The Emergency Department Action in Smoking Cessation (EDASC) trial: impact on delivery of smoking cessation counseling.
ABSTRACT: The focus on acute care, time pressure, and lack of resources hamper the delivery of smoking cessation interventions in the emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to 1) determine the effect of an emergency nurse-initiated intervention on delivery of smoking cessation counseling based on the 5As framework (ask-advise-assess-assist-arrange) and 2) assess ED nurses' and physicians' perceptions of smoking cessation counseling.The authors conducted a pre-post trial in 789 adult smokers (five or more cigarettes/day) who presented to two EDs. The intervention focused on improving delivery of the 5As by ED nurses and physicians and included face-to-face training and an online tutorial, use of a charting/reminder tool, fax referral of motivated smokers to the state tobacco quitline for proactive telephone counseling, and group feedback to ED staff. To assess ED performance of cessation counseling, a telephone interview of subjects was conducted shortly after the ED visit. Nurses' and physicians' self-efficacy, role satisfaction, and attitudes toward smoking cessation counseling were assessed by survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the intervention on performance of the 5As, while adjusting for key covariates.Of 650 smokers who completed the post-ED interview, a greater proportion had been asked about smoking by an ED nurse (68% vs. 53%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3 to 2.9), assessed for willingness to quit (31% vs. 9%, adjusted OR= 4.9, 95% CI = 2.9 to 7.9), and assisted in quitting (23% vs. 6%, adjusted OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 2.7 to 9.5) and had arrangements for follow-up cessation counseling (7% vs. 1%, adjusted OR = 7.1, 95% CI = 2.3 to 21) during the intervention compared to the baseline period. A similar increase was observed for emergency physicians (EPs). ED nurses' self-efficacy and role satisfaction in cessation counseling significantly improved following the intervention; however, there was no change in "pros" and "cons" attitudes toward smoking cessation in either ED nurses or physicians.Emergency department nurses and physicians can effectively deliver smoking cessation counseling to smokers in a time-efficient manner. This trial also provides empirical support for expert recommendations that call for nursing staff to play a larger role in delivering public health interventions in the ED.
Project description:The focus on acute care, time pressure, and lack of resources hamper the implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in the emergency department (ED). The purpose of this study was to determine whether an emergency nurse- initiated intervention based on the 5A's (Ask-Advise-Assess-Assist-Arrange) framework improves quit rates.We conducted a pre-post implementation trial in 789 adult smokers who presented to two EDs in Iowa between August 13, 2008 and August 4, 2010. The intervention focused on improving delivery of the 5A's by ED nurses and physicians using academic detailing, charting/reminder tools, and group feedback. Performance of ED cessation counseling was measured using a 5A's composite score (ranging from 0 to 5). Smoking status was assessed by telephone interview at 3- and 6-month follow-up (with biochemical confirmation in those participants who reported abstinence at 6-month follow-up).Based on data from 650 smokers who completed the post-ED interview, there was a significant improvement in the mean 5A's composite score for emergency nurses during the intervention period at both hospitals combined (1.51 vs. 0.88, difference = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.41, 0.85]). At 6-month follow-up, 7-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA) was 6.8 and 5.1% in intervention and preintervention periods, respectively (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% CI [0.99, 2.9]).It is feasible to improve the delivery of brief smoking cessation counseling by ED staff. The observed improvements in performance of cessation counseling, however, did not translate into statistically significant improvements in cessation rates. Further improvements in the effectiveness of ED cessation interventions are needed.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>We tested a Public Health Service 5As-based clinician-delivered smoking cessation counseling intervention with adolescent smokers in pediatric primary care practice.<h4>Methods</h4>We enrolled clinicians from 120 practices and recruited youth (age ≥14) from the American Academy of Pediatrics Pediatric Research in Office Settings practice-based research network. Practices were randomly assigned to training in smoking cessation (intervention) or social media counseling (attentional control). Youth recruited during clinical visits completed confidential screening forms. All self-reported smokers and a random sample of nonsmokers were offered enrollment and interviewed by phone at 4 to 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after visits. Measures included adolescents' report of clinicians' delivery of screening and counseling, current tobacco use, and cessation behaviors and intentions. Analysis assessed receipt of screening and counseling, predictors of receiving 5As counseling, and effects of interventions on smoking behaviors and cessation at 6 and 12 months.<h4>Results</h4>Clinicians trained in the 5As intervention delivered more screening (β = 1.0605, <i>P</i> < .0001) and counseling (β = 0.4354, <i>P</i> < .0001). In both arms, clinicians more often screened smokers than nonsmokers. At 6 months, study arm was not significantly associated with successful cessation; however, smokers in the 5As group were more likely to have quit at 12 months. Addicted smokers more often were counseled, regardless of study arm, but were less likely to successfully quit smoking.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Adolescent smokers whose clinicians were trained in 5As were more likely to receive smoking screening and counseling than controls, but the ability of this intervention to help adolescents quit smoking was limited.
