, deficient in either C1q (C1q KO; classical pathway inhibition), mannose-binding lectin (MBL null; lectin pathway inhibition) or factor B (H2Bf KO; alternative pathway inhibition). Following 10 h ischemia and 7 days reperfusion, mice were sacrificed, flaps harvested and flap viability assessed via Image J software. The flap necrotic area was expressed as % total flap area. In another group, mice were sacrificed following CI/R with 10 h ischemia and 48 h reperfusion. Two cranial skin flap samples were taken for gene expression analysis of IL1b, IL6, TNF?, ICAM1, VCAM1, IL10, IL13 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).<h4>Results</h4>Following CI/R, MBL null mice had a statistically significant smaller %necrotic flap area compared to WT mice (10.6 vs. 43.1%; p<0.05) suggesting protection from CI/R. A significantly reduced mean %necrotic flap area was not seen in either C1q KO or H2Bf KO mice relative to WT (22.9 and 31.3 vs. 43.1%; p=0.08 and p=0.244, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for markers of inflammation (TNF?, ICAM1, VCAM1, IL1b, IL6). In contrast, mRNA levels of IL10, a regulator of inflammation, were significantly increased in the MBL null group (p=0.047).<h4>Conclusions</h4>We demonstrated for the first time a significant role of MBL and the lectin complement pathway in ischemia/reperfusion injury of the skin and a potential role for IL10 in attenuating CI/R injury, as IL10 levels were significantly increased in the tissue from the CI/R-protected MBL null group.