Structure of Salmonella effector protein SopB N-terminal domain in complex with host Rho GTPase Cdc42.
ABSTRACT: SopB is a type III secreted Salmonella effector protein with phosphoinositide phosphatase activity and a distinct GTPase binding domain. The latter interacts with host Cdc42, an essential Rho GTPase that regulates critical events in eukaryotic cytoskeleton organization and membrane trafficking. Structural and biochemical analysis of the SopB GTPase binding domain in complex with Cdc42 shows for the first time that SopB structurally and functionally mimics a host guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) by contacting key residues in the regulatory switch regions of Cdc42 and slowing Cdc42 nucleotide exchange.
Project description:Guanine-nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) are negative regulators of Rho family GTPases that sequester the GTPases away from the membrane. Here we ask how GDI-Cdc42 interaction regulates localized Cdc42 activation for cell motility. The sensitivity of cells to overexpression of Rho family pathway components led us to a new biosensor, GDI.Cdc42 FLARE, in which Cdc42 is modified with a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) 'binding antenna' that selectively reports Cdc42 binding to endogenous GDIs. Similar antennae could also report GDI-Rac1 and GDI-RhoA interaction. Through computational multiplexing and simultaneous imaging, we determined the spatiotemporal dynamics of GDI-Cdc42 interaction and Cdc42 activation during cell protrusion and retraction. This revealed remarkably tight coordination of GTPase release and activation on a time scale of 10 s, suggesting that GDI-Cdc42 interactions are a critical component of the spatiotemporal regulation of Cdc42 activity, and not merely a mechanism for global sequestration of an inactivated pool of signaling molecules.
Project description:The highly conserved Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 is an essential regulator of polarity in many different cell types. During polarity establishment, Cdc42 becomes concentrated at a cortical site, where it interacts with downstream effectors to orient the cytoskeleton along the front-back axis. To concentrate Cdc42, loss of Cdc42 by diffusion must be balanced by recycling to the front. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) Rdi1 recycles Cdc42 through the cytoplasm. Loss of Rdi1 slowed but did not eliminate Cdc42 accumulation at the front, suggesting the existence of other recycling pathways. One proposed pathway involves actin-directed trafficking of vesicles carrying Cdc42 to the front. However, we found no role for F-actin in Cdc42 concentration, even in rdi1? cells. Instead, Cdc42 was still able to exchange between the membrane and cytoplasm in rdi1? cells, albeit at a reduced rate. Membrane-cytoplasm exchange of GDP-Cdc42 was faster than that of GTP-Cdc42, and computational modeling indicated that such exchange would suffice to promote polarization. We also uncovered a novel role for the Cdc42-directed GTPase-activating protein (GAP) Bem2 in Cdc42 polarization. Bem2 was known to act in series with Rdi1 to promote recycling of Cdc42, but we found that rdi1? bem2? mutants were synthetically lethal, suggesting that they also act in parallel. We suggest that GAP activity cooperates with the GDI to counteract the dissipative effect of a previously unappreciated pathway whereby GTP-Cdc42 escapes from the polarity site through the cytoplasm.
Project description:Cell polarization is a prerequisite for essential processes such as cell migration, proliferation or differentiation. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under control of the GTPase Cdc42 is able to polarize without the help of cytoskeletal structures and spatial cues through a pathway depending on its guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) Rdi1. To develop a fundamental understanding of yeast polarization we establish a detailed mechanistic model of GDI-mediated polarization. We show that GDI-mediated polarization provides precise spatial and temporal control of Cdc42 signaling and give experimental evidence for our findings. Cell cycle induced changes of Cdc42 regulation enhance positive feedback loops of active Cdc42 production, and thereby allow simultaneous switch-like regulation of focused polarity and Cdc42 activation. This regulation drives the direct formation of a unique polarity cluster with characteristic narrowing dynamics, as opposed to the previously proposed competition between transient clusters. As the key components of the studied system are conserved among eukaryotes, we expect our findings also to apply to cell polarization in other organisms.
