Efflux pumps of Mycobacterium tuberculosis play a significant role in antituberculosis activity of potential drug candidates.
ABSTRACT: Active efflux of drugs mediated by efflux pumps that confer drug resistance is one of the mechanisms developed by bacteria to counter the adverse effects of antibiotics and chemicals. To understand these efflux mechanisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we generated knockout (KO) mutants of four efflux pumps of the pathogen belonging to different classes. We measured the MICs and kill values of two different compound classes on the wild type (WT) and the efflux pump (EP) KO mutants in the presence and absence of the efflux inhibitors verapamil and l-phenylalanyl-l-arginyl-?-naphthylamide (PA?N). Among the pumps studied, the efflux pumps belonging to the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) class, encoded by Rv1218c, and the SMR (small multidrug resistance) class, encoded by Rv3065, appear to play important roles in mediating the efflux of different chemical classes and antibiotics. Efflux pumps encoded by Rv0849 and Rv1258c also mediate the efflux of these compounds, but to a lesser extent. Increased killing is observed in WT M. tuberculosis cells by these compounds in the presence of either verapamil or PA?N. The efflux pump KO mutants were more susceptible to these compounds in the presence of efflux inhibitors. We have shown that these four efflux pumps of M. tuberculosis play a vital role in mediating efflux of different chemical scaffolds. Inhibitors of one or several of these efflux pumps could have a significant impact in the treatment of tuberculosis. The identification and characterization of Rv0849, a new efflux pump belonging to the MFS (major facilitator superfamily) class, are reported.
Project description:New and improved treatments for tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed. Recently, it has been demonstrated that verapamil, an efflux inhibitor, can reduce bacterial drug tolerance caused by efflux pump activity when administered in combination with available antituberculosis agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of verapamil in combination with the antituberculosis drug candidate Q203, which has recently been developed and is currently under clinical trials as a potential antituberculosis agent. We evaluated changes in Q203 activity in the presence and absence of verapamil in vitro using the resazurin microplate assay and ex vivo using a microscopy-based phenotypic assay for the quantification of intracellular replicating mycobacteria. Verapamil increased the potency of Q203 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis both in vitro and ex vivo, indicating that efflux pumps are associated with the activity of Q203. Other efflux pump inhibitors also displayed an increase in Q203 potency, strengthening this hypothesis. Therefore, the combination of verapamil and Q203 may be a promising combinatorial strategy for anti-TB treatment to accelerate the elimination of M. tuberculosis.
Project description:The need for lengthy treatment to cure tuberculosis stems from phenotypic drug resistance, also known as drug tolerance, which has been previously attributed to slowed bacterial growth in vivo. We discuss recent findings that challenge this model and instead implicate macrophage-induced mycobacterial efflux pumps in antimicrobial tolerance. Although mycobacterial efflux pumps may have originally served to protect against environmental toxins, in the pathogenic mycobacteria, they appear to have been repurposed for intracellular growth. In this light, we discuss the potential of efflux pump inhibitors such as verapamil to shorten tuberculosis treatment by their dual inhibition of tolerance and growth.
Project description:Central dogma suggests that rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis develops solely through rpoB gene mutations.To determine whether rifampicin induces efflux pumps activation in rifampicin resistant M. tuberculosis strains thereby defining rifampicin resistance levels and reducing ofloxacin susceptibility.Rifampicin and/or ofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined in rifampicin resistant strains by culture in BACTEC 12B medium. Verapamil and reserpine were included to determine their effect on rifampicin and ofloxacin susceptibility. RT-qPCR was applied to assess expression of efflux pump/transporter genes after rifampicin exposure. To determine whether verapamil could restore susceptibility to first-line drugs, BALB/c mice were infected with a MDR-TB strain and treated with first-line drugs with/without verapamil.Rifampicin MICs varied independently of rpoB mutation and genetic background. Addition reserpine and verapamil significantly restored rifampicin susceptibility (p = 0.0000). RT-qPCR demonstrated that rifampicin induced differential expression of efflux/transporter genes in MDR-TB isolates. Incubation of rifampicin mono-resistant strains in rifampicin (2 ?g/ml) for 7 days induced ofloxacin resistance (MIC > 2 ?g/ml) in strains with an rpoB531 mutation. Ofloxacin susceptibility was restored by exposure to efflux pump inhibitors. Studies in BALB/c mice showed that verapamil in combination with first-line drugs significantly reduced pulmonary CFUs after 1 and 2 months treatment (p < 0.05).Exposure of rifampicin resistant M. tuberculosis strains to rifampicin can potentially compromise the efficacy of the second-line treatment regimens containing ofloxacin, thereby emphasising the need for rapid diagnostics to guide treatment. Efflux pump inhibitors have the potential to improve the efficacy of anti-tuberculosis drug treatment.
