Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and immunodeficiency with coincident NEMO and EDA mutations.
ABSTRACT: Ectodermal dysplasias (ED) are uncommon genetic disorders resulting in abnormalities in ectodermally derived structures. Many ED-associated genes have been described, of which ectodysplasin-A (EDA) is one of the more common. The NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO encoded by the IKBKG gene) is unique in that mutations result in severe humoral and cellular immunologic defects in addition to ED. We describe three unrelated kindreds with defects in both EDA and IKBKG resulting from X-chromosome crossover. This demonstrates the importance of thorough immunologic consideration of patients with ED even when an EDA etiology is confirmed, and raises the possibility of a specific phenotype arising from coincident mutations in EDA and IKBKG.
Project description:Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by abnormal development of the teeth, hair, and sweat glands. Ectodysplasin A (EDA), Ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR), and EDAR-associated death domain (EDARADD) are candidate genes for HED, but the relationship between WNT10A and HED has not yet been validated. In this study, we included patients who presented at least two of the three ectodermal dysplasia features. The four genes were analyzed in seven HED patients by PCR and Sanger sequencing. Five EDA and one EDAR heterozygous mutations were identified in families 1-6. Two WNT10A heterozygous mutations were identified in family 7 as a compound heterozygote. c.662G>A (p.Gly221Asp) in EDA and c.354T>G (p.Tyr118*) in WNT10A are novel mutations. Bioinformatics analyses results confirmed the pathogenicity of the two novel mutations. In family 7, we also identified two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were predicted to affect the splicing of EDAR. Analysis of the patient's total RNA revealed normal splicing of EDAR. This ascertained that the compound heterozygous WNT10A mutations are the genetic defects that led to the onset of HED. Our data revealed the genetic basis of seven HED patients and expended the mutational spectrum. Interestingly, we confirmed WNT10A as a candidate gene of HED and we propose WNT10A to be tested in EDA-negative HED patients.
Project description:Purpose:Ectodermal dysplasias are characterized by developmental abnormalities in ectodermal structures. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasias (HED) are the most common subtype. They are most commonly inherited via X-linked recessive routes. We report on a novel ectodysplasin-A (EDA) mutation that is expected to be involved in pathogenesis of HED. Methods:Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia genes, including EDA, EDAR and EDARADD, were analyzed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). The detected mutation on the EDA gene was confirmed in the patient and his mother using Sanger sequencing. Results:The patient presented with adontia, absence of gum development, hyperthermia and hypohidrosis. Our genetic analysis of the patient revealed a novel frameshift hemizygous mutation (c.898_924?+?8del35ins4CTTA) on the EDA gene. The patient's mother showed a mild HED phenotype. Direct sequencing of the EDA gene in the region where her son had the mutation showed the same mutation in a heterozygous state. Conclusion:We identified a novel frameshift mutation in the EDA gene in an Iranian patient affected by X-linked HED. The difference between our patient's symptoms and those recorded for some previous subjects may be due to the differences in the mutations involved.
Project description:X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XHED), an inherited disease recognized in humans, mice, and cattle, is characterized by hypotrichosis, a reduced number or absence of sweat glands, and missing or malformed teeth. In a subset of affected individuals and animals, mutations in the EDA gene (formerly EDI), coding for ectodysplasin, have been found to cause this phenotype. Ectodysplasin is a homotrimeric transmembrane protein with an extracellular TNF-like domain, which has been shown to be involved in the morphogenesis of hair follicles and tooth buds during fetal development. Some human XHED patients also have concurrent immunodeficiency, due to mutations in the NF-kappaB essential modulator protein (IKBKG; formerly NEMO), which is also encoded on the X chromosome. In a breeding colony of dogs with XHED, immune system defects had been suspected because of frequent pulmonary infections and unexpected deaths resulting from pneumonia. To determine if defects in EDA or IKBKG cause XHED in the dogs, linkage analysis and sequencing experiments were performed. A polymorphic marker near the canine EDA gene showed significant linkage to XHED. The canine EDA gene was sequenced and a nucleotide substitution (G to A) in the splice acceptor site of intron 8 was detected in affected dogs. In the presence of the A residue, a cryptic acceptor site within exon 9 is used, leading to a frame shift and use of a premature stop codon that truncates the translation of both isoforms, EDA-A1 and EDA-A2, resulting in the absence of the TNF-like homology domain, the receptor-binding site of ectodysplasin.
