4-O-carboxymethyl ascochlorin causes ER stress and induced autophagy in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
ABSTRACT: The synthetic derivative of ascochlorin, 4-O-carboxymethyl ascochlorin (AS-6) is an agonist of the nuclear hormone receptor PPAR? and has been shown to induce differentiation in mouse pre-adipocytes and to ameliorate type II diabetes in a murine model. AS-6 was cytotoxic when added at micromolar concentrations to cultures of three different human cancer cell lines. We used gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify proteins with altered expression in human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2) cells after 12 h in the presence of AS-6 and found 58 proteins that were differentially expressed. Many of the proteins showing increased expression in cells treated with AS-6 are involved in protein quality control, including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78/BiP), a regulator of ER stress responses, and the transcriptional regulator CHOP, which mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis. Cells treated with AS-6 undergo an autophagic response accompanied by increased expression of beclin1, ATG5, and LC3-II and autophagosome formation marked by the appearance of large vesicles containing LC3-II. Grp78 induction was inhibited when the PPAR? antagonist, GW9662, was added together with AS-6, and autophagy and cell death were partially blocked. 3-methyl-adenine (3-MA), an inhibitor of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) prevented induction of ATG5 and activation of LC3-II and blocked autophagosome formation. 3-MA also blocked induction of GRP78 and CHOP, suggesting that PI3-kinase, which is known to mediate ER stress-induced autophagy, also plays a role in initiating apoptosis in response to ER stress. Together these data establish that the cytotoxicity of AS-6 operates by a mechanism dependent on ER stress-induced autophagy and apoptosis.
Project description:Autophagy is protective in cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative damage. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to induce autophagy in a process requiring the unfolded protein response signalling pathways. Cd treatment significantly increased senescence in neuronal cells, which was aggravated by 3-MA or silencing of Atg5 and abolished by rapamycin. Cd increased expression of ER stress regulators Bip, chop, eIf2?, and ATF4, and activated autophagy as evidenced by upregulated LC3. Moreover, the ER stress inhibitor mithramycin inhibited the expression of ER stress protein chaperone Bip and blocked autophagic flux. Downregulating Bip significantly blocked the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, decreased LC3 puncta formation, and prevented the increase of senescence in PC12 cells. Interestingly, knocking down Bip regulated the expression of p-AMPK, p-AKT and p-s6k induced by Cd. BAPTA, a Bip inhibitor, decreased the expression of p-AMPK and LC3-II, but enhanced neuronal senescence. In addition, we found that siRNA for Bip enhanced GATA4 expression after 6?h Cd exposure in PC12 cells, while rapamycin treatment decreased GATA4 levels induced by 24?h Cd exposure. These results indicate that autophagy degraded GATA4 in a Bip-dependent way. Our findings suggest that autophagy regulated by Bip expression after ER stress suppressed Cd-induced neuronal senescence.
Project description:The inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane may induce cognitive impairment in both animals and humans. Previous study has shown that sevoflurane triggers ER stress and may lead to apoptosis in rat hippocampal neurons. In this study, we examined whether sevoflurane caused autophagy and its contributions to sevoflurane induced neuronal cell injury.H4 human neuroglioma cells were exposed to 4.1% sevoflurane for 6 h. Cell viability and apoptosis ratio were assessed using a CCK8 kit and flow cytometry, respectively. Autophagosomes in the cells were detected using GFP-LC3 plasmid transfection or transmission electronic microscopy. The expression of LC3B, p62/SQSTM, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78) was assessed with Western blotting.Sevoflurane treatment induced apoptosis and markedly increased the LC3-II level and GFP-LC3 puncta number, decreased p62 expression in H4 cells. Activation of autophagy by rapamycin (1 μmol/L) significantly reduced sevoflurane-induced apoptosis and increased cell viability, whereas inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA (5 mmol/L) caused the opposite effects. Furthermore, sevoflurane treatment markedly increased the expression of CHOP and GRP78, two hallmark proteins of ER stress. Inhibition of ER stress by 4-phenylbutyrate (500 μmol/L) abrogated sevoflurane-induced autophagy and apoptosis, and improved the viability. Moreover, sevoflurane-stimulated expression of CHOP and GRP78 was inhibited by rapamycin, but further enhanced by 3-MA.Sevoflurane treatment induces ER stress and activates autophagy, which antagonizes sevoflurane-induced apoptosis in H4 human neuroglioma cells. The results suggest that autophagy may be a potential therapeutic target in preventing sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity.
