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4-O-carboxymethyl ascochlorin causes ER stress and induced autophagy in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

ABSTRACT: The synthetic derivative of ascochlorin, 4-O-carboxymethyl ascochlorin (AS-6) is an agonist of the nuclear hormone receptor PPAR? and has been shown to induce differentiation in mouse pre-adipocytes and to ameliorate type II diabetes in a murine model. AS-6 was cytotoxic when added at micromolar concentrations to cultures of three different human cancer cell lines. We used gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify proteins with altered expression in human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2) cells after 12 h in the presence of AS-6 and found 58 proteins that were differentially expressed. Many of the proteins showing increased expression in cells treated with AS-6 are involved in protein quality control, including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78/BiP), a regulator of ER stress responses, and the transcriptional regulator CHOP, which mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis. Cells treated with AS-6 undergo an autophagic response accompanied by increased expression of beclin1, ATG5, and LC3-II and autophagosome formation marked by the appearance of large vesicles containing LC3-II. Grp78 induction was inhibited when the PPAR? antagonist, GW9662, was added together with AS-6, and autophagy and cell death were partially blocked. 3-methyl-adenine (3-MA), an inhibitor of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) prevented induction of ATG5 and activation of LC3-II and blocked autophagosome formation. 3-MA also blocked induction of GRP78 and CHOP, suggesting that PI3-kinase, which is known to mediate ER stress-induced autophagy, also plays a role in initiating apoptosis in response to ER stress. Together these data establish that the cytotoxicity of AS-6 operates by a mechanism dependent on ER stress-induced autophagy and apoptosis.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC3346088 | BioStudies | 2012-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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