Molecular basis for failure of "atypical" C1 domain of Vav1 to bind diacylglycerol/phorbol ester.
ABSTRACT: C1 domains, the recognition motif of the second messenger diacylglycerol and of the phorbol esters, are classified as typical (ligand-responsive) or atypical (not ligand-responsive). The C1 domain of Vav1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, plays a critical role in regulation of Vav activity through stabilization of the Dbl homology domain, which is responsible for exchange activity of Vav. Although the C1 domain of Vav1 is classified as atypical, it retains a binding pocket geometry homologous to that of the typical C1 domains of PKCs. This study clarifies the basis for its failure to bind ligands. Substituting Vav1-specific residues into the C1b domain of PKC?, we identified five crucial residues (Glu(9), Glu(10), Thr(11), Thr(24), and Tyr(26)) along the rim of the binding cleft that weaken binding potency in a cumulative fashion. Reciprocally, replacing these incompatible residues in the Vav1 C1 domain with the corresponding residues from PKC? C1b (?C1b) conferred high potency for phorbol ester binding. Computer modeling predicts that these unique residues in Vav1 increase the hydrophilicity of the rim of the binding pocket, impairing membrane association and thereby preventing formation of the ternary C1-ligand-membrane binding complex. The initial design of diacylglycerol-lactones to exploit these Vav1 unique residues showed enhanced selectivity for C1 domains incorporating these residues, suggesting a strategy for the development of ligands targeting Vav1.
Project description:PKC (protein kinase C) ? is predominantly expressed in T-cells and is critically involved in immunity. Design of PKC?-selective molecules to manage autoimmune disorders by targeting its activator-binding C1 domain requires the knowledge of its structure and the activator-binding residues. The C1 domain consists of twin C1 domains, C1A and C1B, of which C1B plays a critical role in the membrane translocation and activation of PKC?. In the present study we determined the crystal structure of PKC?C1B to 1.63 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution, which showed that Trp(253) at the rim of the activator-binding pocket was orientated towards the membrane, whereas in PKC?C1B the homologous tryptophan residue was orientated away from the membrane. This particular orientation of Trp(253) affects the size of the activator-binding pocket and the membrane affinity. To further probe the structural constraints on activator-binding, five residues lining the activator-binding site were mutated (Y239A, T243A, W253G, L255G and Q258G) and the binding affinities of the PKC?C1B mutants were measured. These mutants showed reduced binding affinities for phorbol ester [PDBu (phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate)] and diacylglycerol [DOG (sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol), SAG (sn-1-stearoyl 2-arachidonyl glycerol)]. All five full-length PKC? mutants exhibited reduced phorbol-ester-induced membrane translocation compared with the wild-type. These results provide insights into the PKC? activator-binding domain, which will aid in future design of PKC?-selective molecules.
Project description:C1 domains mediate the recognition and subsequent signaling response to diacylglycerol and phorbol esters by protein kinase C (PKC) and by several other families of signal-transducing proteins such as the chimerins or RasGRP. MRCK (myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42 binding kinase), a member of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase family that functions downstream of Cdc42, contains a C1 domain with substantial homology to that of the diacylglycerol/phorbol ester-responsive C1 domains and has been reported to bind phorbol ester. We have characterized here the interaction of the C1 domains of the two MRCK isoforms alpha and beta with phorbol ester. The MRCK C1 domains bind [20-(3)H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate with K(d) values of 10 and 17 nm, respectively, reflecting 60-90-fold weaker affinity compared with the protein kinase C delta C1b domain. In contrast to binding by the C1b domain of PKCdelta, the binding by the C1 domains of MRCK alpha and beta was fully dependent on the presence of phosphatidylserine. Comparison of ligand binding selectivity showed resemblance to that by the C1b domain of PKCalpha and marked contrast to that of the C1b domain of PKCdelta. In intact cells, as in the binding assays, the MRCK C1 domains required 50-100-fold higher concentrations of phorbol ester for induction of membrane translocation. We conclude that additional structural elements within the MRCK structure are necessary if the C1 domains of MRCK are to respond to phorbol ester at concentrations comparable with those that modulate PKC.
Project description:To explore the feasibility of developing ligands targeted to the atypical C1 domains of protein kinase C ζ and ι, we have prepared diacylglycerol lactones substituted with hydrophilic groups on their side chains, which potentially could interact with the arginine residues that distinguish the atypical C1 domains of PKCζ and PKCι from typical C1 domains, and we have measured their binding to mutated versions of the C1b domain of PKCδ that incorporate one or more of these arginine residues. The most selective of the diacylglycerol lactones showed only a 10-fold reduction in binding affinity with the triple arginine mutant (N7R/S10R/L20R) compared to the wild-type, whereas phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate showed a 6000-fold loss of affinity. Molecular modeling confirms that these ligands are indeed able to interact with the arginine residues. Our results show that dramatic changes in selectivity can be obtained through appropriate substitution of diacylglycerol lactones.
