Novel associations of nonstructural Loci with paraoxonase activity.
ABSTRACT: The high-density-lipoprotein-(HDL-) associated esterase paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a likely contributor to the antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic capabilities of HDL. Two nonsynonymous mutations in the structural gene, PON1, have been associated with variation in activity levels, but substantial interindividual differences remain unexplained and are greatest for substrates other than the eponymous paraoxon. PON1 activity levels were measured for three substrates-organophosphate paraoxon, arylester phenyl acetate, and lactone dihydrocoumarin-in 767 Mexican American individuals from San Antonio, Texas. Genetic influences on activity levels for each substrate were evaluated by association with approximately one million single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) while conditioning on PON1 genotypes. Significant associations were detected at five loci including regions on chromosomes 4 and 17 known to be associated with atherosclerosis and lipoprotein regulation and loci on chromosome 3 that regulate ubiquitous transcription factors. These loci explain 7.8% of variation in PON1 activity with lactone as a substrate, 5.6% with the arylester, and 3.0% with paraoxon. In light of the potential importance of PON1 in preventing cardiovascular disease/events, these novel loci merit further investigation.
Project description:Paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an esterase/lactonase primarily associated with plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL), was the first member of this family of enzymes to be characterized. Its name was derived from its ability to hydrolyze paraoxon, the toxic metabolite of the insecticide parathion. Related enzymes PON2 and PON3 were named from their evolutionary relationship with PON1. Mice with each PON gene knocked out were generated at UCLA and have been key for elucidating their roles in organophosphorus (OP) metabolism, cardiovascular disease, innate immunity, obesity, and cancer. PON1 status, determined with two-substrate analyses, reveals an individual's functional Q192R genotype and activity levels. The three-dimensional structure for a chimeric PON1 has been useful for understanding the structural properties of PON1 and for engineering PON1 as a catalytic scavenger of OP compounds. All three PONs hydrolyze microbial N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing factors, quenching Pseudomonas aeruginosa's pathogenesis. All three PONs modulate oxidative stress and inflammation. PON2 is localized in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. PON2 has potent antioxidant properties and is found at 3- to 4-fold higher levels in females than males, providing increased protection against oxidative stress, as observed in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes from female mice compared with male mice. The higher levels of PON2 in females may explain the lower frequency of neurological and cardiovascular diseases in females and the ability to identify males but not females with Parkinson's disease using a special PON1 status assay. Less is known about PON3; however, recent experiments with PON3 knockout mice show them to be susceptible to obesity, gallstone formation and atherosclerosis. Like PONs 1 and 2, PON3 also appears to modulate oxidative stress. It is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and on HDL. Both PON2 and PON3 are upregulated in cancer, favoring tumor progression through mitochondrial protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Project description:Evidences suggest that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) confers important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties when associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL).To investigate the relationships between p.Q192R SNP of PON1, biochemical parameters and carotid atherosclerosis in an asymptomatic, normolipidemic Brazilian population sample.We studied 584 volunteers (females n = 326, males n = 258; 19-75 years of age). Total genomic DNA was extracted and SNP was detected in the TaqMan® SNP OpenArray® genotyping platform (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins were determined and PON1 activity was measured using paraoxon as a substrate. High-resolution ?-mode ultrasonography was used to measure cIMT and the presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in a subgroup of individuals (n = 317).The presence of p.192Q was associated with a significant increase in PON1 activity (RR = 12.30 (11.38); RQ = 46.96 (22.35); QQ = 85.35 (24.83) ?mol/min; p < 0.0001), HDL-C (RR= 45 (37); RQ = 62 (39); QQ = 69 (29) mg/dL; p < 0.001) and apo A-I (RR = 140.76 ± 36.39; RQ = 147.62 ± 36.92; QQ = 147.49 ± 36.65 mg/dL; p = 0.019). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that heterozygous and p.192Q carriers influenced by 58% PON1 activity towards paraoxon. The univariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that p.Q192R SNP was not associated with mean cIMT; as a result, in the multiple regression analysis, no variables were selected with 5% significance. In logistic regression analysis, the studied parameters were not associated with the presence of carotid plaques.In low-risk individuals, the presence of the p.192Q variant of PON1 is associated with a beneficial plasma lipid profile but not with carotid atherosclerosis.
