Opposing function of MYBBP1A in proliferation and migration of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most prevalent and lethal cancers worldwide and mortality mostly results from loco-regional recurrence and metastasis. Despite its significance, our knowledge on molecular, cellular and environmental mechanisms that drive disease pathogenesis remains largely elusive, and there are limited therapeutic options, with only negligible clinical benefit. METHODS: We applied global gene expression profiling with samples derived from a recently established mouse model for oral cancer recurrence and identified a list of genes with differential expression between primary and recurrent tumors. RESULTS: One differentially expressed gene codes for Myb-binding protein 1a (MYBBP1A), which is known as a transcriptional co-regulator that physically interacts with nuclear transcription factors, such as NF?B and p53. We confirmed significantly reduced MYBBP1A protein levels on tissue sections of recurrent mouse tumors compared to primary tumors by immunohistochemistry, and found aberrant MYBBP1A protein levels also in tumor samples of HNSCC patients. Interestingly, silencing of MYBBP1A expression in murine SCC7 and in human HNSCC cell lines elicited increased migration but decreased cell growth. CONCLUSION: We provide experimental evidence that MYBBP1A is an important molecular switch in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation versus migration in HNSCC and it will be a major challenge for the future to proof the concept whether regulation MYBBP1A expression and/or function could serve as a novel option for anti-cancer therapy.
Project description:The tumor microenvironment may alter the original tumorigenic potential of tumor cells. Under harsh environmental conditions, genetic alterations conferring selective advantages may initiate the growth of tumor subclones, providing new opportunities for these tumors to grow. We performed a genetic loss-of-function screen to identify genetic alterations able to promote tumor cell growth in the absence of glucose. We identified that downregulation of MYBBP1A increases tumorigenic properties under nonpermissive conditions. MYBBP1A downregulation simultaneously activates PGC1α, directly by alleviating direct repression and indirectly by increasing PGC1α mRNA levels through c-MYB, leading to a metabolic switch from glycolysis to OXPHOS and increased tumorigenesis in low-glucose microenvironments. We have also identified reduced MYBBP1A expression in human renal tumor samples, which show high expression levels of genes involved in oxidative metabolism. In summary, our data support the role of MYBBP1A as a tumor suppressor by regulating c-MYB and PGC1α. Therefore, loss of MYBBP1A increases adaptability spanning of tumors through metabolic switch.
Project description:At the time of diagnosis, 60% of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) present tumors in an advanced stage (III-IV) of disease and 80% will relapse within the first two years post-treatment, due to their frequent radio(chemo)resistance. To identify new molecular targets and companion biomarkers, we have investigated the miRNome of 75 stage III-IV oropharynx tumors without relapse (R) or with loco-regional relapse (non-responder, NR) within two years post-treatment. Interestingly, miR-422a was significantly downregulated in NR tumors, in agreement with the increase in cell proliferation and adhesion induced by miR-422a inhibition in vitro. Furthermore, we identified CD73/NT5E oncogene as target of miR-422a. Indeed, modulation of the endogenous level of miR-422a inversely influences the expression and the enzymatic activity of CD73. Moreover, knocking down CD73 mimics the effects of miR-422a upregulation. Importantly, in tumors, miR-422a and CD73 expression levels are inversely correlated, and both are predictive of relapse free survival - especially considering loco(regional) recurrence - in vitro two independent cohorts of advanced oropharynx or HNSCC (N=255) tumors. In all, we reported, for the first time, that MiR-422a and its target CD73 are involved in early loco(regional) recurrence of HNSCC tumors and are new targets for personalized medicine.
Project description:Tumors are cellular ecosystems where different populations and subpopulations of cells coexist. Among these cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the origin of the tumor mass, being involved in metastasis and in the resistance to conventional therapies. Furthermore, tumor cells have an enormous plasticity and a phenomenon of de-differentiation of mature tumor cells to CSCs may occur. Therefore, it is essential to identify genetic alterations that cause the de-differentiation of mature tumor cells to CSCs for the future design of therapeutic strategies. In this study, we characterized the role of MYBBP1A by experiments in cell lines, xenografts and human tumor samples. We have found that MYBBP1A downregulation increases c-MYB (Avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog) activity, leading to a rise in the stem-like cell population. We identified that the downregulation of MYBBP1A increases tumorigenic properties, in vitro and in vivo, in renal carcinoma cell lines that express high levels of c-MYB exclusively. Moreover, in a cohort of renal tumors, MYBBP1A is downregulated or lost in a significant percentage of tumors correlating with poor patient prognosis and a metastatic tendency. Our data support the role of MYBBP1A as a tumor suppressor by repressing c-MYB, acting as an important regulator of the plasticity of tumor cells.