Project description:The PKC isozymes represent the most prominent family of signaling proteins mediating response to the ubiquitous second messenger diacylglycerol. Among them, PKC? is critically involved in T-cell activation. Whereas all the other conventional and novel PKC isoforms have twin C1 domains with potent binding activity for phorbol esters, in PKC? only the C1b domain possesses potent binding activity, with little or no activity reported for the C1a domain. In order to better understand the structural basis accounting for the very weak ligand binding of the PKC? C1a domain, we assessed the effect on ligand binding of twelve amino acid residues which differed between the C1a and C1b domains of PKC?. Mutation of Pro9 of the C1a domain of PKC? to the corresponding Lys9 found in C1b restored in vitro binding activity for [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate to 3.6?nM, whereas none of the other residues had substantial effect. Interestingly, the converse mutation in the C1b domain of Lys9 to Pro9 only diminished binding affinity to 11.7?nM, compared to 254?nM in the unmutated C1a. In confocal experiments, deletion of the C1b domain from full length PKC? diminished, whereas deletion of the C1a domain enhanced 5-fold (at 100?nM PMA) the translocation to the plasma membrane. We conclude that the Pro168 residue in the C1a domain of full length PKC? plays a critical role in the ligand and membrane binding, while exchanging the residue (Lys240) at the same position in C1b domain of full length PKC? only modestly reduced the membrane interaction.
Project description:Alcohol regulates the expression and function of protein kinase C epsilon (PKC?). In a previous study we identified an alcohol binding site in the C1B, one of the twin C1 subdomains of PKC? (Das et al., Biochem. J., 421, 405-13, 2009).In this study, we investigated alcohol binding in the entire C1 domain (combined C1A and C1B) of PKC?. Fluorescent phorbol ester, SAPD and fluorescent diacylglycerol (DAG) analog, dansyl-DAG were used to study the effect of ethanol, butanol, and octanol on the ligand binding using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). To identify alcohol binding site(s), PKC?C1 was photolabeled with 3-azibutanol and 3-azioctanol, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The effects of alcohols and the azialcohols on PKC? were studied in NG108-15 cells.In the presence of alcohol, SAPD and dansyl-DAG showed different extent of FRET, indicating differential effects of alcohol on the C1A and C1B subdomains. Effects of alcohols and azialcohols on PKC? in NG108-15 cells were comparable. Azialcohols labeled Tyr-176 of C1A and Tyr-250 of C1B. Inspection of the model structure of PKC?C1 reveals that these residues are 40Å apart from each other indicating that these residues form two different alcohol binding sites.The present results provide evidence for the presence of multiple alcohol-binding sites on PKC? and underscore the importance of targeting this PKC isoform in developing alcohol antagonists.
Project description:The C1 domains in protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes and other signaling molecules are responsible for binding the lipid second messenger diacylglycerol and phorbol esters, and for mediating translocation to membranes. Previous studies revealed that the C1 domain in alpha- and beta-chimaerins, diacylglycerol-regulated Rac-GAPs, interacts with the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi protein p23/Tmp21. Here, we found that p23/Tmp21 acts as a C1 domain-docking protein that mediates perinuclear translocation of beta2-chimaerin. Glu227 and Leu248 in the beta2-chimaerin C1 domain are crucial for binding p23/Tmp21 and perinuclear targeting. Interestingly, isolated C1 domains from individual PKC isozymes differentially interact with p23/Tmp21. For PKCepsilon, it interacts with p23/Tmp21 specifically via its C1b domain; however, this association is lost in response to phorbol esters. These results demonstrate that p23/Tmp21 acts as an anchor that distinctively modulates compartmentalization of C1 domain-containing proteins, and it plays an essential role in beta2-chimaerin relocalization. Our study also highlights the relevance of C1 domains in protein-protein interactions in addition to their well-established lipid-binding properties.
Project description:Curcumin is a polyphenolic nutraceutical that acts on multiple biological targets, including protein kinase C (PKC). PKC is a family of serine/threonine kinases central to intracellular signal transduction. We have recently shown that curcumin selectively inhibits PKC?, but not PKC?, in CHO-K1 cells [Pany, S. (2016) Biochemistry 55, 2135-2143]. To understand which domain(s) of PKC? is responsible for curcumin binding and inhibitory activity, we made several domain-swapped mutants in which the C1 (combination of C1A and C1B) and C2 domains are swapped between PKC? and PKC?. Phorbol ester-induced membrane translocation studies using confocal microscopy and immunoblotting revealed that curcumin inhibited phorbol ester-induced membrane translocation of PKC? mutants, in which the ?C1 domain was replaced with ?C1, but not the PKC? mutant in which ?C1 was replaced with the ?C1 domain, suggesting that ?C1 is a determinant for curcumin's inhibitory effect. In addition, curcumin inhibited membrane translocation of PKC? mutants, in which the ?C1A and ?C1B domains were replaced with the ?C1A and ?C1B domains, respectively, indicating the role of both ?C1A and ?C1B domains in curcumin's inhibitory effects. Phorbol 13-acetate inhibited the binding of curcumin to ?C1A and ?C1B with IC50 values of 6.27 and 4.47 ?M, respectively. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics studies also supported the higher affinity of curcumin for ?C1B than for ?C1A. The C2 domain-swapped mutants were inactive in phorbol ester-induced membrane translocation. These results indicate that curcumin binds to the C1 domain of PKC? and highlight the importance of this domain in achieving PKC isoform selectivity.