Project description:We assessed whether smoking cessation improved among pregnant smokers who attended Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Supplemental Nutrition Program clinics trained to implement a brief smoking cessation counseling intervention, the 5As: ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange.In Ohio, staff in 38 WIC clinics were trained to deliver the 5As from 2006 through 2010. Using 2005-2011 Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System data, we performed conditional logistic regression, stratified on clinic, to estimate the relationship between women's exposure to the 5As and the odds of self-reported quitting during pregnancy. Reporting bias for quitting was assessed by examining whether differences in infants' birth weight by quit status differed by clinic training status.Of 71,526 pregnant smokers at WIC enrollment, 23% quit. Odds of quitting were higher among women who attended a clinic after versus before clinic staff was trained (adjusted odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.29). The adjusted mean infant birth weight was, on average, 96 g higher among women who reported quitting (P<0.0001), regardless of clinic training status.Training all Ohio WIC clinics to deliver the 5As may promote quitting among pregnant smokers, and thus is an important strategy to improve maternal and child health outcomes.
Project description:The US Public Health Service smoking cessation practice guideline specifically recommends that physicians and nurses strongly advise their patients who use tobacco to quit, but the best approach for attaining this goal in the emergency department (ED) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize emergency physicians' (EPs) and nurses' (ENs) perceptions of cessation counseling and to identify barriers and facilitators to implementation of the 5 A's framework (Ask-Advise-Assess-Assist-Arrange) in the ED.We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews of 11 EPs and 19 ENs following a pre-post implementation trial of smoking cessation guidelines in two study EDs. We used purposeful sampling to target EPs and ENs with different attitudes toward cessation counseling, based on their responses to a written survey (Decisional Balance Questionnaire). Conventional content analysis was used to inductively characterize the issues raised by study participants and to construct a coding structure, which was then applied to study transcripts.The main findings of this study converged upon three overarching domains: 1) reactions to the intervention; 2) perceptions of patients' receptivity to cessation counseling; and 3) perspectives on ED cessation counseling and preventive care. ED staff expressed ambivalence toward the implementation of smoking cessation guidelines. Both ENs and EPs agreed that the delivery of smoking cessation counseling is important, but that it is not always practical in the ED on account of time constraints, the competing demands of acute care, and resistance from patients. Participants also called attention to the need for improved role clarity and teamwork when implementing the 5 A's in the ED.There are numerous challenges to the implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in the ED. ENs are generally willing to take the lead in offering brief cessation counseling, but their efforts need to be reinforced by EPs. ED systems need to address workflow, teamwork, and practice policies that facilitate prescription of smoking cessation medication, referral for cessation counseling, and follow-up in primary care. The results of this qualitative evaluation can be used to guide the design of future ED intervention studies.ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT00756704.
Project description:The primary care visit represents an important venue for intervening with a large population of smokers. However, physician adherence to the Smoking Cessation Clinical Guideline (5As) remains low. We evaluated the effectiveness of a computer-tailored intervention designed to increase smoking cessation counseling by primary care physicians.Physicians and their patients were randomized to either intervention or control conditions. In addition to brief smoking cessation training, intervention physicians and patients received a one-page report that characterized the patients' smoking habit and history and offered tailored recommendations. Physician performance of the 5As was assessed via patient exit interviews. Quit rates and smoking behaviors were assessed 6 months postintervention via patient phone interviews. Intervention effects were tested in a sample of 70 physicians and 518 of their patients. Results were analyzed via generalized and mixed linear modeling controlling for clustering.Intervention physicians exceeded controls on "Assess" (OR 5.06; 95% CI 3.22, 7.95), "Advise" (OR 2.79; 95% CI 1.70, 4.59), "Assist-set goals" (OR 4.31; 95% CI 2.59, 7.16), "Assist-provide written materials" (OR 5.14; 95% CI 2.60, 10.14), "Assist-provide referral" (OR 6.48; 95% CI 3.11, 13.49), "Assist-discuss medication" (OR 4.72;95% CI 2.90, 7.68), and "Arrange" (OR 8.14; 95% CI 3.98, 16.68), all p values being < 0.0001. Intervention patients were 1.77 (CI 0.94, 3.34,p = 0.078) times more likely than controls to be abstinent (12 versus 8%), a difference that approached, but did not reach statistical significance, and surpassed controls on number of days quit (18.4 versus 12.2, p < .05) but not on number of quit attempts.The use of a brief computer-tailored report improved physicians' implementation of the 5As and had a modest effect on patients' smoking behaviors 6 months postintervention.