Project description:MYBBP1A is a predominantly nucleolar transcriptional regulator involved in rDNA synthesis and p53 activation via acetylation. However little further information is available as to its function. Here we report that MYBBP1A is developmentally essential in the mouse prior to blastocyst formation. In cell culture, down-regulation of MYBBP1A decreases the growth rate of wild type mouse embryonic stem cells, mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and of human HeLa cells, where it also promotes apoptosis. HeLa cells either arrest at G2/M or undergo delayed and anomalous mitosis. At mitosis, MYBBP1A is localized to a parachromosomal region and gene-expression profiling shows that its down-regulation affects genes controlling chromosomal segregation and cell cycle. However, MYBBP1A down-regulation increases the growth rate of the immortalized NIH3T3 cells. Such Mybbp1a down-regulated NIH3T3 cells are more susceptible to Ras-induced transformation and cause more potent Ras-driven tumors. We conclude that MYBBP1A is an essential gene with novel roles at the pre-mitotic level and potential tumor suppressor activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Transcription of the ribosomal RNA gene repeats by Pol I occurs in the nucleolus and is a fundamental step in ribosome biogenesis and protein translation. Due to tight coordination between ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation, transcription of rRNA and stable maintenance of rDNA clusters are thought to be under intricate control by intercalated mechanisms, particularly at the epigenetic level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we identify the nucleolar protein Myb-binding protein 1a (Mybbp1a) as a novel negative regulator of rRNA expression. Suppression of rDNA transcription by Mybbp1a was linked to promoter regulation as illustrated by its binding to the chromatin around the hypermethylated, inactive rDNA gene promoters. Our data further showed that downregulation of Mybbp1a abrogated the local DNA methylation levels and histone marks associated with gene silencing, and altered the promoter occupancy of various factors such UBF and HDACs, consequently leading to elevated rRNA expression. Mechanistically, we propose that Mybbp1a maintains rDNA repeats in a silenced state while in association with the negative epigenetic modifiers HDAC1/2. CONCLUSIONS: Results from our present work reveal a previously unrecognized co-repressor role of Mybbp1a in rRNA expression. They are further consistent with the scenario that Mybbp1a is an integral constituent of the rDNA epigenetic regulation that underlies the balanced state of rDNA clusters.
Project description:The circadian clock comprises transcriptional feedback loops of clock genes. Cryptochromes are essential components of the negative feedback loop in mammals as they inhibit CLOCK-BMAL1-mediated transcription. We purified mouse CRY1 (mCRY1) protein complexes from Sarcoma 180 cells to determine their roles in circadian gene expression and discovered that Myb-binding protein 1a (Mybbp1a) interacts with mCRY1. Mybbp1a regulates various transcription factors, but its role in circadian gene expression is unknown. We found that Mybbp1a functions as a co-repressor of Per2 expression and repressed Per2 promoter activity in reporter assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed endogenous Mybbp1a binding to the Per2 promoter that temporally matched that of mCRY1. Furthermore, Mybbp1a binding to the Per2 promoter correlated with the start of the down-regulation of Per2 expression and with the dimethylation of histone H3 Lys9, to which it could also bind. These findings suggest that Mybbp1a and mCRY1 can form complexes on the Per2 promoter that function as negative regulators of Per2 expression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Myb-binding protein 1A (Mybbp1a) is a nucleolar protein that can regulate rRNA metabolism, the stress response and carcinogenesis. However, the function of Mybbp1a in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. We aimed to determine the role of Mybbp1a in HCC and the underlying mechanism. METHODS:We investigated the function of Mybbp1a in HCC cell models and the xenograft mouse model. The relationship between Mybbp1a and IGFBP5 was found through expression profile chip. The molecular mechanism of Mybbp1a regulating IGFBP5 was proved through CO-IP, CHIP, Bisulfite Sequencing and Pyrosequencing. FINDINGS:In this study, we observed that Mybbp1a was overexpressed in HCC tissues and associated with the poor prognosis of HCC patients. Suppression of Mybbp1a led to a reduction in the proliferation and migration ability of HCC cells through inhibiting the IGF1/AKT signaling pathway. Further study found that Mybbp1a could form a complex with DNMT1 and induce aberrant hyper-methylation of CpG islands of IGFBP5, which inhibits secretion of IGFBP5 and then activates IGF1/AKT signaling pathway. INTERPRETATION:These findings extend our understanding of the function of Mybbp1a in the progression of HCC. The newly identified Mybbp1a may provide a novel biomarker for developing potential therapeutic targets of HCC. FUND: Science Technology Department of Zhejiang Province (No. 2015C03034), National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (No. 2016138643), Innovative Research Groups of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81721091), Major program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 91542205).
