SPARC overexpression inhibits cell proliferation in neuroblastoma and is partly mediated by tumor suppressor protein PTEN and AKT.
ABSTRACT: Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is also known as BM-40 or Osteonectin, a multi-functional protein modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. In cancer, SPARC is not only linked with a highly aggressive phenotype, but it also acts as a tumor suppressor. In the present study, we sought to characterize the function of SPARC and its role in sensitizing neuroblastoma cells to radio-therapy. SPARC overexpression in neuroblastoma cells inhibited cell proliferation in vitro. Additionally, SPARC overexpression significantly suppressed the activity of AKT and this suppression was accompanied by an increase in the tumor suppressor protein PTEN both in vitro and in vivo. Restoration of neuroblastoma cell radio-sensitivity was achieved by overexpression of SPARC in neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. To confirm the role of the AKT in proliferation inhibited by SPARC overexpression, we transfected neuroblastoma cells with a plasmid vector carrying myr-AKT. Myr-AKT overexpression reversed SPARC-mediated PTEN and increased proliferation of neuroblastoma cells in vitro. PTEN overexpression in parallel with SPARC siRNA resulted in decreased AKT phosphorylation and proliferation in vitro. Taken together, these results establish SPARC as an effector of AKT-PTEN-mediated inhibition of proliferation in neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Despite existing aggressive treatment modalities, the prognosis for advanced stage neuroblastoma remains poor with significant long-term illness in disease survivors. Advance stage disease features are associated with tumor vascularity, and as such, angiogenesis inhibitors may prove useful along with current therapies. The matricellular protein, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), is known to inhibit proliferation and migration of endothelial cells stimulated by growth factors. Here, we sought to determine the effect of SPARC on neuroblastoma tumor cell-induced angiogenesis and to decipher the molecular mechanisms involved in angiogenesis inhibition. Conditioned medium from SPARC-overexpressed neuroblastoma cells (pSPARC-CM) inhibited endothelial tube formation, cell proliferation, induced programmed cell death and suppressed expression of pro-angiogenic molecules such as VEGF, FGF, PDGF, and MMP-9 in endothelial cells. Further analyses revealed that pSPARC-CM-suppressed expression of growth factors was mediated by inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway, and cells cultured on conditioned medium from tumor cells that overexpress both Notch intracellular domain (NICD-CM) and SPARC resumed the pSPARC-CM-suppressed capillary tube formation and growth factor expression in vitro. Further, SPARC overexpression in neuroblastoma cells inhibited neo-vascularization in vivo in a mouse dorsal air sac model. Furthermore, SPARC overexpression-induced endothelial cell death was observed by co-localization studies with TUNEL assay and an endothelial marker, CD31, in xenograft tumor sections from SPARC-overexpressed mice. Our data collectively suggest that SPARC overexpression induces endothelial cell apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:We have previously demonstrated the role of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) as an autocrine growth factor for neuroblastoma. Here, we report that GRP silencing regulates cell signaling involved in the invasion-metastasis cascade. Using a doxycycline inducible system, we demonstrate that GRP silencing decreased anchorage-independent growth, inhibited migration and neuroblastoma cell-mediated angiogenesis in vitro, and suppressed metastasis in vivo. Targeted inhibition of GRP decreased the mRNA levels of oncogenes responsible for neuroblastoma progression. We also identified PTEN/AKT signaling as a key mediator of the tumorigenic properties of GRP in neuroblastoma cells. Interestingly, PTEN overexpression decreased GRP-mediated migration and angiogenesis; a novel role for this, otherwise, understated tumor suppressor in neuroblastoma. Furthermore, activation of AKT (pAKT) positively correlated with neuroblastoma progression in an in vivo tumor-metastasis model. PTEN expression was slightly decreased in metastatic lesions. A similar phenomenon was observed in human neuroblastoma sections, where, early-stage localized tumors had a higher PTEN expression relative to pAKT; however, an inverse expression pattern was observed in liver lesions. Taken together, our results argue for a dual purpose of targeting GRP in neuroblastoma--1) decreasing expression of critical oncogenes involved in tumor progression, and 2) enhancing activation of tumor suppressor genes to treat aggressive, advanced-stage disease.