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Smoking remains a major public health issue and a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a simple intervention on smoking guidance, based on the electronic medical record (EMR), including providing discharge instructions and/or cessation counseling to emergency department (ED) patients who smoke. METHODS:This was an interventional before-and-after study in an ED with 70000 visits per year. A pre-intervention and post-intervention chart review was performed on a random sample of ED visits occurring in 2014 and 2016, identifying smokers and the frequency with which smokers received discharge instructions and/or cessation counseling. In the fall of 2015, our EMR was programmed to deploy smoking cessation discharge instructions automatically. RESULTS:In all, 28.7% (172/600; 95% CI: 25.2-32.4%) reported current smoking in the pre-intervention ED population and 27.6% (166/600; 95% CI: 24.2-31.4%) reported smoking in the post-intervention population. Smoking cessation guidance was provided to a total of 3.5% of self-reported smokers in the pre-intervention group (6/172; 95% CI: 1.4-7.6%); 1.2% (2/172; 95% CI: 0.3-4.1%) were informed of smoking cessation resources as part of their printed ED discharge instructions and 2.3% (4/172; 95% CI: 0.9-5.8%) received smoking cessation counseling by the ED provider. There was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of patients receiving any smoking cessation guidance after the intervention. All patients (166/166; 95% CI: 97-100% in this period received ED discharge instructions and a list of smoking cessation resources and 3.6% of smokers (6/166; 95% CI: 1.7-7.7%) received smoking cessation counseling by the ED provider. CONCLUSIONS:Automated deployment of smoking cessation discharge instructions in the EMR improves smoking cessation discharge instructions, and also has a positive impact on improving rates of in-person counseling by ED providers.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The study objective was to assess tobacco screening and cessation counseling practices of pediatric emergency department (PED) and urgent care (UC) nurses and physicians, and factors associated with these practices. Secondarily, we assessed factors associated with performing tobacco smoke exposure reduction and tobacco cessation counseling.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 30 PED/UC nurses and physicians working at one large, urban, Midwestern children's hospital. Measures included current practices of performing the 5 As of tobacco counseling (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange), and attitude and practice factors that may influence practices.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, 90.0% of participants had not received recent tobacco counseling training, 73.3% were unaware of the 5 As, and 63.3% did not have a standardized, routine screening system to identify patients exposed to secondhand smoke. The majority of participants reported that they: asked about patients' secondhand smoke exposure status (70.0%) and parents' tobacco use status (53.3%), and advised parental smokers to not smoke around their child (70.0%) and to quit smoking (50%). One in five participants reported they assessed smokers' interest in quitting smoking, and 16.7% talked with smokers about cessation techniques and tactics; of these, 10% referred/enrolled smokers to the Tobacco Quitline or cessation program, and 6.7% made a quit plan or recommended nicotine replacement therapy medication.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Key findings identified are the need for professional tobacco counseling training, standardizing efforts during visits, and emphasizing pediatric patients' potential health benefits. This information will be used for developing a PED/ UC-based parental tobacco cessation and child tobacco smoke exposure reduction intervention.
Project description:The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) found a reduction in lung cancer mortality among participants screened with low-dose computed tomography vs chest radiography. In February 2015, Medicare announced its decision to cover annual lung screening for patients with a significant smoking history. These guidelines promote smoking cessation treatment as an adjunct to screening, but the frequency and effectiveness of clinician-delivered smoking cessation interventions delivered after lung screening are unknown.To determine the association between the reported clinician-delivered 5As (ask, advise, assess, assist [talk about quitting or recommend stop-smoking medications or recommend counseling], and arrange follow-up) after lung screening and smoking behavior changes.A matched case-control study (cases were quitters and controls were continued smokers) of 3336 NLST participants who were smokers at enrollment examined participants' rates and patterns of 5A delivery after a lung screen and reported smoking cessation behaviors.Prevalence of the clinician-delivered 5As and associated smoking cessation after lung screening.Delivery of the 5As 1 year after screening were as follows: ask, 77.2%; advise, 75.6%; assess, 63.4%; assist, 56.4%; and arrange follow-up, 10.4%. Receipt of ask, advise, and assess was not significantly associated with quitting in multivariate models that adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, screening results, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit. Assist was associated with a 40% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI,?1.21-1.63), and arrange was associated with a 46% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI,?1.19-1.79).Assist and arrange follow-up delivered by primary care providers to smokers who were participating in the NLST were associated with increased quitting; less intensive interventions (ask, advise, and assess) were not. However, rates of assist and arrange follow-up were relatively low. Our findings confirm the need for and benefit of clinicians taking more active intervention steps in helping patients who undergo screening to quit smoking.