Project description:Objective- Albuminuria is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. We determined whether albuminuria associates with alterations in the proteome of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) of subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus and whether those alterations associated with coronary artery calcification. Approach and Results- In a cross-sectional study of 191 subjects enrolled in the DCCT (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial)/EDIC study (Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications), we used isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry to quantify 46 proteins in HDL. Stringent statistical analysis demonstrated that 8 proteins associated with albuminuria. Two of those proteins, AMBP (?1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor) and PTGDS (prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase), strongly and positively associated with the albumin excretion rate ( P<10-6). Furthermore, PON (paraoxonase) 1 and PON3 levels in HDL strongly and negatively associated with the presence of coronary artery calcium, with odds ratios per 1-SD difference of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.43-0.92; P=0.018) for PON1 and 0.59 (95% CI, 0.40-0.87; P=0.0079) for PON3. Only 1 protein, PON1, associated with both albumin excretion rate and coronary artery calcification. Conclusions- Our observations indicate that the HDL proteome is remodeled in type 1 diabetes mellitus subjects with albuminuria. Moreover, low concentrations of the antiatherosclerotic protein PON1 in HDL associated with both albuminuria and coronary artery calcification, raising the possibility that alterations in HDL protein cargo mediate, in part, the known association of albuminuria with cardiovascular risk in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Visual Overview- An online visual overview is available for this article.
Project description:Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) are high-density lipoprotein-associated (HDL-associated) proteins mechanistically linked to inflammation, oxidant stress, and atherosclerosis. MPO is a source of ROS during inflammation and can oxidize apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) of HDL, impairing its atheroprotective functions. In contrast, PON1 fosters systemic antioxidant effects and promotes some of the atheroprotective properties attributed to HDL. Here, we demonstrate that MPO, PON1, and HDL bind to one another, forming a ternary complex, wherein PON1 partially inhibits MPO activity, while MPO inactivates PON1. MPO oxidizes PON1 on tyrosine 71 (Tyr71), a modified residue found in human atheroma that is critical for HDL binding and PON1 function. Acute inflammation model studies with transgenic and knockout mice for either PON1 or MPO confirmed that MPO and PON1 reciprocally modulate each other's function in vivo. Further structure and function studies identified critical contact sites between APOA1 within HDL, PON1, and MPO, and proteomics studies of HDL recovered from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subjects revealed enhanced chlorotyrosine content, site-specific PON1 methionine oxidation, and reduced PON1 activity. HDL thus serves as a scaffold upon which MPO and PON1 interact during inflammation, whereupon PON1 binding partially inhibits MPO activity, and MPO promotes site-specific oxidative modification and impairment of PON1 and APOA1 function.
