Characterization of EHop-016, novel small molecule inhibitor of Rac GTPase.
ABSTRACT: The Rho GTPase Rac regulates actin cytoskeleton reorganization to form cell surface extensions (lamellipodia) required for cell migration/invasion during cancer metastasis. Rac hyperactivation and overexpression are associated with aggressive cancers; thus, interference of the interaction of Rac with its direct upstream activators, guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), is a viable strategy for inhibiting Rac activity. We synthesized EHop-016, a novel inhibitor of Rac activity, based on the structure of the established Rac/Rac GEF inhibitor NSC23766. Herein, we demonstrate that EHop-016 inhibits Rac activity in the MDA-MB-435 metastatic cancer cells that overexpress Rac and exhibits high endogenous Rac activity. The IC(50) of 1.1 ?M for Rac inhibition by EHop-016 is ?100-fold lower than for NSC23766. EHop-016 is specific for Rac1 and Rac3 at concentrations of ?5 ?M. At higher concentrations, EHop-016 inhibits the close homolog Cdc42. In MDA-MB-435 cells that demonstrate high active levels of the Rac GEF Vav2, EHop-016 inhibits the association of Vav2 with a nucleotide-free Rac1(G15A), which has a high affinity for activated GEFs. EHop-016 also inhibits the Rac activity of MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cancer cells and reduces Rac-directed lamellipodia formation in both cell lines. EHop-016 decreases Rac downstream effects of PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) activity and directed migration of metastatic cancer cells. Moreover, at effective concentrations (<5 ?M), EHop-016 does not affect the viability of transformed mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and reduces viability of MDA-MB-435 cells by only 20%. Therefore, EHop-016 holds promise as a targeted therapeutic agent for the treatment of metastatic cancers with high Rac activity.
Project description:Based on the efficacy of EHop-016 as an inhibitor of migration and Rac1 activation, a new series of carbazole derivatives has been synthesized. Cytotoxic and anti-migratory effects of these compounds were evaluated in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Preliminary investigations of their anticancer activity demonstrated that several compounds have moderate antiproliferative effects on cancer cell lines with GI50 values in the range of 13-50?µM. Furthermore, compounds 3b and 11b inhibit migration activity of metastatic cell line MDA-MB-231 by 32% and 34%, respectively. Compound 11b was shown to inhibit activation of the Rho GTPase Rac1 by 55% at 250?nM in both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cell lines. Compared with the IC50 of Rac1 inhibition by lead compound EHop-016 of 1.1?µM, compound 11b demonstrates 4X improved in vitro efficacy.
Project description:MST3 (mammalian STE20-like kinase 3) belongs to the Ste20 serine/threonine protein kinase family. The role of MST3 in tumor growth is less studied; therefore, we investigates the function of MST3 in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that MST3 is overexpressed in human breast tumors. Online Kaplan-Meier plotter analysis reveals that overexpression of MST3 predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Knockdown of MST3 with shRNA inhibits proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in vitro. Downregulation of MST3 in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells decreases tumor formation in NOD/SCID mice. MST3 interacts with VAV2, but not VAV3, as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy. By domain mapping of MST3, we determine that the proline-rich region of MST3 (353KDIPKRP359) interacts with the SH3 domain of VAV2. Mutation of the two proline residues in this domain significantly attenuates the interaction between MST3 and VAV2. Overexpression of wild-type MST3 (WT-MST3), but not proline-rich-deleted MST3 (â??P-MST3), enhances the proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth of MDA-MB-468 cells. Overexpression of MST3 increases VAV2 phosphorylation and GTP-Rac1, whereas downregulation of MST3 or delivery of â??P-MST3 results in a reduction of VAV2 and Rac1 activation. Knockdown of MST3 inhibits cyclin D1 protein expression. The Rac1 inhibitor EHop-016 attenuates cell proliferation induced by WT-MST3. Finally, Knockdown of MST3 or Rac1 inhibitor decreases cyclin D protein expression, which is important for tumor growth. These results indicate that MST3 interacts with VAV2 to activate Rac1 and promote the tumorigenicity of breast cancer.