Project description:The human trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP2) is overexpressed in many cancers. However, its effect on proliferation, migration and metastasis of gallbladder cancer remains unclear. In this study, we found that TROP2 was highly expressed in gallbladder cancer. Overexpression of TROP2 was associated with poor prognosis. Knockdown of TROP2 in gallbladder cancer cell lines strongly inhibited the cell proliferation, clone formation, invasion and migration in vitro, while TROP2 overexpression had opposite effects. In addition, knockdown of TROP2 increased the expression of total PTEN, p-PTEN and PDK-1 but reduced p-AKT via PI3K/AKT pathway. TROP2 downregulation also inhibited vimentin and increased E-cadherin expression during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, gallbladder cancer cells with TROP2 knockdown formed smaller xenografted tumors in vivo. In consistent with in vitro results, TROP2 inhibition decreased Akt phosphorylation, increased PTEN expression and postponed EMT of gallbladder cancer cells in vivo. In conclusion, we revealed that TROP2 promoted the proliferation, migration and metastasis of gallbladder cancer cells by regulating PI3K/AKT pathway and inducing EMT. TROP2 could serve as a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for the clinical management of gallbladder cancer.
Project description:LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP1) enhances tumor growth and metastasis in various cancers, but its role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear. Herein, we investigated the role of LASP1 in NPC and explored the underlying mechanisms in NPC. Clinically, overexpression of LASP1 is associated with tumor metastasis and poor prognosis of NPC patients. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays showed that LASP1 promoted NPC cell proliferation, metastasis, and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we observed clear co-localization between LASP1 and PTEN in NPC cells. LASP1 interacted with PTEN and decreased the expression of PTEN in NPC. The ubiquitination assay indicated that LASP1 overexpression increased PTEN ubiquitination. PTEN was known as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway. Rescue experiments showed that PTEN weakened LASP1-mediated cell proliferation, migration, and invasive abilities and decreased the phosphorylation of AKT in NPC cells. Our findings suggest that LASP1 has a crucial role in NPC progression via LASP1/PTEN/AKT axis, highlighting LASP1 as a therapeutic target for NPC.
Project description:Aberrant increase in pAKT, due to a gain-of-function mutation of PI3K or loss-of-function mutation or deletion of PTEN, occurs in prostate cancer and is associated with poor patient prognosis. Cytosolic phospholipase A?? (cPLA??) is a lipid modifying enzyme by catalyzing the hydrolysis of membrane arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid and its metabolites contribute to survival and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. We examined whether AKT plays a role in promoting cPLA?? action in prostate cancer cells. We found a concordant increase in pAKT and cPLA?? levels in prostate tissue of prostate epithelial-specific PTEN-knockout but not PTEN-wide type mice. Restoration of PTEN expression or inhibition of PI3K action decreased cPLA?? expression in PTEN-mutated or deleted prostate cancer cells. An increase in AKT by Myr-AKT elevated cPLA?? protein levels, which could be diminished by inhibition of AKT phosphorylation without noticeable change in total AKT levels. pAKT levels had no influence on cPLA?? at mRNA levels but reduced cPLA?? protein degradation. Anti-AKT antibody co-immunoprecipitated cPLA?? and vice versa. Hence, AKT plays a role in enhancing cPLA?? protein stability in PTEN-null prostate cancer cells, revealing a link between oncogenic pathway and lipid metabolism.
Project description:Background:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most frequent and lethal malignancies worldwide. Although great advances have been made in the treatment of CRC, prognosis remains poor. Our previous study indicated that tripartite motif-containing 14 (TRIM14) was upregulated in CRC samples. Methods:In the current study, the association between TRIM14 and CRC was investigated. Protein expression was determined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Further, the biological roles of TRIM14 in CRC cell proliferation and apoptosis were explored both in vitro and in vivo. Results:We observed that increased TRIM14 expression in CRC tissues was closely related with aggressive clinicopathological characteristics and poor prognosis. TRIM14 knockdown markedly reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in HT-29 and SW620 cells, whereas TRIM14 overexpression in LoVo cells displayed opposite results. Xenograft experiments using HT-29 cells confirmed suppression of tumor growth and induction of apoptosis upon TRIM14 knockdown in vivo. Furthermore, downregulation of TRIM14 inhibited the AKT pathway, as indicated by reduced levels of phosphorylated AKT, Bcl-2 and Cyclin D1, and elevated levels of phosphatase and tensin homology (PTEN) and p27. In addition, TRIM14 colocalized with PTEN in the cytoplasm and induced PTEN ubiquitination. Moreover, PTEN overexpression significantly inhibited pro-proliferative effects of TRIM14, indicating an involvement of PTEN/AKT signaling in mediating TRIM14 functions. Conclusions:The present data demonstrate that TRIM14 overexpression promotes CRC cell proliferation, suggesting TRIM14 as an attractive therapeutic target for CRC.