Project description:Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a serum enzyme associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL) regulation through its paraoxonase and arylesterase activity. PON1 inhibits the oxidation of HDL and low density lipoprotein (LDL), and is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases including atherosclerosis. Conversely, mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) result in failure of receptor mediated endocytosis of LDL leading to its elevated plasma levels and onset of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). In the current study we investigated the role of PON1 polymorphisms rs662; c.575A > G (p.Gln192Arg) and rs854560; c.163T > A (p.Leu55Met) in a large family having FH patients harboring a functional mutation in LDLR. Genotypes were revealed by RFLP, followed by confirmation through Sanger sequencing. PON1 activity was measure by spectrophotometry. Our results show significantly reduced serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in FH patients compared with the healthy individuals of the family (p < 0.05). PON1 QQ192 genotype showed a significantly higher association with FH (p=0.0002). PON1 Q192 isoform was associated with reduced serum paraoxonase activity by in silico analysis and PON1 R192 exhibited higher serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activity than the other polymorphs. Our results highlight that the combination of LDLR mutations and PON1 MMQQ genotypes may lead to severe cardiac events.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme, that resides on high-density lipoprotein (HDL). PON1-activity, is heavily influenced by the PON1-Q192R polymorphism. PON1 is considered to protect against atherosclerosis, but it is unclear whether this relation is independent of its carrier, HDL. In order to evaluate the atheroprotective potential of PON1, we assessed the relationships among PON1-genotype, PON1-activity and risk of future coronary artery disease (CAD), in a large prospective case-control study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Cases (n = 1138) were apparently healthy men and women aged 45-79 years who developed fatal or nonfatal CAD during a mean follow-up of 6 years. Controls (n = 2237) were matched by age, sex and enrollment time. PON1-activity was similar in cases and controls (60.7+/-45.3 versus 62.6+/-45.8 U/L, p = 0.3) and correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels (r = 0.16, p<0.0001). The PON1-Q192R polymorphism had a profound impact on PON1-activity, but did not predict CAD risk (Odds Ratio [OR] per R allele 0.98[0.84-1.15], p = 0.8). Using conditional logistic regression, quartiles of PON1-activity showed a modest inverse relation with CAD risk (OR for the highest versus the lowest quartile 0.77[0.63-0.95], p = 0.01; p-trend = 0.06). PON1-activity adjusted for Q192R polymorphism correlated better with HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.26, p<0.0001) and more linearly predicted CAD risk (0.79[0.64-0.98], p = 0.03; p-trend = 0.008). However, these relationships were abolished after adjustment for HDL (particles-cholesterol-size) and apolipoproteinA-I (0.94[0.74-1.18], p-trend = 0.3). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:This study, shows that PON1-activity inversely relates to CAD risk, but not independent of HDL, due to its close association with the HDL-particle. These data strongly suggest that a low PON1-activity is not a causal factor in atherogenesis.
Project description:Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated protein with atherosclerosis-protective and systemic anti-oxidant functions. We recently showed that PON1, myeloperoxidase, and HDL bind to one another in vivo forming a functional ternary complex (Huang, Y., Wu, Z., Riwanto, M., Gao, S., Levison, B. S., Gu, X., Fu, X., Wagner, M. A., Besler, C., Gerstenecker, G., Zhang, R., Li, X. M., Didonato, A. J., Gogonea, V., Tang, W. H., et al. (2013) J. Clin. Invest. 123, 3815-3828). However, specific residues on PON1 involved in the HDL-PON1 interaction remain unclear. Unambiguous identification of protein residues involved in docking interactions to lipid surfaces poses considerable methodological challenges. Here we describe a new strategy that uses a novel synthetic photoactivatable and click chemistry-taggable phospholipid probe, which, when incorporated into HDL, was used to identify amino acid residues on PON1 that directly interact with the lipoprotein phospholipid surface. Several specific PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293) were identified through covalent cross-links with the lipid probes using affinity isolation coupled to liquid chromatography with on-line tandem mass spectrometry. Based upon the crystal structure for PON1, the identified residues are all localized in relatively close proximity on the surface of PON1, defining a domain that binds to the HDL lipid surface. Site-specific mutagenesis of the identified PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293), coupled with functional studies, reveals their importance in PON1 binding to HDL and both PON1 catalytic activity and stability. Specifically, the residues identified on PON1 provide important structural insights into the PON1-HDL interaction. More generally, the new photoactivatable and affinity-tagged lipid probe developed herein should prove to be a valuable tool for identifying contact sites supporting protein interactions with lipid interfaces such as found on cell membranes or lipoproteins.