Project description:The Rho GTPase Rac is an important regulator of cancer cell migration and invasion; processes required for metastatic progression. We previously characterized the small molecule EHop-016 as a novel Rac inhibitor in metastatic breast cancer cells and recently found that EHop-016 was effective at reducing tumor growth in nude mice at 25 mg/kg bodyweight (BW). The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of EHop-016 at different dosages in a single dose input scheme (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg BW) following intraperitoneal (IP) and oral gavage (PO) administration to nude mice. We developed and validated a rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of EHop-016 in mouse plasma by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS). Separation was carried out on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (3.0 mm × 50 mm) using organic and aqueous mobile phases. EHop-016 was identified from its accurate mass and retention time from the acquired full-scan chromatogram and quantified by its peak area. The validated method was linear (R(2)>0.995) over the range of 5-1000 ng/mL (1/x(2) weighting). Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis using WinNonlin. The area under the curve (AUC?-?) ranged from 328 to 1869 ng h/mL and 133-487 ng h/mL for IP and PO dosing, respectively. The elimination half-life (t?/?) ranged from 3.8-5.7 h to 3.4-26.8 h for IP and PO dosing, respectively. For both IP and PO administration, the AUC?-?values were proportional to the tested doses demonstrating linear PK profiles. The relative bioavailability of EHop-016 after oral gavage administration ranged from 26% to 40%. These results support further preclinical evaluation of EHop-016 as a new anti-cancer therapy.
Project description:We previously reported that dietary genistein inhibits mammary tumor growth and metastasis of the highly metastatic MDA-MB-435 cancer cells in immunocompromised mice. The purpose herein was to characterize the role of the novel oncogenic microRNA (miRNA) miR-155 in the anticancer effects of genistein in metastatic breast cancer. The effect of genistein was determined on breast cancer cell viability, apoptosis, and expression of miR-155 and its targets. At low physiologically relevant concentrations, genistein inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis in metastatic MDA-MB-435 and Hs578t breast cancer cells, without affecting the viability of nonmetastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In parallel with reduced cell viability, miR-155 is downregulated, whereas proapoptotic and anticell proliferative miR-155 targets FOXO3, PTEN, casein kinase, and p27 are upregulated in MDA-MB-435 and Hs578t cells in response to genistein treatment. However, miR-155 levels remain unchanged in response to genistein in the MCF-7 cells. Ectopic expression of miR-155 in MDA-MB-435 and Hs578t cells decreases the effects of genistein on cell viability and abrogates the effects of genistein on apoptosis and expression of proapoptotic genes. Therefore, genistein-mediated downregulation of miR-155 contributes to the anticancer effects of genistein in metastatic breast cancer.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Rho GTPases (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 [Rac1] and cell division cycle 42 [Cdc42]) have been shown to regulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) via cytoskeletal remodelling, trafficking and fusion of insulin-secretory granules with the plasma membrane. GTP loading of these G proteins, which is facilitated by GDP/GTP exchange factors, is a requisite step in the regulation of downstream effector proteins. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV2 (VAV2), a member of the Dbl family of proteins, has been identified as one of the GDP/GTP exchange factors for Rac1. Despite recent evidence on the regulatory roles of VAV2 in different cell types, roles of this guanine nucleotide exchange factor in the signalling events leading to GSIS remain undefined. Using immunological, short interfering RNA (siRNA), pharmacological and microscopic approaches we investigated the role of VAV2 in GSIS from islet beta cells. METHODS:Co-localisation of Rac1 and VAV2 was determined by Triton X-114 phase partition and confocal microscopy. Glucose-induced actin remodelling was quantified by live cell imaging using the LifeAct-GFP fluorescent biosensor. Rac1 activation was determined by G protein linked immunosorbent assay (G-LISA). RESULTS:Western blotting indicated that VAV2 is expressed in INS-1 832/13 beta cells, normal rat islets and human islets. Vav2 siRNA markedly attenuated GSIS in INS-1 832/13 cells. Ehop-016, a newly discovered small molecule inhibitor of the VAV2-Rac1 interaction, or siRNA-mediated knockdown of VAV2 markedly attenuated glucose-induced Rac1 activation and GSIS in INS-1 832/13 cells. Pharmacological findings were recapitulated in primary rat islets. A high glucose concentration promoted co-localisation of Rac1 and VAV2. Real-time imaging in live cells indicated a significant inhibition of glucose-induced cortical actin remodelling by Ehop-016. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Our data provide the first evidence to implicate VAV2 in glucose-induced Rac1 activation, actin remodelling and GSIS in pancreatic beta cells.
