Mast cells orchestrate type 2 immunity to helminths through regulation of tissue-derived cytokines.
ABSTRACT: Mast cells (MCs) are potent inflammatory cells that are distributed throughout mucosal barrier tissues and respond rapidly to pathogenic stimuli. During helminth infections, MCs play an important role as late-stage effectors. However, it is currently unknown whether MCs contribute to the early innate events that determine the priming of adaptive immunity. MC-deficient mouse strains and mice treated with the MC stabilizing agent cromolyn sodium had dramatically reduced Th2 priming and type 2 cytokine production and harbored increased parasite burdens following infection with gastrointestinal helminths (Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri and Trichuris muris). In addition, early production of the tissue-derived cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) was significantly diminished in MC-deficient mice and resulted in decreased numbers of infection-elicited IL-25-dependent (Lin(-)CD45(-))CD34(+)Sca-1(+) progenitors, which produced type 2 cytokines and could be differentiated into mast cells ex vivo. Finally, repair of MC deficiency increased production of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP, restored progenitor cell numbers and Th2 priming, and reduced parasite burden. Our data reveal an innate IgE-independent role for MCs in orchestrating type 2 immune responses via the regulation of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP.
Project description:Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex, often lifelong allergic disease with severe pruritus affecting around 10% of both humans and dogs. To investigate the role of mast cells (MCs) and MC-specific proteases on the immunopathogenesis of AD, a vitamin D3-analog (MC903) was used to induce clinical AD-like symptoms in c-kit-dependent MC-deficient Wsh-/- and the MC protease-deficient mMCP-4-/-, mMCP-6-/-, and CPA3-/- mouse strains. MC903-treatment on the ear lobe increased clinical scores and ear-thickening, along with increased MC and granulocyte infiltration and activity, as well as increased levels of interleukin 33 (IL-33) locally and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) both locally and systemically. The MC-deficient Wsh-/- mice showed significantly increased clinical score and ear thickening albeit having lower ear tissue levels of IL-33 and TSLP as well as lower serum levels of TSLP as compared to the WT mice. In contrast, although having significantly increased IL-33 ear tissue levels the chymase-deficient mMCP-4-/- mice showed similar clinical score, ear thickening, and TSLP levels in ear tissue and serum as the WT mice, whereas mMCP-6 and CPA3 -deficient mice showed a slightly reduced ear thickening and granulocyte infiltration. Our results suggest that MCs promote and control the level of MC903-induced AD-like inflammation.
Project description:House dust mite-derived proteases contribute to allergic disorders in part by disrupting epithelial barrier function. Interleukin-33 (IL-33), produced by lung cells after exposure to protease allergens, can induce innate-type airway eosinophilia by activating natural helper (NH) cells, a member of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), to secrete Th2 type-cytokines. Because IL-33 also can induce mast cells (MCs) to secrete Th2 type-cytokines, MCs are thought to cooperate with NH cells in enhancing protease or IL-33-mediated innate-type airway eosinophilia. However, we found that MC-deficient Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice exhibited exacerbated protease-induced lung inflammation associated with reduced numbers of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Moreover, IL-2 produced by IL-33-stimulated MCs promoted expansion of numbers of Treg cells, thereby suppressing development of papain- or IL-33-induced airway eosinophilia. We have thus identified a unique anti-inflammatory pathway that can limit induction of innate-type allergic airway inflammation mediated by NH cells.
Project description:Mast cells (MC) are resident tissue cells found primarily at the interphase between tissues and the environment. These evolutionary old cells store large amounts of proteases within cytoplasmic granules, and one of the most abundant of these proteases is tryptase. To look deeper into the question of their in vivo targets, we have analyzed the activity of the human MC tryptase on 69 different human cytokines and chemokines, and the activity of the mouse tryptase (mMCP-6) on 56 mouse cytokines and chemokines. These enzymes were found to be remarkably restrictive in their cleavage of these potential targets. Only five were efficiently cleaved by the human tryptase: TSLP, IL-21, MCP3, MIP-3b, and eotaxin. This strict specificity indicates a regulatory function of these proteases and not primarily as unspecific degrading enzymes. We recently showed that the human MC chymase also had a relatively strict specificity, indicating that both of these proteases have regulatory functions. One of the most interesting regulatory functions may involve controlling excessive TH2-mediated inflammation by cleaving several of the most important TH2-promoting inflammatory cytokines, including IL-18, IL-33, TSLP, IL-15, and IL-21, indicating a potent negative feedback loop on TH2 immunity.