Project description:Abstract: Both X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) and non-syndromic tooth agenesis (NSTA) result in symptoms of congenital tooth loss. This study investigated genetic causes in two families with XLHED and four families with NSTA. We screened for mutations of WNT10A, EDA, EDAR, EDARADD, PAX9, MSX1, AXIN2, LRP6, and WNT10B through Sanger sequencing. Whole exome sequencing was performed for the proband of NSTA Family 4. Novel mutation c.1051G>T (p.Val351Phe) and the known mutation c.467G>A (p.Arg156His) of Ectodysplasin A (EDA) were identified in families with XLHED. Novel EDA receptor (EDAR) mutation c.73C>T (p.Arg25*), known EDA mutation c.491A>C (p.Glu164Ala), and known Wnt family member 10A (WNT10A) mutations c.511C>T (p.Arg171Cys) and c.742C>T (p.Arg248*) were identified in families with NSTA. The novel EDA and EDAR mutations were predicted as being pathogenic through bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling. Two variants of WNT10A, c.374G>A (p.Arg125Lys) and c.125A>G (p.Asn42Ser), were found in patients with NSTA. The two WNT10A variants were predicted to affect the splicing of message RNA, but minigene experiments showed normal splicing of mutated minigenes. This study uncovered the genetic foundations with respect to six families with XLHED or NSTA. We identified six mutations, of which two were novel mutations of EDA and EDAR. This is the first report of a nonsense EDAR mutation leading to NSTA.
Project description:In this study, we present a detailed phenotype description and genetic elucidation of the first case of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in the shorthaired standard Dachshund. This condition is characterized by partial congenital hypotrichosis, missing and malformed teeth and a lack of eccrine sweat glands. Clinical signs including dental radiographs and histopathological findings were consistent with ectodermal dysplasia. Pedigree analysis supported an X-recessive mode of inheritance. Whole-genome sequencing of one affected puppy and his dam identified a 1-basepair deletion within the ectodysplasin-A (EDA) gene (CM000039.3:g.54509504delT, c.458delT). Sanger sequencing of further family members confirmed the EDA:c.458delT-variant. Validation in all available family members, 37 unrelated shorthaired standard Dachshunds, 128 further Dachshunds from all other coat and size varieties and samples from 34 dog breeds revealed the EDA:c.458delT-variant to be private for this family. Two heterozygous females showed very mild congenital hypotrichosis but normal dentition. Since the dam is demonstrably the only heterozygous animal in the ancestry of the affected animals, we assume that the EDA:c.458delT-variant arose in the germline of the granddam or in an early embryonic stage of the dam. In conclusion, we detected a very recent de-novo EDA mutation causing X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in the shorthaired standard Dachshund.
Project description:Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most prevalent type of ectodermal dysplasia (ED). ED is an umbrella term for a group of syndromes characterized by missing or malformed ectodermal structures, including skin, hair, sweat glands, and teeth. The X-linked recessive (XL), autosomal recessive (AR), and autosomal dominant (AD) types of HED are caused by mutations in the genes encoding ectodysplasin (EDA1), EDA receptor (EDAR), or EDAR-associated death domain (EDARADD). Patients with HED have a distinctive facial appearance, yet a quantitative analysis of the HED craniofacial phenotype using advanced three-dimensional (3D) technologies has not been reported. In this study, we characterized craniofacial morphology in subjects with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) by use of 3D imaging and geometric morphometrics (GM), a technique that uses defined landmarks to quantify size and shape in complex craniofacial morphologies. We found that the XLHED craniofacial phenotype differed significantly from controls. Patients had a smaller and shorter face with a proportionally longer chin and midface, prominent midfacial hypoplasia, a more protrusive chin and mandible, a narrower and more pointed nose, shorter philtrum, a narrower mouth, and a fuller and more rounded lower lip. Our findings refine the phenotype of XLHED and may be useful both for clinical diagnosis of XLHED and to extend understanding of the role of EDA in craniofacial development.
Project description:X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is a heritable disorder of the ED-1 gene disrupting the morphogenesis of ectodermal structures. The ED-1 gene product, ectodysplasin-A (EDA), is a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member and is synthesized as a membrane-anchored precursor protein with the TNF core motif located in the C-terminal domain. The stalk region of EDA contains the sequence -Arg-Val-Arg-Arg156-Asn-Lys-Arg159-, representing overlapping consensus cleavage sites (Arg-X-Lys/Arg-Arg( downward arrow)) for the proprotein convertase furin. Missense mutations in four of the five basic residues within this sequence account for approximately 20% of all known XLHED cases, with mutations occurring most frequently at Arg156, which is shared by the two consensus furin sites. These analyses suggest that cleavage at the furin site(s) in the stalk region is required for the EDA-mediated cell-to-cell signaling that regulates the morphogenesis of ectodermal appendages. Here we show that the 50-kDa EDA parent molecule is cleaved at -Arg156Asn-Lys-Arg(159 downward arrow)- to release the soluble C-terminal fragment containing the TNF core domain. This cleavage appears to be catalyzed by furin, as release of the TNF domain was blocked either by expression of the furin inhibitor alpha1-PDX or by expression of EDA in furin-deficient LoVo cells. These results demonstrate that mutation of a functional furin cleavage site in a developmental signaling molecule is a basis for human disease (XLHED) and raise the possibility that furin cleavage may regulate the ability of EDA to act as a juxtacrine or paracrine factor.