Project description:In budding yeast, the highly conserved small GTPase Cdc42 localizes to the cortex at a cell pole and orchestrates the trafficking and deposition of cell surface materials required for building a bud or mating projection (shmoo). Using a combination of quantitative imaging and mathematical modeling, we elucidate mechanisms of dynamic recycling of Cdc42 that balance diffusion. Rdi1, a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI), mediates a fast recycling pathway, while actin patch-mediated endocytosis accounts for a slower one. These recycling mechanisms are restricted to the same region of the nascent bud, as both are coupled to the Cdc42 GTPase cycle. We find that a single dynamic parameter, the rate of internalization inside the window of polarized delivery, is tuned to give rise to distinct shapes of Cdc42 distributions that correlate with distinct morphogenetic fates, such as the formation of a round bud or a pointed shmoo.
Project description:The small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins of the Rho family are implicated in various cell functions, including establishment and maintenance of cell polarity. Activity of Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) is not only regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins but also by guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs). These proteins have the ability to extract Rho proteins from membranes and keep them in an inactive cytosolic complex. Here, we show that Rdi1, the sole Rho GDI of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, contributes to pseudohyphal growth and mitotic exit. Rdi1 interacts only with Cdc42, Rho1, and Rho4, and it regulates these Rho GTPases by distinct mechanisms. Binding between Rdi1 and Cdc42 as well as Rho1 is modulated by the Cdc42 effector and p21-activated kinase Cla4. After membrane extraction mediated by Rdi1, Rho4 is degraded by a novel mechanism, which includes the glycogen synthase kinase 3beta homologue Ygk3, vacuolar proteases, and the proteasome. Together, these results indicate that Rdi1 uses distinct modes of regulation for different Rho GTPases.
Project description:The small Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 is critical for cell polarization and polarizes spontaneously in absence of upstream spatial cues. Spontaneous polarization is thought to require dynamic Cdc42 recycling through Guanine nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor (GDI)-mediated membrane extraction and vesicle trafficking. Here, we describe a functional fluorescent Cdc42 allele in fission yeast, which demonstrates Cdc42 dynamics and polarization independent of these pathways. Furthermore, an engineered Cdc42 allele targeted to the membrane independently of these recycling pathways by an amphipathic helix is viable and polarizes spontaneously to multiple sites in fission and budding yeasts. We show that Cdc42 is highly mobile at the membrane and accumulates at sites of activity, where it displays slower mobility. By contrast, a near-immobile transmembrane domain-containing Cdc42 allele supports viability and polarized activity, but does not accumulate at sites of activity. We propose that Cdc42 activation, enhanced by positive feedback, leads to its local accumulation by capture of fast-diffusing inactive molecules.
Project description:The Rho family of GTPases control actin organization during diverse cellular responses (migration, cytokinesis and endocytosis). Although the primary members of this family (RhoA, Rac and Cdc42) have different downstream effects on actin remodeling, the basic mechanism involves targeting to the plasma membrane and activation by GTP binding. Our hypothesis is that the details of GTPase cycling between membrane and cytosol are key to the differential upstream regulation of these biochemical switches. Accordingly, we developed a modeling framework to analyze experimental data for these systems. This analysis can reveal details of GDI-mediated cycling and help distinguish between GDI-dependent and -independent mechanisms, including vesicle trafficking and direct association-dissociation of GTPase with membrane molecules. Analysis of experimental data for Rac membrane cycling reveals that the lower apparent affinity of GDI for RacGTP compared to RacGDP can be fully explained by the faster dissociation of the latter from the membrane. Non-dimensional steady-state solutions for membrane fraction of GTPase are presented in multidimensional charts. This methodology is then used to analyze glucose stimulated Rac cycling in pancreatic ?-cells. The charts are used to illustrate the effects of GEFs/GAPs and regulated affinities between GTPases and membrane and/or GDI on the amount of membrane bound GTPase. In a similar fashion, the charts can be used as a guide in assessing how targeted modifications may compensate for altered GTPase-GDI balance in disease scenarios.