Project description:Classic and novel protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes contain two zinc finger motifs, designated "C1a" and "C1b" domains, which constitute the recognition modules for the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) or the phorbol esters. However, the individual contributions of these tandem C1 domains to PKC function and, reciprocally, the influence of protein context on their function remain uncertain. In the present study, we prepared PKCdelta constructs in which the individual C1a and C1b domains were deleted, swapped, or substituted for one another to explore these issues. As isolated fragments, both the deltaC1a and deltaC1b domains potently bound phorbol esters, but the binding of [(3)H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate ([(3)H]PDBu) by the deltaC1a domain depended much more on the presence of phosphatidylserine than did that of the deltaC1b domain. In intact PKCdelta, the deltaC1b domain played the dominant role in [(3)H]PDBu binding, membrane translocation, and down-regulation. A contribution from the deltaC1a domain was nonetheless evident, as shown by retention of [(3)H]PDBu binding at reduced affinity, by increased [(3)H]PDBu affinity upon expression of a second deltaC1a domain substituting for the deltaC1b domain, and by loss of persistent plasma membrane translocation for PKCdelta expressing only the deltaC1b domain, but its contribution was less than predicted from the activity of the isolated domain. Switching the position of the deltaC1b domain to the normal position of the deltaC1a domain (or vice versa) had no apparent effect on the response to phorbol esters, suggesting that the specific position of the C1 domain within PKCdelta was not the primary determinant of its activity.
Project description:The C1 domain represents the recognition module for diacylglycerol and phorbol esters in protein kinase C, Ras guanine nucleotide releasing protein (RasGRP), and related proteins. RasGRP2 is exceptional in that its C1 domain has very weak binding affinity (Kd = 2890 ± 240 nm for [(3)H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. We have identified four amino acid residues responsible for this lack of sensitivity. Replacing Asn(7), Ser(8), Ala(19), and Ile(21) with the corresponding residues from RasGRP1/3 (Thr(7), Tyr(8), Gly(19), and Leu(21), respectively) conferred potent binding affinity (Kd = 1.47 ± 0.03 nm) in vitro and membrane translocation in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in LNCaP cells. Mutant C1 domains incorporating one to three of the four residues showed intermediate behavior with S8Y making the greatest contribution. Binding activity for diacylglycerol was restored in parallel. The requirement for anionic phospholipid for [(3)H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding was determined; it decreased in going from the single S8Y mutant to the quadruple mutant. The full-length RasGRP2 protein with the mutated C1 domains also showed strong phorbol ester binding, albeit modestly weaker than that of the C1 domain alone (Kd = 8.2 ± 1.1 nm for the full-length protein containing all four mutations), and displayed translocation in response to phorbol ester. RasGRP2 is a guanyl exchange factor for Rap1. Consistent with the ability of phorbol ester to induce translocation of the full-length RasGRP2 with the mutated C1 domain, phorbol ester enhanced the ability of the mutated RasGRP2 to activate Rap1. Modeling confirmed that the four mutations helped the binding cleft maintain a stable conformation.
Project description:Translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) alpha, beta II, delta and epsilon fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was studied in living neuroblastoma cells by confocal microscopy. Exposure to carbachol elicited transient translocation of PKC alpha-EGFP and beta II-EGFP in most of the cells, PKC delta-EGFP in a few cells and induced sustained translocation of PKC epsilon-EGFP. To monitor levels of Ca(2+) and diacylglycerol and the translocation of PKC in the same cell, the Ca(2+)-sensitive C2 domain, diacylglycerol-sensitive C1 domains and full-length PKC were fused to red, cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins respectively. PKC alpha was translocated a few seconds after the C2 domain, which represents an increase in Ca(2+). This delay was insensitive to removal of the pseudosubstrate in PKC alpha, but the isolated regulatory domain translocated simultaneously with the C2 domain. Translocation of PKC epsilon coincided with the increase in diacylglycerol. Ionomycin induced translocation of PKC alpha and the C2 domain, whereas 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol caused translocation of the C1 domains and PKC epsilon, but not PKC alpha. Experiments with individual C1 domains showed that treatment with carbachol or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate elicited translocation of PKC alpha C1a, PKC epsilon C1a and PKC epsilon C1b, whereas PKC alpha C1b was largely insensitive to these agents. In contrast with full-length PKC alpha, the regulatory domain of PKC alpha and pseudosubstrate-devoid PKC alpha responded to the carbachol-stimulated increase in diacylglycerol.