Project description:Efflux pumps are membrane proteins capable of actively transporting a broad range of substrates from the cytoplasm to the exterior of the cell. Increased efflux activity in response to drug treatment may be the first step in the development of bacterial drug resistance. Previous studies showed that the efflux pump Mmr was significantly overexpressed in strains exposed to isoniazid. In the work to be described, we constructed mutants lacking or overexpressing Mmr in order to clarify the role of this efflux pump in the development of resistance to isoniazid and other drugs in M. tuberculosis. The mmr knockout mutant showed an increased susceptibility to ethidium bromide, tetraphenylphosphonium, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Overexpression of mmr caused a decreased susceptibility to ethidium bromide, acriflavine, and safranin O that was obliterated in the presence of the efflux inhibitors verapamil and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Isoniazid susceptibility was not affected by the absence or overexpression of mmr. The fluorometric method allowed the detection of a decreased efflux of ethidium bromide in the knockout mutant, whereas the overexpressed strain showed increased efflux of this dye. This increased efflux activity was inhibited in the presence of efflux inhibitors. Under our experimental conditions, we have found that efflux pump Mmr is mainly involved in the susceptibility to quaternary compounds such as ethidium bromide and disinfectants such as CTAB. The contribution of this efflux pump to isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis still needs to be further elucidated.
Project description:Treatment of tuberculosis, a complex granulomatous disease, requires long-term multidrug therapy to overcome tolerance, an epigenetic drug resistance that is widely attributed to nonreplicating bacterial subpopulations. Here, we deploy Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish larvae for in vivo characterization of antitubercular drug activity and tolerance. We describe the existence of multidrug-tolerant organisms that arise within days of infection, are enriched in the replicating intracellular population, and are amplified and disseminated by the tuberculous granuloma. Bacterial efflux pumps that are required for intracellular growth mediate this macrophage-induced tolerance. This tolerant population also develops when Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects cultured macrophages, suggesting that it contributes to the burden of drug tolerance in human tuberculosis. Efflux pump inhibitors like verapamil reduce this tolerance. Thus, the addition of this currently approved drug or more specific efflux pump inhibitors to standard antitubercular therapy should shorten the duration of curative treatment.
Project description:There is a growing interest in repurposing mycobacterial efflux pump inhibitors, such as verapamil, for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. To aid in the design of better analogs, we studied the effects of verapamil on macrophages and Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cells. Macrophage activation was evaluated by measuring levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), and gamma interferon (IFN-?). Since verapamil is a known autophagy inducer, the roles of autophagy induction in the antimycobacterial activities of verapamil and norverapamil were studied using bone marrow-derived macrophages from ATG5(flox/flox) (control) and ATG5(flox/flox) Lyz-Cre mice. Our results showed that despite the well-recognized effects of verapamil on calcium channels and autophagy, its action on intracellular M. tuberculosis does not involve macrophage activation or autophagy induction. Next, the effects of verapamil and norverapamil on M. tuberculosis-specific T cells were assessed using flow cytometry following the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from TB-skin-test-positive donors with M. tuberculosis whole-cell lysate for 7 days in the presence or absence of drugs. We found that verapamil and norverapamil inhibit the expansion of M. tuberculosis-specific T cells. Additionally, three new verapamil analogs were found to inhibit intracellular Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and one of the three analogs (KSV21) inhibited intracellular M. tuberculosis replication at concentrations that did not inhibit M. tuberculosis-specific T cell expansion. KSV21 also inhibited mycobacterial efflux pumps to the same degree as verapamil. More interestingly, the new analog enhances the inhibitory activities of isoniazid and rifampin on intracellular M. tuberculosis. In conclusion, KSV21 is a promising verapamil analog on which to base structure-activity relationship studies aimed at identifying more effective analogs.