Project description:The nucleolus, whose primary function is ribosome biogenesis, plays an essential role in p53 activation. Ribosome biogenesis is inhibited in response to cellular stress and several nucleolar proteins translocate from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm, where they activate p53. In this study, we analysed precisely how impaired ribosome biogenesis regulates the activation of p53 by depleting nucleolar factors involved in rRNA transcription or rRNA processing. Nucleolar RNA content decreased when rRNA transcription was inhibited. In parallel with the reduced levels of nucleolar RNA content, the nucleolar protein Myb-binding protein 1?A (MYBBP1A) translocated to the nucleoplasm and increased p53 acetylation. The acetylated p53 enhanced p21 and BAX expression and induced apoptosis. In contrast, when rRNA processing was inhibited, MYBBP1A remained in the nucleolus and nonacetylated p53 accumulated, causing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase by inducing p21 but not BAX. We propose that the nucleolus functions as a stress sensor to modulate p53 protein levels and its acetylation status, determining cell fate between cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by regulating MYBBP1A translocation.
Project description:Ribosomal RNA gene transcription, co-transcriptional processing, and ribosome biogenesis are highly coordinated processes that are tightly regulated during cell growth. In this study we discovered that Mybbp1a is associated with both the RNA polymerase I complex and the ribosome biogenesis machinery. Using a reporter assay that uncouples transcription and RNA processing, we show that Mybbp1a represses rRNA gene transcription. In addition, overexpression of the protein reduces RNA polymerase I loading on endogenous rRNA genes as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. Accordingly, depletion of Mybbp1a results in an accumulation of the rRNA precursor in vivo but surprisingly also causes growth arrest of the cells. This effect can be explained by the observation that the modulation of Mybbp1a protein levels results in defects in pre-rRNA processing within the cell. Therefore, the protein may play a dual role in the rRNA metabolism, potentially linking and coordinating ribosomal DNA transcription and pre-rRNA processing to allow for the efficient synthesis of ribosomes.
Project description:The Mediator complex is a central integrator of transcription and a hub for the regulation of gene expression. Cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 19 and its paralog CDK8 are part of its kinase domain and contribute to cancer progression in different cancer entities. STAT1 is an important immune modulator and a downstream substrate of CDK8/CDK19 mediated phosphorylation. So far, little is known about CDK19's role in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) progression, its link to STAT1 activity, and related immune modulation. Immunohistochemistry for CDK19, activated pSTAT1, and PD-L1, known to be affected by STAT1, was conducted on samples of 130 primary tumors, 71 local recurrences, 32 lymph node metastases, and 25 distant metastases of HNSCC. Compared to primary tumors, CDK19 is overexpressed in local recurrences and distant metastases as well as in primary tumors that developed local recurrence after initial therapy. Patients with high-CDK19-expressing primary tumors have a significantly shorter disease-free survival. CDK19 expression correlates with pSTAT1 expression in primary tumors associated with recurrent disease, local recurrent tumors, lymph node metastases, and distant metastases. pSTAT1 expression correlates with PD-L1 expression in recurrent tumors. Our findings identify CDK19 as a potential biomarker in HNSCC to predict recurrent disease and support recent developments to target CDK19 and its paralog CDK8 in advanced cancer.