Long-term balancing selection at the antiviral gene OAS1 in Central African chimpanzees.
ABSTRACT: Oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) are interferon-induced enzymes that participate in the first line of defense against a wide range of viral infection in animals. Upon activation by viral double-stranded RNA, OAS synthesizes (2-5) oligoadenylates, which activate RNase L, leading to the nonspecific degradation of cellular and viral RNA. Some association studies in humans suggest that variation at one of the OAS genes, OAS1, could be influencing host susceptibility to viral infection. We assessed the diversity of OAS1 in hominoid primates with a focus on chimpanzees. We found that the OAS1 gene is extremely polymorphic in Central African chimpanzee and exhibits levels of silent and replacement diversity much higher than neutral regions of the chimpanzee genome. This level of variation strongly suggests that balancing selection is acting on OAS1, and indeed, this conclusion was validated by several tests of neutrality. We further demonstrated that balancing selection has been acting at this locus since the split between chimpanzees, humans, and gorillas (~8.6 Ma) and caused the persistence of two deeply divergent allelic lineages in Central African chimpanzees. These two groups of OAS1 alleles differ by a large number of amino acids (a.a.), including several a.a. putatively involved in RNA binding. It is therefore very likely that variation at the OAS1 locus affects the innate immune response of individuals to specific viral infection. Our data strongly suggest that interactions between viral RNA and OAS1 are responsible for the maintenance of ancestral polymorphisms at this locus for at least 13.2 My.
Project description:The oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) enzyme acts as an innate sensor of viral infection and plays a major role in the defense against a wide diversity of viruses. Polymorphisms at OAS1 have been shown to correlate with differential susceptibility to several infections of great public health significance, including hepatitis C virus, SARS coronavirus, and West Nile virus. Population genetics analyses in hominoids have revealed interesting evolutionary patterns. In Central African chimpanzee, OAS1 has evolved under long-term balancing selection, resulting in the persistence of polymorphisms since the origin of hominoids, whereas human populations have acquired and retained OAS1 alleles from Neanderthal and Denisovan origin. We decided to further investigate the evolution of OAS1 in primates by characterizing intra-specific variation in four species commonly used as models in infectious disease research: the rhesus macaque, the cynomolgus macaque, the olive baboon, and the Guinea baboon. In baboons, OAS1 harbors a very low level of variation. In contrast, OAS1 in macaques exhibits a level of polymorphism far greater than the genomic average, which is consistent with the action of balancing selection. The region of the enzyme that directly interacts with viral RNA, the RNA-binding domain, contains a number of polymorphisms likely to affect the RNA-binding affinity of OAS1. This strongly suggests that pathogen-driven balancing selection acting on the RNA-binding domain of OAS1 is maintaining variation at this locus. Interestingly, we found that a number of polymorphisms involved in RNA-binding were shared between macaques and chimpanzees. This represents an unusual case of convergent polymorphism.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) locus encodes for three OAS enzymes (OAS1-3) involved in innate immune response. This region harbors high amounts of Neandertal ancestry in non-African populations; yet, strong evidence of positive selection in the OAS region is still lacking.<h4>Results</h4>Here we used a broad array of selection tests in concert with neutral coalescent simulations to demonstrate a signal of adaptive introgression at the OAS locus. Furthermore, we characterized the functional consequences of the Neandertal haplotype in the transcriptional regulation of OAS genes at baseline and infected conditions. We found that cells from people with the Neandertal-like haplotype express lower levels of OAS3 upon infection, as well as distinct isoforms of OAS1 and OAS2.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We present evidence that a Neandertal haplotype at the OAS locus was subjected to positive selection in the human population. This haplotype is significantly associated with functional consequences at the level of transcriptional regulation of innate immune responses. Notably, we suggest that the Neandertal-introgressed haplotype likely reintroduced an ancestral splice variant of OAS1 encoding a more active protein, suggesting that adaptive introgression occurred as a means to resurrect adaptive variation that had been lost outside Africa.