Project description:Malignant gliomas are common primary tumors of the central nervous system. The prognosis of patients with malignant glioma is poor in spite of current intensive therapy and thus novel therapeutic modalities are necessary. Bufalin is the major component of Chan-Su (a traditional Chinese medicine) extracts from the venom of Bufo gargarizan. In this study, we evaluated the growth inhibitory effect of bufalin on glioma cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that bufalin inhibited the growth of glioma cells significantly. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that bufalin induced apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In addition, bufalin was also found to induce ER stress-mediated apoptosis, which was supported by the up- regulation of ER stress markers, CHOP and GRP78, and augmented phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2? as well as cleavage of caspase-4. Downregulation of CHOP using siCHOP RNA attenuated bufalin-induced apoptosis, further confirming the role of ER stress response in mediating bufalin-induced apoptosis. Evidence of bufalin-induced autophagy included formation of the acidic vesicular organelles, increase of autophagolysosomes and LC3-II accumulation. Further experiments showed that the mechanism of bufalin-induced autophagy associated with ATP deleption involved an increase in the active form of AMPK, decreased phosphorylation levels of mTOR and its downstream targets 4EBP1 and p70S6K1. Furthermore, TUDC and silencing of eIF2? or CHOP partially blocked bufalin-induced accumulation of LC3-II, which indicated that ER stress preceded bufalin-induced autophagy and PERK/eIF2?/CHOP signaling pathway played a major part in the process. Blockage of autophagy increased expression of ER stress associated proteins and the ratio of apoptosis, indicating that autophagy played a cytoprotective role in bufalin induced ER stress and cell death. In conclusion, bufalin inhibits glioma cell growth and induces interplay between apoptosis and autophagy through endoplasmic reticulum stress. It will provide molecular bases for developing bufalin into a drug candidate for the treatment of maglinant glioma.
Project description:Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induce systemic inflammation where oxidative damage plays a key role in multiple organ failure. Because of the neutralization of LPS toxicity by sialic acid (SA), we determined its effect and mechanisms on repurified LPS (rLPS)-evoked acute renal failure. We assessed the effect of intravenous SA (10 mg/kg body weight) on rLPS-induced renal injury in female Wistar rats by evaluating blood and kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. SA can interact with rLPS through a high binding affinity. rLPS dose- and time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation and blood flow, and increased vascular resistance in the rats. rLPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage (ED-1) infiltration and ROS production and impaired kidneys by triggering p-IRE1?/p-JNK/CHOP/GRP78/ATF4-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Bax/PARP-mediated apoptosis, Beclin-1/Atg5-Atg12/LC3-II-mediated autophagy, and caspase 1/IL-1?-mediated pyroptosis in the kidneys. SA treatment at 30 min, but not 60 min after rLPS stimulation, gp91 siRNA and protein kinase C-? (PKC) inhibitor efficiently rescued rLPS-induced acute renal failure via inhibition of TLR4/PKC/NADPH oxidase gp91-mediated ER stress, apoptosis, autophagy and pyroptosis in renal proximal tubular cells, and rat kidneys. In response to rLPS or IFN?, the enhanced Atg5, FADD, LC3-II, and PARP expression can be inhibited by Atg5 siRNA. Albumin (10 mg/kg body weight) did not rescue rLPS-induced injury. In conclusion, early treatment (within 30 min) of SA attenuates rLPS-induced renal failure via the reduction in LPS toxicity and subsequently inhibiting rLPS-activated TLR4/PKC/gp91/ER stress/apoptosis/autophagy/pyroptosis signaling.