Project description:Mast cells (MCs) are immune cells that release histamine and other mediators. MC number increases after bile duct ligation (BDL) and blocking mast cell-derived histamine decreases biliary proliferation. We aimed to isolate and characterize MCs from cholestatic livers. Rats were subjected to BDL starting at 6?h and up to 14 days. MC infiltration was evaluated by toluidine blue. BDL rats were perfused using standard collagenase perfusion. Following enzymatic digestion, tissue was passed through a fine gauge needle. Suspensions were incubated with MAb AA4, washed and incubated with goat anti-mouse-coated Dynal beads. MCs were stained with toluidine blue, and in isolated MCs the expression of FC?RI and MC proteases was measured. The expression of histidine decarboxylase, histamine receptors, VEGF receptors, and TIE 1 and 2 was evaluated by qPCR. Histamine and VEGF-A secretion was measured in MC supernatants. MC purity was evaluated by CK-19, CK-8, albumin, VAP-1, and ?-SMA expression. In vitro, cholangiocytes and HSCs were treated with isolated MC supernatants from BDL rats treated with either NaCl or cromolyn sodium (to block MC histamine release) and biliary proliferation and hepatic fibrosis were measured. MCs infiltrate the liver and surround bile ducts starting at day 2. We isolated a virtually pure preparation of mature, functional MCs. TEM images reveal distinct secretory granules and isolated MCs secrete histamine. MCs express FC?RI, chymase, tryptase, RMCP-I, and RMCP-II, but were virtually void of other cell markers. Biliary proliferation and fibrosis increased following treatment with MC supernatants from BDL rats+NaCl and these parameters decreased in cells treated with MC supernatants from BDL+cromolyn sodium. In conclusion, we have isolated and characterized MCs from cholestatic livers. MCs regulate cholestatic liver injury and hepatic fibrosis. This tool provides a better understanding of the paracrine influence of mast cells on biliary/liver pathologies.
Project description:Mast cells (MCs) are found in increased numbers at airway mucosal surfaces in asthmatic patients. Because human airway epithelial cells (HAECs) actively participate in airway inflammatory responses and are in direct contact with MCs in the mucosa, we hypothesized that HAEC-MC interactions may contribute to the differentiation and survival of MCs in the airway mucosa. Here, we show that HAECs express mRNA and protein for soluble and membrane-bound stem cell factor, releasing soluble stem cell factor into the cell culture supernatant at a concentration of 5.9 +/- 0.1 ng per 10(6) HAEC. HAECs were able to support MC survival in coculture in the absence of any exogenous cytokines for at least 4 d. Before the initiation of coculture, MCs were uniformly tryptase and chymase (MC(TC)) double positive, but by 2 d of coculture the majority of MCs expressed tryptase (MC(T)) alone. MCs supported in coculture generated low amounts of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LT) after FcepsilonRI-dependent activation (0.2 +/- 0.1 ng of cys-LT per 10(6) cells) and required priming with IL-4 and IL-3 during coculture to achieve a quantity of cys-LT generation within the range expected for human lung mucosal MC (26.5 +/- 16 ng of cys-LT per 10(6) cells). In these culture conditions, HAECs were able to direct mucosal MC protease phenotype, but T cell-derived Th2 cytokines were required for the expression of a functional airway MC eicosanoid phenotype. Thus, distinct cell types may direct unique aspects of reactive mucosal MC phenotype in the airways.
Project description:Mast cells (MCs) play critical roles in allergic and inflammatory reactions and contribute to multiple pathologies in the skin, in which they show increased numbers, which frequently correlates with severity. It remains ill-defined how MC accumulation is established by the cutaneous microenvironment, in part because research on human MCs rarely employs MCs matured in the tissue, and extrapolations from other MC subsets have limitations, considering the high level of MC heterogeneity. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)-released by epithelial cells, like keratinocytes, following disturbed homeostasis and inflammation-has attracted much attention, but its impact on skin MCs remains undefined, despite the vast expression of the TSLP receptor by these cells. Using several methods, each detecting a distinct component of the apoptotic process (membrane alterations, DNA degradation, and caspase-3 activity), our study pinpoints TSLP as a novel survival factor of dermal MCs. TSLP confers apoptosis resistance via concomitant activation of the TSLP/ signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-5 / myeloid cell leukemia (Mcl)-1 route and a newly uncovered TSLP/ c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)/ B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-xL axis, as evidenced by RNA interference and pharmacological inhibition. Our findings highlight the potential contribution of TSLP to the MC supportive niche of the skin and, vice versa, highlight MCs as crucial responders to TSLP in the context of TSLP-driven disorders.