Project description:Upon viral infection, the 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)-ribonuclease L (RNaseL) system works to cleave viral RNA, thereby blocking viral replication. However, it is unclear whether OAS proteins have a role in regulating gene expression. Here, we show that OAS1 and OAS3 act as negative regulators of the expression of chemokines and interferonresponsive genes in human macrophages. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (Cas9) technology was used to engineer human myeloid cell lines in which the OAS1 or OAS3 gene was deleted. Neither OAS1 nor OAS3 was exclusively responsible for the degradation of rRNA in macrophages stimulated with poly(I:C), a synthetic surrogate for viral double-stranded (ds)RNA. An mRNA sequencing analysis revealed that genes related to type I interferon signaling and chemokine activity were increased in OAS1-/- and OAS3-/- macrophages treated with intracellular poly(I:C). Indeed, retinoic-acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I- and interferon-induced helicase C domain-containing protein (IFIH1 or MDA5)-mediated induction of chemokines and interferon-stimulated genes was regulated by OAS3, but Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)- and TLR4-mediated induction of those genes was modulated by OAS1 in macrophages. However, stimulation of these cells with type I interferons had no effect on OAS1- or OAS3-mediated chemokine secretion. These data suggest that OAS1 and OAS3 negatively regulate the expression of chemokines and interferon-responsive genes in human macrophages. [BMB Reports 2019; 52(2): 133-138].
Project description:Bats are reservoirs for many RNA viruses that are highly pathogenic in humans yet relatively apathogenic in the natural host. It has been suggested that differences in innate immunity are responsible. The antiviral OAS-RNase L pathway is well characterized in humans, but there is little known about its activation and antiviral activity in bats. During infection, OASs, upon sensing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), produce 2'-5' oligoadenylates (2-5A), leading to activation of RNase L which degrades viral and host RNA, limiting viral replication. Humans encode three active OASs (OAS1 to -3). Analysis of the Egyptian Rousette bat genome combined with mRNA sequencing from bat RoNi/7 cells revealed three homologous OAS proteins. Interferon alpha treatment or viral infection induced all three OAS mRNAs, but RNase L mRNA is constitutively expressed. Sindbis virus (SINV) or vaccinia virus (VACV?E3L) infection of wild-type (WT) or OAS1-KO (knockout), OAS2-KO, or MAVS-KO RoNi/7 cells, but not RNase L-KO or OAS3-KO cells, induces robust RNase L activation. SINV replication is 100- to 200-fold higher in the absence of RNase L or OAS3 than in WT cells. However, MAVS-KO had no detectable effect on RNA degradation or replication. Thus, in RoNi/7 bat cells, as in human cells, activation of RNase L during infection and its antiviral activity are dependent primarily on OAS3 while MAVS signaling is not required for the activation of RNase L and restriction of infection. Our findings indicate that OAS proteins serve as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize viral dsRNA and that this pathway is a primary response to virus rather than a secondary effect of interferon signaling.IMPORTANCE Many RNA viruses that are highly pathogenic in humans are relatively apathogenic in their bat reservoirs, making it important to compare innate immune responses in bats to those well characterized in humans. One such antiviral response is the OAS-RNase L pathway. OASs, upon sensing dsRNA, produce 2-5A, leading to activation of RNase L which degrades viral and host RNA, limiting viral replication. Analysis of Egyptian Rousette bat sequences revealed three OAS genes expressing OAS1, OAS2, and OAS3 proteins. Interferon treatment or viral infection induces all three bat OAS mRNAs. In these bat cells as in human cells, RNase L activation and its antiviral activity are dependent primarily on OAS3 while MAVS signaling is not required. Importantly, our findings indicate the OAS-RNase L system is a primary response to virus rather than a secondary effect of interferon signaling and therefore can be activated early in infection or while interferon signaling is antagonized.