Project description:Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and lipoprotein phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) may exert an important protective role by preventing the oxidative transformation of high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively). The activity of both enzymes is influenced by lipidome and proteome of the lipoprotein carriers. T2DM typically presents significant changes in the molecular composition of the lipoprotein subclasses. Thus, it becomes relevant to understand the interaction of PON1 and Lp-PLA2 with the subspecies of HDL, LDL, and other lipoproteins in T2DM. Serum levels of PON1-arylesterase and PON1-lactonase and Lp-PLA2 activities and lipoprotein subclasses were measured in 202 nondiabetic subjects (controls) and 92 T2DM outpatients. Arylesterase, but not lactonase or Lp-PLA2 activities, was inversely associated with TD2M after adjusting for potential confounding factors such as age, sex, smoking, body mass index, hypertension, and lipoprotein subclasses (odds ratio?=?3.389, 95% confidence interval 1.069-14.756). Marked difference between controls and T2DM subjects emerged from the analyses of the associations of the three enzyme activities and lipoprotein subclasses. Arylesterase was independently related with large HDL-C and small intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C) in controls while, along with lactonase, it was related with small low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C, all IDL-C subspecies, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in T2DM (p < 0.05 for all). Concerning Lp-PLA2, there were significant relationships with small LDL-C, large IDL-C, and VLDL-C only among T2DM subjects. Our study showed that T2DM subjects have lower levels of PON1-arylesterase compared to controls and that T2DM occurrence may coincide with a shift of PON1 and Lp-PLA2 towards the more proatherogenic lipoprotein subclasses. The possibility of a link between the two observed phenomena requires further investigations.
Project description:High density lipoprotein (HDL) associated paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is crucial for the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic properties of HDL. Discoidal apolipoprotein (apo)A-I:1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) complex has been shown to be the most effective in binding PON1, stabilizing it, and enhancing its lactonase and inhibitory activity of low density lipoprotein oxidation. Based on our earlier study demonstrating that apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F forms discoidal complex with 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, we hypothesized that lipid complexes of 4F would be able to bind PON1 and enhance its activity and stability. To test our hypothesis, we have expressed and purified a recombinant PON1 (rPON1) and studied its interaction with 4F:POPC complex. Our studies show significant increase, compared to the control, in the paraoxonase activity and stability of rPON1 in the presence of 4F:POPC complex. We propose that 4F:POPC complex is a novel platform for PON1 binding, increasing its stability, and enhancing its enzyme activity. We propose a structural model for the 4F:POPC:PON1 ternary complex that is consistent with our results and published observations.
Project description:To characterize modifications of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in autoimmune gld mice that may be relevant to premature atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus, and to assess their relationship to specific aspects of autoimmune disease.HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I), paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity, hepatic gene expression, and HDL biogenesis were measured in aging female gld and wild-type congenic mice. Autoantibodies, lymphoid organs, and cytokines were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, and multiplex assay, respectively.Plasma HDL-C, HDL Apo A-I, and HDL-associated PON1 activity were reduced in aging gld mice in association with the development of autoimmunity, independent of changes in hepatic Apo A-I and PON1 expression or HDL biogenesis. Hepatic induction of the acute-phase reactant serum amyloid A1 resulted in its incorporation into HDL in gld mice. Deletion of the lipid-sensitive receptor G2A in gld mice (G2A-/- gld) attenuated reductions in HDL-C and PON1 activity without altering hepatic Apo A-I and PON1 expression, HDL biogenesis, or levels of acute-phase proinflammatory cytokines. Plasma anti-Apo A-I autoantibodies were elevated in aging gld mice commensurate with detectable increases in Apo A-I immune complexes. Autoantibody levels were lower in aging G2A-/- gld mice compared with gld mice, and anti-Apo A-I autoantibody levels were significantly related to HDL-C concentrations (r=-0.645, P<0.00004) and PON1 activity (r=-0.555, P<0.0007) among autoimmune gld and G2A-/- gld mice.Autoantibodies against Apo A-I contribute to reducing HDL-C and PON1 activity in autoimmune gld mice independently of hepatic HDL biogenesis, suggesting that functional impairment and premature clearance of HDL immune complexes may be principal mechanisms involved.