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction has been shown to play a central role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and mitochondria-targeted agents such as SS-31 are emerging as a promising strategy for its treatment. We aimed to study the effects of SS-31 on leukocytes from T2D patients by evaluating oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy. Sixty-one T2D patients and 53 controls were included. Anthropometric and analytical measurements were performed. We also assessed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, calcium content, the expression of ER stress markers GRP78, CHOP, P-eIF2α, and autophagy-related proteins Beclin1, LC3 II/I, and p62 in leukocytes from T2D and control subjects treated or not with SS-31. Furthermore, we have evaluated the action of SS-31 on leukocyte-endothelium interactions. T2D patients exhibited elevated ROS concentration, calcium levels and presence of ER markers (GRP78 and CHOP gene expression, and GRP78 and P-eIF2α protein expression), all of which were reduced by SS-31 treatment. SS-31 also led to a drop in BECN1 gene expression, and Beclin1 and LC3 II/I protein expression in T2D patients. In contrast, the T2D group displayed reduced p62 protein levels that were restored by SS-31. SS-20 (with non-antioxidant activity) did not change any analyzed parameter. In addition, SS-31 decreased rolling flux and leukocyte adhesion, and increased rolling velocity in T2D patients. Our findings suggest that SS-31 exerts potentially beneficial effects on leukocytes of T2D patients modulating oxidative stress and autophagy, and ameliorating ER stress.
Project description:Palmitic acid (PA) is the most common saturated long-chain fatty acid in food that causes cell apoptosis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of PA toxicity. In this study, we explore the effects of PA on proliferation and apoptosis in human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells and uncover the signaling pathways involved in the process. Our study showed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy are involved in PA-induced Saos-2 cell apoptosis. We found that PA inhibited the viability of Saos-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. At the same time, PA induced the expression of ER stress marker genes (glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)), altered autophagy-related gene expression (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), ATG5, p62, and Beclin), promoted apoptosis-related gene expression (Caspase 3 and BAX), and affected autophagic flux. Inhibiting ER stress with 4-PBA diminished the PA-induced cell apoptosis, activated autophagy, and increased the expression of Caspase 3 and BAX. Inhibiting autophagy with 3-MA attenuated the PA and ER stress-induced cell apoptosis and the apoptosis-related gene expression (Caspase 3 and BAX), but seemed to have no obvious effects on ER stress, although the CHOP expression was downregulated. Taken together, our results suggest that PA-induced Saos-2 cell apoptosis is activated via ER stress and autophagy, and the activation of autophagy depends on the ER stress during this process.
Project description:Autophagy has dual functions in cell survival and death. However, the effects of autophagy on cancer cell survival or death remain controversial. In this study, we show that Autophagy can mediate programmed cell death (PCD) of cancer cells in responding to cobalt chloride (CoCl2)-induced hypoxia in a Beclin-1-independent but autophagy protein 5 (ATG5)-dependent manner. Although ATG5 is not directly induced by CoCl2, its constitutive expression is essential for CoCl2-induced PCD. The ATG5-mediated autophagic PCD requires interplays with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and/or mitochondria. In this process, ATG5 plays a central role in regulating ER stress protein CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) and mitochondrial protein second mitochondria derived activator of caspases (Smac). Two pathways for autophagic PCD in cancer cells responding to hypoxia have been identified: ATG5/CHOP/Smac pathway and ATG5/Smac pathway, which are probably dependent on the context of cell lines. The former is more potent than the latter for the induction of PCD at the early stage of hypoxia, although the ultimate efficiency of both pathways is comparable. In addition, both pathways may require ATG5-mediated conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II. Therefore, we have defined two autophagy-mediated pathways for the PCD of cancer cells in hypoxia, which are dependent on ATG5, interplayed with ER and mitochondria and tightly regulated by hypoxic status. The findings provide a new evidence that autophagy may inhibit tumor cell proliferation through trigger of PCD, facilitating the development of novel anti-cancer drugs.