Project description:2'-5'-Oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) are innate immune sensors of cytosolic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and play a critical role in limiting viral infection. dsRNA binding induces allosteric structural changes in OAS1 that reorganize its catalytic center to promote synthesis of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate and thus activation of endoribonuclease L. Specific RNA sequences and structural motifs can also enhance activation of OAS1 through currently undefined mechanisms. To better understand these drivers of OAS activation, we tested the impact of defined sequence changes within a short dsRNA that strongly activates OAS1. Both in vitro and in human A549 cells, appending a 3'-end single-stranded pyrimidine (3'-ssPy) can strongly enhance OAS1 activation or have no effect depending on its location, suggesting that other dsRNA features are necessary for correct presentation of the motif to OAS1. Consistent with this idea, we also find that the dsRNA binding position is dictated by an established consensus sequence (WWN9WG). Unexpectedly, however, not all sequences fitting this consensus activate OAS1 equivalently, with strong dependence on the identity of both partially conserved (W) and non-conserved (N9) residues. A picture thus emerges in which both specific RNA features and the context in which they are presented dictate the ability of short dsRNAs to activate OAS1.
Project description:West Nile virus (WNV) has a positive sense RNA genome with conserved structural elements in the 5' and 3' -untranslated regions required for polyprotein production. Antiviral immunity to WNV is partially mediated through the production of a cluster of proteins known as the interferon stimulated genes (ISGs). The 2' 5'-oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) are key ISGs that help to amplify the innate immune response. Upon interaction with viral double stranded RNA, OAS enzymes become activated and enable the host cell to restrict viral propagation. Studies have linked mutations in the OAS1 gene to increased susceptibility to WNV infection, highlighting the importance of OAS1 enzyme. Here we report that the region at the 5'-end of the WNV genome comprising both the 5'-UTR and initial coding region is capable of OAS1 activation in vitro. This region contains three RNA stem loops (SLI, SLII, and SLIII), whose relative contribution to OAS1 binding affinity and activation were investigated using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and enzyme kinetics experiments. Stem loop I, comprising nucleotides 1-73, is dispensable for maximum OAS1 activation, as a construct containing only SLII and SLIII was capable of enzymatic activation. Mutations to the RNA binding site of OAS1 confirmed the specificity of the interaction. The purity, monodispersity and homogeneity of the 5'-end (SLI/II/III) and OAS1 were evaluated using dynamic light scattering and analytical ultra-centrifugation. Solution conformations of both the 5'-end RNA of WNV and OAS1 were then elucidated using small-angle x-ray scattering. In the context of purified components in vitro, these data demonstrate the recognition of conserved secondary structural elements of the WNV genome by a member of the interferon-mediated innate immune response.
Project description:West Nile virus (WNV) is a re-emerging pathogen that can cause fatal encephalitis. In mice, susceptibility to WNV has been reported to result from a single point mutation in oas1b, which encodes 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase 1b, a member of the type I interferon-regulated OAS gene family involved in viral RNA degradation. In man, the human ortholog of oas1b appears to be OAS1. The 'A' allele at SNP rs10774671 of OAS1 has previously been shown to alter splicing of OAS1 and to be associated with reduced OAS activity in PBMCs. Here we show that the frequency of this hypofunctional allele is increased in both symptomatic and asymptomatic WNV seroconverters (Caucasians from five US centers; total n = 501; OR = 1.6 [95% CI 1.2-2.0], P = 0.0002 in a recessive genetic model). We then directly tested the effect of this SNP on viral replication in a novel ex vivo model of WNV infection in primary human lymphoid tissue. Virus accumulation varied markedly among donors, and was highest for individuals homozygous for the 'A' allele (P<0.0001). Together, these data identify OAS1 SNP rs10774671 as a host genetic risk factor for initial infection with WNV in humans.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) evolved via cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz) from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Chimpanzees, like humans, are susceptible to infection by HIV-1. However, unlike humans, infected chimpanzees seldom develop immunodeficiency when infected with SIVcpz or HIV-1. SIVcpz and most strains of HIV-1 require the cell-surface receptor CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) to infect specific leukocyte subsets, and, subsequent to infection, the level of CCR5 expression influences the amount of HIV-1 entry and the rate of HIV-1 replication. Evidence that variants in the 5' cis-regulatory region of CCR5 (5'CCR5) affect disease progression in humans suggests that variation in CCR5 might also influence the response of chimpanzees to HIV-1/SIVcpz. To determine whether patterns of genetic variation at 5'CCR5 in chimpanzees are similar to those in humans, we analyzed patterns of DNA sequence variation in 37 wild-born chimpanzees (26 P. t. verus, 9 P. t. troglodytes, and 2 P. t. schweinfurthii), along with previously published 5'CCR5 data from 112 humans and 50 noncoding regions in the human and chimpanzee genomes. These analyses revealed that patterns of variation in 5'CCR5 differ dramatically between chimpanzees and humans. In chimpanzees, 5'CCR5 was less diverse than 80% of noncoding regions and was characterized by an excess of rare variants. In humans, 5'CCR5 was more diverse than 90% of noncoding regions and had an excess of common variants. Under a wide range of demographic histories, these patterns suggest that, whereas human 5'CCR5 has been subject to balancing selection, chimpanzee 5'CCR5 has been influenced by a selective sweep. This result suggests that chimpanzee 5'CCR5 might harbor or be linked to functional variants that influence chimpanzee resistance to disease caused by SIVcpz/HIV-1.