Project description:To explore the role of the Rho GTPases in lens morphogenesis, we overexpressed bovine Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (Rho GDI alpha), which serves as a negative regulator of Rho, Rac and Cdc42 GTPase activity, in a lens-specific manner in transgenic mice. This was achieved using a chimeric promoter of delta-crystallin enhancer and alpha A-crystallin, which is active at embryonic day 12. Several individual transgenic (Tg) lines were obtained, and exhibited ocular specific phenotype comprised of microphthalmic eyes with lens opacity. The overexpression of bovine Rho GDI alpha disrupted membrane translocation of Rho, Rac and Cdc42 GTPases in Tg lenses. Transgenic lenses also revealed abnormalities in the migration pattern, elongation and organization of lens fibers. These changes appeared to be associated with impaired organization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell-cell adhesions. At E14.5, the size of the Rho GDI alpha Tg lenses was larger compared to wild type (WT) and the central lens epithelium and differentiating fibers exhibited an abnormal increase of bromo-deoxy-uridine incorporation. Postnatal Tg eyes, however, were much smaller in size compared to WT eyes, revealing increased apoptosis in the disrupted lens fibers. Taken together, these data demonstrate a critical role for Rho GTPase-dependent signaling pathways in processes underlying morphogenesis, fiber cell migration, elongation and survival in the developing lens.
Project description:Bacterial pathogens deliver effector proteins with diverse biochemical activities into host cells, thereby modulating various host functions. Legionella pneumophila hijacks host vesicle trafficking to avoid phagosome-lysosome fusion, a mechanism that is dependent on the Legionella Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. SidM/DrrA, a Legionella type IV effector, is important for the interactions of Legionella-containing vacuoles with host endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles. SidM is the only known protein that catalyzes both the exchange of GDP for GTP and GDI displacement from small GTPase Rab1. We determined the crystal structures of SidM alone (residues 317-647) and SidM (residues 193-550) in complex with nucleotide-free WT Rab1. The SidM structure contains an N-terminal helical domain with a potential new function, a Rab1-activation domain, and a C-terminal phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate-binding P4M domain. The Rab1-activation domain has extensive strong interactions mainly with Rab1 switch I and II regions that undergo substantial conformational changes on SidM binding. Mutations of switch-contacting residues in SidM attenuate both the nucleotide exchange and GDI displacement activities. Structural comparisons of Rab1 in the SidM complex with Rab1-GDP and Ypt1-GDP in the GDI complex identify key conformational changes that disrupt the nucleotide and GDI binding of Rab1. Further biochemical and structural analyses reveal a unique mechanism of coupled GDP release and GDI displacement likely triggered by the SidM-induced drastic displacement of switch I of Rab1.
Project description:To invade epithelial cells, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) induces macropinocytosis through the action of virulence proteins delivered across the host cell membrane via a type III secretion system. We show that after docking at the plasma membrane S. Typhimurium triggers rapid recruitment of cytosolic SNX18, a SH3-PX-BAR domain sorting nexin protein, to the bacteria-induced membrane ruffles and to the nascent Salmonella-containing vacuole. SNX18 recruitment required the inositol-phosphatase activity of the Salmonella effector SopB and an intact phosphoinositide-binding site within the PX domain of SNX18, but occurred independently of Rho-GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 activation. SNX18 promotes formation of the SCV from the plasma membrane by acting as a scaffold to recruit Dynamin-2 and N-WASP in a process dependent on the SH3 domain of SNX18. Quantification of bacteria uptake revealed that overexpression of SNX18 increased bacteria internalization, whereas a decrease was detected in cells overexpressing the phosphoinositide-binding mutant R303Q, the ?SH3 mutant, and in cells where endogenous levels of SNX18 were knocked-down. This study identifies SNX18 as a novel target of SopB and suggests a mechanism where S. Typhimurium engages host factors via local manipulation of phosphoinositide composition at the site of invasion to orchestrate the internalization process.