Project description:X-linked dominant incontinentia pigmenti (IP) and X-linked recessive anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) are caused by loss-of-function and hypomorphic IKBKG (also known as NEMO) mutations, respectively. We describe a European mother with mild IP and a Japanese mother without IP, whose 3 boys with EDA-ID died from ID. We identify the same private variant in an intron of IKBKG, IVS4+866 C>T, which was inherited from and occurred de novo in the European mother and Japanese mother, respectively. This mutation creates a new splicing donor site, giving rise to a 44-nucleotide pseudoexon (PE) generating a frameshift. Its leakiness accounts for NF-?B activation being impaired but not abolished in the boys' cells. However, aberrant splicing rates differ between cell types, with WT NEMO mRNA and protein levels ranging from barely detectable in leukocytes to residual amounts in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPSC-derived) macrophages, and higher levels in fibroblasts and iPSC-derived neuronal precursor cells. Finally, SRSF6 binds to the PE, facilitating its inclusion. Moreover, SRSF6 knockdown or CLK inhibition restores WT NEMO expression and function in mutant cells. A recurrent deep intronic splicing mutation in IKBKG underlies a purely quantitative NEMO defect in males that is most severe in leukocytes and can be rescued by the inhibition of SRSF6 or CLK.
Project description:EDA-A1 and EDA-A2 are members of the tumor necrosis factor family of ligands. The products of alternative splicing of the ectodysplasin (EDA) gene, EDA-A1 and EDA-A2 differ by an insertion of two amino acids and bind to distinct receptors. The longer isoform, EDA-A1, binds to EDAR and plays an important role in sweat gland, hair, and tooth development; mutations in EDA, EDAR, or the downstream adaptor EDARADD cause hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. EDA-A2 engages the receptor XEDAR, but its role in the whole organism is less clear. We have generated XEDAR-deficient mice by gene targeting and transgenic mice expressing secreted forms of EDA-A1 or EDA-A2 downstream of the skeletal muscle-specific myosin light-chain 2 or skin-specific keratin 5 promoter. Mice lacking XEDAR were indistinguishable from their wild-type littermates, but EDA-A2 transgenic mice exhibited multifocal myodegeneration. This phenotype was not observed in the absence of XEDAR. Skeletal muscle in EDA-A1 transgenic mice was unaffected, but their sebaceous glands were hypertrophied and hyperplastic, consistent with a role for EDA-A1 in the development of these structures. These data indicate that XEDAR-transduced signals are dispensable for development of ectoderm-derived organs but might play a role in skeletal muscle homeostasis.
Project description:Ectodysplasin (EDA) gene mutation is associated with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ectodysplasin, transcript variant 1 (EDA-A1) on the proliferation and cell cycle of ECV304 human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Recombinant eukaryotic expression vectors containing mutant (M) and wild-type (W) EDA-A1 coding sequences, pcDNA3.1 (-)-EDA-A1-M and pcDNA3.1 (-)-EDA-A1-W, respectively, were transfected into ECV304 cells. The EDA-A1 gene was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the protein was detected by western blotting. The EDA-A1 gene and protein were detected in ECV304 cells transfected with pcDNA3.1 (-)-EDA-A1-M and pcDNA3.1 (-)-EDA-A1-W, but not in ECV304 cells transfected with empty plasmid or cells that had not undergone transfection. Compared with the control group, the EDA-A1 gene mutant significantly decreased the proliferation of ECV304 cells and its inhibition rate was 45.70% (P<0.01), whereas the wild-type EDA-A1 gene did not cause such growth inhibition (P>0.05). A significant increase of the fraction of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle was observed in the ECV304 cells of the mutant group compared with wild type group, with an increase in the S phase population and a concomitant reduction in the G2/M phase population (P<0.05). These results indicate that compared with the wild-type gene, transfection with a mutant EDA-A1 gene inhibited the proliferation and cell cycle of cultured HUVECs.