Project description:Liver regeneration is a highly orchestrated process which can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs), though the mechanisms are largely unclear. This study was aimed to identify miRNAs responsible for hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. Here we detected a marked elevation of miR-382 in the mouse liver at 48 hrs after partial hepatectomy (PH-48h) using microarray analysis and qRT-PCRs. miR-382 overexpression accelerated the proliferation and the G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle both in mouse NCTC1469 and human HL7702 normal liver cells, while miR-382 downregulation had inverse effects. Moreover, miR-382 negatively regulated PTEN expression and increased Akt phosphorylation both in vitro and in vivo. Using PTEN siRNA and Akt activator/inhibitor, we further found that PTEN inhibition and Akt phosphorylation were essential for mediating the promotive effect of miR-382 in the proliferation and cell growth of hepatocytes. Collectively, our findings identify miR-382 as a promoter for hepatocyte proliferation and cell growth via targeting PTEN-Akt axis which might be a novel therapeutic target to enhance liver regeneration capability.
Project description:SPARC is a matrix protein that mediates interactions between cells and the microenvironment. In cancer, SPARC may either promote or inhibit tumor growth depending upon the tumor type. In neuroblastoma, SPARC is expressed in the stromal Schwannian cells and functions as a tumor suppressor. Here, we developed a novel in vivo model of stroma-rich neuroblastoma using non-tumorigenic SHEP cells with modulated levels of SPARC, mixed with tumorigenic KCNR cells. Tumors with stroma-derived SPARC displayed suppressed growth, inhibited angiogenesis and increased lipid accumulation. Based on the described chaperone function of SPARC, we hypothesized that SPARC binds albumin complexed with fatty acids and transports them to tumors. We show that SPARC binds albumin with Kd=18.9±2.3 uM, and enhances endothelial cell internalization and transendothelial transport of albumin in vitro. We also demonstrate that lipids induce toxicity in neuroblastoma cells and show that lipotoxicity is increased when cells are cultured in hypoxic conditions. Studies investigating the therapeutic potential of SPARC are warranted.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We aimed to investigate the roles and underlying mechanisms of YAP in the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells. METHODS:The expression level of YAP was evaluated by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Cell viability, cell proliferation and growth were detected by CCK-8, PH3 and Ki67 immunostaining, and the real-time cell analyser system. The nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins of p27Kip1 were dissociated by the nuclear-cytosol extraction kit and were detected by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. mRNA levels of Akt, CDK5 and CRM1 were determined by qRT-PCR. RESULTS:YAP was enriched in SH-SY5Y cells (a human neuroblastoma cell line). Knock-down of YAP in SH-SY5Y cells or SK-N-SH cell line (another human neuroblastoma cell line) significantly decreased cell viability, inhibited cell proliferation and growth. Mechanistically, knock-down of YAP increased the nuclear location of p27Kip1 , whereas serum-induced YAP activation decreased the nuclear location of p27Kip1 and was required for cell proliferation. Meanwhile, overexpression of YAP in these serum-starved SH-SY5Y cells decreased the nuclear location of p27Kip1 , promoted cell proliferation and overexpression of p27Kip1 in YAP-activated cells inhibited cell proliferation. Furthermore, knock-down of YAP reduced Akt mRNA and protein levels. Overexpression of Akt in YAP-downregulated cells decreased the nuclear location of p27Kip1 and accelerated the proliferation of SH-SY5Y cells. CONCLUSIONS:Our studies suggest that YAP promotes the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells through negatively controlling the nuclear location of p27Kip1 mediated by Akt.
Project description:Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS), a mevalonate pathway enzyme, is highly expressed in several cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). To date, the mechanistic, functional, and clinical significance of FDPS in cancer remains unexplored. We evaluated the FDPS expression and its cancer-associated phenotypes using in vitro and in vivo methods in PTEN-deficient and sufficient human and mouse PCa cells and tumors. Interestingly, FDPS overexpression synergizes with PTEN deficiency in PTEN conditionally knockout mice (P?<?0.05) and expressed significantly higher in human (P?<?0.001) PCa tissues, cell lines, and murine tumoroids compared to respective controls. In silico analysis revealed that FDPS is associated with increasing Gleason score, PTEN functionally deficient status, and poor survival of PCa. Ectopic overexpression of FDPS promotes oncogenic phenotypes such as colony formation (P?<?0.01) and proliferation (P?<?0.01) through activation of AKT and ERK signaling by prenylating Rho A, Rho G, and CDC42 small GTPases. Of interest, knockdown of FDPS in PCa cells exhibits decreased colony growth and proliferation (P?<?0.001) by modulating AKT and ERK pathways. Further, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of PI3K but not AKT reduced FDPS expression. Pharmacological targeting of FDPS by zoledronic acid (ZOL), which is already in clinics, exhibit reduced growth and clonogenicity of human and murine PCa cells (P?<?0.01) and 3D tumoroids (P?<?0.02) by disrupting AKT and ERK signaling through direct interference of small GTPases protein prenylation. Thus, FDPS plays an oncogenic role in PTEN-deficient PCa through GTPase/AKT axis. Identifying mevalonate pathway proteins could serve as a therapeutic target in PTEN dysregulated tumors.