Project description:Argentina and Uruguay have a high prevalence of smoking during pregnancy. However, and despite national recommendations, pregnant women are not routinely receiving cessation counseling during antenatal care (ANC). We evaluated a multifaceted strategy designed to increase the frequency of pregnant women who received a brief smoking cessation counseling based on the 5As (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange).We randomly assigned (1:1) 20 ANC clusters in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay to receive a multifaceted intervention to implement brief smoking cessation counseling into routine ANC, or to receive no intervention. The primary outcome was the frequency of women who recalled receiving the 5As during ANC at more than one visit. Frequency of women who smoked until the end of pregnancy, and attitudes and readiness of ANC providers towards providing counseling were secondary outcomes. Women's outcomes were measured at baseline and at the end of the 14- to 18-month intervention, by administering questionnaires at the postpartum hospital stay. Self-reported cessation was verified with saliva cotinine. The trial took place between October 03, 2011 and November 29, 2013.The rate of women who recalled receiving the 5As increased from 14.0% to 33.6% in the intervention group (median rate change, 22.1%), and from 10.8% to 17.0% in the control group (median rate change, 4.6%; P = .001 for the difference in change between groups). The effect of the intervention was larger in Argentina than in Uruguay. The proportion of women who continued smoking during pregnancy was unchanged at follow-up in both groups and the relative difference between groups was not statistically significant (ratio of odds ratios 1.16, 95% CI: 0.98-1.37; P = .086). No significant changes were observed in knowledge, attitudes, and self-confidence of ANC providers.The intervention showed a moderate effect in increasing the proportion of women who recalled receiving the 5As, with a third of women receiving counseling in more than one visit. However, the frequency of women who smoked until the end of the pregnancy was not significantly reduced by the intervention.No implementation trials of smoking cessation interventions for pregnant women have been carried out in Latin American or in middle-income countries where health care systems or capacities may differ. We evaluated a multifaceted strategy designed to increase the frequency of pregnant women who receive brief smoking cessation counseling based on the 5As in Argentina and Uruguay. We found that the intervention showed a moderate effect in increasing the proportion of women receiving the 5As, with a third of women receiving counseling in more than one visit. However, the frequency of women who smoked until the end of the pregnancy was not significantly reduced by the intervention.
Project description:A minority of hospitalized smokers actually receives assistance in quitting during hospitalization or cessation counseling following discharge. This study aims to determine the impact of a guideline-based intervention on 1) nurses' delivery of the 5A's (Ask-Advise-Assess-Assist-Arrange follow-up) in hospitalized smokers, and 2) nurses' attitudes toward the intervention.We conducted a pre-post guideline implementation trial involving 205 hospitalized smokers on the inpatient medicine units at one US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center. The intervention included: 1) academic detailing of nurses on delivery of brief cessation counseling, 2) modification of the admission form to facilitate 5A's documentation, and 3) referral of motivated inpatients to receive proactive telephone counseling. Based on subject interviews, we calculated a nursing 5A's composite score for each patient (ranging from 0 to 9). We used linear regression with generalized estimating equations to compare the 5A's composite score (and logistic regression to compare individual A's) across periods. We compared 29 nurses' ratings of their self-efficacy and decisional balance ("pros" and "cons") with regard to cessation counseling before and after guideline implementation. Following implementation, we also interviewed a purposeful sample of nurses to assess their attitudes toward the intervention.Of 193 smokers who completed the pre-discharge interview, the mean nursing 5A's composite score was higher after guideline implementation (3.9 vs. 3.1, adjusted difference 1.0, 95 % CI 0.5-1.6). More patients were advised to quit (62 vs. 48 %, adjusted OR = 2.1, 95 % CI = 1.2-3.5) and were assisted in quitting (70 vs. 45 %, adjusted OR = 2.9, 95 % CI = 1.6-5.3) by a nurse during the post-implementation period. Nurses' attitudes toward cessation counseling improved following guideline implementation (35.3 vs. 32.7 on "pros" subscale, p = 0.01), without significant change on the "cons" subscale.A multifaceted intervention including academic detailing and adaptation of the nursing admission template is an effective strategy for improving nurses' delivery of brief cessation counseling in medical inpatients.