Project description:We previously demonstrated that an ?v?5 integrin/FAK- mediated pathway regulated the phagocytic properties of human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells. Here we demonstrate that this process is mediated by Rac-1 and a previously unreported signaling pathway that utilizes the Tiam1 as well as a novel ILK/RhoG/ELMO2 signaling pathway. Phagocytosis in both a TM-1 cell line and normal HTM cells was mediated by Rac1 and could be significantly decreased by >75% using the Rac1 inhibitor EHop-016. Knockdown of Rac1 in TM-1 cells also inhibited phagocytosis by 40% whereas overexpression of a constitutively active Rac1 or stimulation with PDGF increased phagocytosis by 83% and 32% respectively. Tiam1 was involved in regulating phagocytosis. Knockdown of Tiam1 inhibited phagocytosis by 72% while overexpression of Tiam1 C1199 increased phagocytosis by 75%. Other upstream effectors of Rac1 found to be involved included ELMO2, RhoG, and ILK. Knockdowns of ELMO2, ILK, and RhoG caused a reduction in phagocytosis by 51%, 55% and 46% respectively. In contrast, knockdown of Vav2 and Dock1 or overexpression of Vav2 Y159/172F did not cause a significant change in phagocytosis. These data suggest a novel link between Tiam1 and RhoG/ILK /ELMO2 pathway as upstream effectors of the Rac1-mediated phagocytic process in TM cells.
Project description:An acquired somatic mutation at codon 816 in the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase is associated with poor prognosis in patients with systemic mastocytosis and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Treatment of leukemic cells bearing this mutation with an allosteric inhibitor of p21-activated kinase (Pak) or its genetic inactivation results in growth repression due to enhanced apoptosis. Inhibition of the upstream effector Rac abrogates the oncogene-induced growth and activity of Pak. Although both Rac1 and Rac2 are constitutively activated via the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav1, loss of Rac1 or Rac2 alone moderately corrected the growth of KIT-bearing leukemic cells, whereas the combined loss resulted in 75% growth repression. In vivo, the inhibition of Vav or Rac or Pak delayed the onset of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and corrected the associated pathology in mice. To assess the role of Rac GEFs in oncogene-induced transformation, we used an inhibitor of Rac, EHop-016, which specifically targets Vav1 and found that EHop-016 was a potent inhibitor of human and murine leukemic cell growth. These studies identify Pak and Rac GTPases, including Vav1, as potential therapeutic targets in MPN and AML involving an oncogenic form of KIT.
Project description:We used Affymetrix microarrays to compare gene expression profiles of the metastatic parental breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-435 (435) and the non-metastatic daughter cell line created by the stable expression of the BReast cancer Metastasis Suppressor 1 (BRMS1) gene in 435 cells, MDA-MB-435-BRMS1 (435/BRMS1). Analysis of microarray data provided insight into some of the potential mechanisms by which BRMS1 inhibits tumor formation at secondary sites. Furthermore, due to the importance of the microenvironment, we also examined gene expression under different growth conditions (i.e., plus or minus serum). Expression of 565 genes was significantly (adjusted P-value <0.05) altered regardless of in vitro growth conditions. BRMS1 expression significantly increased multiple major histocompatability complex (MHC) genes and significantly decreased expression of several genes associated with protein localization and secretion. The pattern of gene expression associated with BRMS1 expression suggests that metastasis suppression may be mediated by enhanced immune recognition, altered transport, and/or secretion of metastasis-associated proteins.
Project description:Recently the concept that gap junctions play a role in cancer cell metastasis has emerged. However, the mechanism by which this might occur is unknown. To examine this issue a metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-435, was stably transfected with human Cx43 cDNA. Four clones of 435 transfectants (435/Cx43(+) c1, c6, c8, c14) and two clones of plasmid control (435/hy) were isolated and examined in this study. We found that expressing Cx43 in MDA-MB-435 cells decreased their expression of Cx32 but did not affect gap junctional intercellular communication, migration or invasion through Matrigel((R)). However, forced expression of Cx43 decreased the growth of MDA-MB-435 cells, decreased expression of N-cadherin, which is frequently associated with an aggressive phenotype, and increased MDA-MB-435 sensitivity to apoptosis. More importantly, there were fewer lung metastases in mice injected with 435/Cx43(+) cells relative to mice injected with 435/hy. These results suggest that expressing Cx43 in breast cancer cells decreases their metastatic potential through a mechanism independent of gap junctional communication but, rather, related to N-cadherin expression and apoptosis.