Project description:Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), a severe eosinophilic inflammatory disorder of the airways, involves overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs), activation of airway mast cells (MCs), and bronchoconstriction in response to nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitors that deplete homeostatic PGE2. The mechanistic basis for MC activation in this disorder is unknown. We now demonstrate that patients with AERD have markedly increased epithelial expression of the alarmin-like cytokine IL-33 in nasal polyps, as compared with polyps from aspirin-tolerant control subjects. The murine model of AERD, generated by dust mite priming of mice lacking microsomal PGE2 synthase (ptges(-/-) mice), shows a similar upregulation of IL-33 protein in the airway epithelium, along with marked eosinophilic bronchovascular inflammation. Deletion of leukotriene C4 synthase, the terminal enzyme needed to generate cysLTs, eliminates the increased IL-33 content of the ptges(-/-) lungs and sharply reduces pulmonary eosinophilia and basal secretion of MC products. Challenges of dust mite-primed ptges(-/-) mice with lysine aspirin induce IL-33-dependent MC activation and bronchoconstriction. Thus, IL-33 is a component of a cysLT-driven innate type 2 immune response that drives pathogenic MC activation and contributes substantially to AERD pathogenesis.
Project description:Mast cell (MC) mediator release after crosslinking of surface-bound IgE antibody by ingested antigen underlies food allergy. However, IgE antibodies are not uniformly associated with food allergy, and intestinal MC load is an important determinant. Atopic dermatitis (AD), characterized by pruritis and cutaneous sensitization to allergens, including foods, is strongly associated with food allergy. Tape stripping mouse skin, a surrogate for scratching, caused expansion and activation of small intestinal MCs, increased intestinal permeability, and promoted food anaphylaxis in sensitized mice. Tape stripping caused keratinocytes to systemically release interleukin-33 (IL-33), which synergized with intestinal tuft-cell-derived IL-25 to drive the expansion and activation of intestinal type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). These provided IL-4, which targeted MCs to expand in the intestine. Duodenal MCs were expanded in AD. In addition to promoting cutaneous sensitization to foods, scratching may promote food anaphylaxis in AD by expanding and activating intestinal MCs.
Project description:IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP, which are produced predominantly by epithelial cells, can induce production of Th2-type cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and/or IL-13 by various types of cells, suggesting their involvement in induction of Th2-type cytokine-associated immune responses. It is known that Th2-type cytokines contribute to host defense against malaria parasite infection in mice. However, the roles of IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP in malaria parasite infection remain unclear. Thus, to elucidate this, we infected wild-type, IL-25-/-, IL-33-/- and TSLP receptor (TSLPR)-/- mice with Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) ANKA, a murine malaria strain. The expression levels of IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP mRNA were changed in the brain, liver, lung and spleen of wild-type mice after infection, suggesting that these cytokines are involved in host defense against P. berghei ANKA. However, the incidence of parasitemia and survival in the mutant mice were comparable to in the wild-type mice. These findings indicate that IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP are not critical for host defense against P. berghei ANKA.
Project description:Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is elevated in afflicted tissues of patients with mast cell-dependent chronic allergic diseases. Based on its acute effects on mouse mast cells (MCs), IL-33 is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease through MC activation. However, the manifestations of chronic IL-33 exposure on human MC function, which best reflect the conditions associated with chronic allergic disease, are unknown. We now find that long-term exposure of human and mouse MCs to IL-33 results in a substantial reduction of MC activation in response to antigen. This reduction required >72 h exposure to IL-33 for onset and 1-2 wk for reversion following IL-33 removal. This hypo-responsive phenotype was determined to be a consequence of MyD88-dependent attenuation of signaling processes necessary for MC activation including antigen-mediated calcium mobilization and cytoskeletal reorganization; potentially as a consequence of down-regulation of the expression of PLCg1 and Hck. These findings suggest that IL-33 may play a protective, rather than a causative role in MC activation under chronic conditions and, furthermore, reveal regulated plasticity in the MC activation phenotype. The ability to down-regulate MC activation in this manner may provide alternative approaches for treatment of MC-driven disease. Overall design: Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells treated with IL3 or IL3+IL33. 6 replicates each.