Project description:Oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) are a family of interferon-inducible enzymes that require double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as a cofactor. Upon binding dsRNA, OAS undergoes a conformational change and is activated to polymerize ATP into 2'-5'-oligoadenylate chains. The OAS family consists of several isozymes, with unique domain organizations to potentially interact with dsRNA of variable length, providing diversity in viral RNA recognition. In addition, oligomerization of OAS isozymes, potentially OAS1 and OAS2, is hypothesized to be important for 2'-5'-oligoadenylate chain building. In this study, we present the solution conformation of dimeric human OAS2 using an integrated approach involving small-angle x-ray scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, and dynamic light scattering techniques. We also demonstrate OAS2 dimerization using immunoprecipitation approaches in human cells. Whereas mutation of a key active-site aspartic acid residue prevents OAS2 activity, a C-terminal mutation previously hypothesized to disrupt OAS self-association had only a minor effect on OAS2 activity. Finally, we also present the solution structure of OAS1 monomer and dimer, comparing their hydrodynamic properties with OAS2. In summary, our work presents the first, to our knowledge, dimeric structural models of OAS2 that enhance our understanding of the oligomerization and catalytic function of OAS enzymes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) are interferon inducible enzymes that polymerizes ATP to 2'-5'-linked oligomers of adenylate (2-5As). As part of the innate immune response, these enzymes are activated by viral double stranded RNA or mRNAs with significant double stranded structure. The 2-5As in turn activate RNaseL that degrade single stranded RNAs. Three distinct forms of OAS exist in human cells (OAS1, 2 and 3) with each form having multiple spliced variants. The OAS enzymes and their spliced variants have different enzyme activities. OAS enzymes also play a significant role in regulating multiple cellular processes such as proliferation and apoptosis. Moreover, Single nucleotide polymorphisms that alter OAS activity are also associated with viral infection, diabetes and cancer. Thus detection of OAS enzyme activity with a simple spectrophotometric method in cells will be important in clinical research. RESULTS:Here we propose a modified coupled spectrophotometric assay to detect 2-5 oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) enzyme activity in prostate cell lines as a model system. The OAS enzyme from prostate cancer cell lysates was purified using Polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) bound activated sepharose beads. The activated OAS enzyme eluted from Sepharose beads showed expression of p46 isoform of OAS1, generally considered the most abundant OAS isoform in elutes from DU14 cell line but not in other prostate cell line. In this assay the phosphates generated by the OAS enzymatic reaction is coupled with conversion of the substrate 2-amino-6-mercapto-7-methylpurine ribonucleoside (methylthioguanosine, a guanosine analogue; MESG) to a purine base product, 2-amino-6-mercapto-7-methylpurine and ribose1-phosphate via a catalyst purine nucleoside phosphorylase (phosphorylase) using a commercially available pyrophosphate kit. The absorbance of the purine base product is measured at 360 nm. The higher levels of phosphates detected in DU145 cell line indicates more activity of OAS in this prostate cancer cell line. CONCLUSION:The modified simple method detected OAS enzyme activity with sensitivity and specificity, which could help in detection of OAS enzymes avoiding the laborious and radioactive methods.