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Synovial fibroblasts from rheumatoid arthritis show resistance to apoptotic stimuli, indicating they may be difficult to treat. To clearly understand these mechanisms of resistance, rheumatoid and osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF and OASF) were exposed to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress such as thapsigargin, Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor. METHODS: Fibroblasts were assessed microscopically for cell viability by trypan blue exclusion and for autophagic cells by LC-3II formation. Caspase-3 activity was measured as aminomethyl-coumarin (AMC) liberated from AC-DEVD-AMC. Immunoblotting was performed to compare protein expression in OASF and RASF. RESULTS: ER stress caused cell death in OASF but not in RASF. Thapsigargin, a Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, did not change the expression of GRP78, an ER chaperone in OASF and RASF, but induced another ER stress protein, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) differently, showing high levels in OASF and low levels in RASF. Thapsigargin increased the autophagy response in RASF, with autophagosome formation, beclin expression, and LC3-II conversion. Transfection with beclin siRNA inhibited autophagy and increased the susceptibility to ER stress-induced cell death. On the other hand, CHOP siRNA increased autophagy and improved cell survival, especially in RASF, indicating that CHOP is involved in regulation of autophagy and cell death, but that low expression of CHOP protects RASF from apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Autophagy induction and CHOP under-expression increases cell resistance against ER stress-induced cell death in fibroblasts from rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Project description:Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone and maintains adipose function under challenged conditions. Autophagy is also essential to maintain cellular homeostasis and regulate characteristics of adipose tissue. However, the effects of leptin on autophagy of adipocyte remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and leptin were correlated with autophagy and inflammation by transcriptome sequencing of adipose tissue. Leptin-mediated inhibition of autophagy was involved in upstream reduction of ER stress proteins such as Chop, GRP78, and Atf4, since blockage of autophagy using pharmacological approach had no effect on tunicamycin-induced ER stress. Moreover, we determined KLF4, the potential transcriptional factor of Atf4, was required for the leptin-mediated autophagy in the regulation of adipocyte inflammation. Importantly, ATF4 physically interacted with ATG5 and subsequently formed a complex to promote adipocyte autophagy. Further analysis revealed that Atg5, a core component of autophagosome, was the target for leptin-mediate autophagy. In addition, leptin alleviated ER stress-induced inflammation by reducing autophagy-mediated degradation of I?B in adipocytes. Exogenous leptin treatment also ameliorated autophagy and inflammation of white adipose tissue in ob/ob mice. Taken together, our results indicated that leptin inhibited ER stress-mediated autophagy and inflammation through the negatively regulation of Atf4/Atg5 complex in adipocytes. These findings identify a new potential means for intervention of autophagy to prevent or treat obese caused metabolic syndrome of mammals.
Project description:The Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) induces a severe disease that fulfils many requirements of an animal model of fulminant hepatic failure. However, a better knowledge of molecular mechanisms contributing to liver damage is required, and it is unknown whether the RHDV induces liver autophagy and how it relates to apoptosis. In this study, we attempted to explore which signalling pathways were involved in the autophagic response induced by the RHDV and to characterize their role in the context of RHDV pathogenesis. Rabbits were infected with 2?×?10? hemmaglutination units of a RHDV isolate. The autophagic response was measured as presence of autophagic vesicles, LC3 staining, conversion of LC3-I to autophagosome-associated LC3-II and changes in expression of beclin-1, UVRAG, Atg5, Atg12, Atg16L1 and p62/SQSTM1. RHDV-triggered autophagy reached a maximum at 24 hours post-infection (hpi) and declined at 30 and 36 hpi. Phosphorylation of mTOR also augmented in early periods of infection and there was an increase in the expression of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperones BiP/GRP78, CHOP and GRP94. Apoptosis, measured as caspase-3 activity and expression of PARP-1, increased significantly at 30 and 36 hpi in parallel to the maximal expression of the RHDV capsid protein VP60. These data indicate that RHDV infection initiates a rapid autophagic response, perhaps in an attempt to protect liver, which associates to ER stress development and is independent from downregulation of the major autophagy suppressor mTOR. As the infection continues and the autophagic response declines, cells begin to exhibit apoptosis.