Project description:Mycobacterial efflux pumps play a major role in the emergence of antimycobacterial drug resistance. Of particular interest is the proteinaceous multi-drug efflux pump protein Rv1258c that encodes a tetracycline/aminoglycoside resistance (TAP-2)-like efflux pump which is active in susceptible and drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rv1258c is implicated in drug resistance to numerous antimycobacterials including first line drugs rifampicin and isoniazid as well as fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotic classes. To date, compounds like verapamil and piperine have been shown to inhibit Rv1258c but no direct evidence for binding or mode of action exist. Therefore in the present study we generated an accurate 3D model of Rv1258c using MODELLER and validated its structure using molecular dynamic simulation studies with GROMACS software. The 3D-structures of Rv1258c and the homologous template 1pw4 were simulated within a POPE/POPG lipid bilayer and found to behave similar. Another important finding was the identification of one local energy minima state of the apo protein, which speaks to the flexibility of the protein and will be investigated further. Extraction of one of the open channel conformations of Rv1258c and blind docking of various structurally diverse putative inhibitors and substrates, allowed for the identification of a probable binding site. Spectinamide was found to bind to a different location on the outside surface of the protein suggesting its ability to avoid the efflux channel. We further identified 246 putative compounds that showed higher binding affinity values to Rv1258c compared to piperine and verapamil. Interaction analysis of the top 20 purchasable compounds identified crucial hydrogen bond interactions with Ser26, Ser45 and Glu243 as well as a pi-pi stacking interaction with Trp32 that accounted for the strong affinity of these compounds for Rv1258c. Future studies will entail purchasing a number of compounds for in vitro activity testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Project description:Multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most effective drugs used in tuberculosis therapy. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which resistance towards isoniazid develops and how overexpression of efflux pumps favors accumulation of mutations in isoniazid targets, thus establishing a MDR phenotype. The study was based on the in vitro induction of an isoniazid resistant phenotype by prolonged serial exposure of M. tuberculosis strains to the critical concentration of isoniazid employed for determination of drug susceptibility testing in clinical isolates. Results show that susceptible and rifampicin monoresistant strains exposed to this concentration become resistant to isoniazid after three weeks; and that resistance observed for the majority of these strains could be reduced by means of efflux pumps inhibitors. RT-qPCR assessment of efflux pump genes expression showed overexpression of all tested genes. Enhanced real-time efflux of ethidium bromide, a common efflux pump substrate, was also observed, showing a clear relation between overexpression of the genes and increased efflux pump function. Further exposure to isoniazid resulted in the selection and stabilization of spontaneous mutations and deletions in the katG gene along with sustained increased efflux activity. Together, results demonstrate the relevance of efflux pumps as one of the factors of isoniazid resistance in M. tuberculosis. These results support the hypothesis that activity of efflux pumps allows the maintenance of an isoniazid resistant population in a sub-optimally treated patient from which isoniazid genetically resistant mutants emerge. Therefore, the use of inhibitors of efflux should be considered in the development of new therapeutic strategies for preventing the emergence of MDR-TB during treatment.
Project description:Although the relationship between Acinetobacter baumannii efflux pumps and antimicrobial resistance is well documented, less is known about the involvement of these proteins in the pathogenicity of this nosocomial pathogen. In previous work, we identified the AbaQ major facilitator superfamily (MFS) efflux pump and demonstrated its participation in the motility and virulence of A. baumannii In the present study, we examined the role in these processes of A. baumannii transporters belonging to different superfamilies of efflux pumps. Genes encoding known or putative permeases belonging to efflux pump superfamilies other than the MFS were selected, and the corresponding knockouts were constructed. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of these mutants were consistent with previously reported data. In mutants of A. baumannii strain ATCC 17978 carrying inactivated genes encoding the efflux pumps A1S_2736 (resistance nodulation division [RND]), A1S_3371 (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion [MATE]), and A1S_0710 (small multidrug resistance [SMR]), as well as the newly described ATP-binding cassette (ABC) permeases A1S_1242 and A1S_2622, both surface-associated motility and virulence were reduced compared to the parental strain. However, inactivation of the genes encoding the known ABC permeases A1S_0536 and A1S_1535, the newly identified putative ABC permeases A1S_0027 and A1S_1057, or the proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) transporters A1S_1503 and A1S_2063 had no effects on bacterial motility or virulence. Our results demonstrate the involvement of antimicrobial transporters belonging at least to five of the six known efflux pump superfamilies in both surface-associated motility and virulence in A. baumannii ATCC 17978.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mycobacterium can develop drug resistance (DR) by mutation of its existing gene. However, the existence of DR without mutation shows the need to look for an alternative mechanism such as the role of efflux pumps. In this study, we examined the effect of efflux pump inhibitors on isoniazid (INH) susceptibility in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Resazurin microtiter assay was used to examine the effect of efflux pump inhibitors on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels of INH in eighteen Mtb clinical isolates. RESULTS:The observed reduction in INH-MIC was 2-16-fold in INH-resistant isolates with katG and inhA gene mutations, 2-8-fold in INH-resistant isolates without mutation and 2-4-fold in INH-sensitive isolates. The MIC reduction by verapamil (VER) was observed in 83% isolates, by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) 61% isolates, by chloropromazine (CPZ) 61% isolates, by reserpine (RES) in 61% isolates and by 2,4-dinitro phenol (DNP) in 55% isolates. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS:The results obtained in this study confirm that MIC of INH decreased in the presence of efflux pump inhibitors (VER, CCCP, CPZ, DNP, RES) in clinical isolates of Mtb and that the inhibition of efflux pumps by the efflux pump inhibitors can enhance the clinical effect of a drug. The results showed that these efflux pump inhibitors are active against both drug susceptible and drug resistant isolates, indicating that the effect of efflux pump inhibitors is not dependent on the mutational profile of the isolate. We observed in this study that VER was the most effective efflux pump inhibitor.