Dynamic changes in nucleosome occupancy are not predictive of gene expression dynamics but are linked to transcription and chromatin regulators.
ABSTRACT: The response to stressful stimuli requires rapid, precise, and dynamic gene expression changes that must be coordinated across the genome. To gain insight into the temporal ordering of genome reorganization, we investigated dynamic relationships between changing nucleosome occupancy, transcription factor binding, and gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast responding to oxidative stress. We applied deep sequencing to nucleosomal DNA at six time points before and after hydrogen peroxide treatment and revealed many distinct dynamic patterns of nucleosome gain and loss. The timing of nucleosome repositioning was not predictive of the dynamics of downstream gene expression change but instead was linked to nucleosome position relative to transcription start sites and specific cis-regulatory elements. We measured genome-wide binding of the stress-activated transcription factor Msn2p over time and found that Msn2p binds different loci with different dynamics. Nucleosome eviction from Msn2p binding sites was common across the genome; however, we show that, contrary to expectation, nucleosome loss occurred after Msn2p binding and in fact required Msn2p. This negates the prevailing model that nucleosomes obscuring Msn2p sites regulate DNA access and must be lost before Msn2p can bind DNA. Together, these results highlight the complexities of stress-dependent chromatin changes and their effects on gene expression.
Project description:Numerous factors have been implicated in regulating gene expression changes, including changes to nucleosome occupancy. Here we followed dynamic changes to nucleosome occupancy, gene expression and DNA binding of the transcription factor Msn2p genome-wide in yeast cells responding to hydrogen peroxide. and reveal new relationships between regulators of stress-dependent gene expression in yeast. Msn2p occupancy was measured in response to 0.4mM H2O2 in the S288c derivative BY4741 with an integrated myc-tagged Msn2p. A single replicate of the time course was performed with time points at 0, 4, 12, 20, 40 and 60 minutes after treatment.
Project description:Numerous factors have been implicated in regulating gene expression changes, including changes to nucleosome occupancy. Here we followed dynamic changes to nucleosome occupancy, gene expression and DNA binding of the transcription factor Msn2p genome-wide in yeast cells responding to hydrogen peroxide to reveal new relationships between regulators of stress-dependent gene expression. Nucleosome occupancy was measured by MNase-Seq in response to .4mM H2O2 in the S288c yeast derivative BY4741. A single replicate was performed for the time-course experiment with time points at 0, 4, 12, 20, 40 and 60 minutes after treatment.
Project description:Numerous factors have been implicated in regulating gene expression changes, including changes to nucleosome occupancy. Here we followed dynamic changes to nucleosome occupancy, gene expression and DNA binding of the transcription factor Msn2p genome-wide in yeast cells responding to hydrogen peroxide and reveal new relationships between regulators of stress-dependent gene expression in yeast. Nucleosome occupancy was measured in the S288c derivative BY4741 and a strain lacking MSN2 and MSN4. Nucleosomes were isolated from unstressed yeast and yeast treated for 20 min with 0.4mM H2O2. Nucleosomal samples were compared in a 2-color, competitive hybridization to sheared genomic DNA.
Project description:The transcription factor Msn2 mediates a significant proportion of the environmental stress response, in which a common cohort of genes changes expression in a stereotypic fashion upon exposure to any of a wide variety of stresses. We have applied genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and nucleosome profiling to determine where Msn2 binds under stressful conditions and how that binding affects, and is affected by, nucleosome positioning. We concurrently determined the effect of Msn2 activity on gene expression following stress and demonstrated that Msn2 stimulates both activation and repression. We found that some genes responded to both intermittent and continuous Msn2 nuclear occupancy while others responded only to continuous occupancy. Finally, these studies document a dynamic interplay between nucleosomes and Msn2 such that nucleosomes can restrict access of Msn2 to its canonical binding sites while Msn2 can promote reposition, expulsion and recruitment of nucleosomes to alter gene expression. This interplay may allow the cell to discriminate between different types of stress signaling.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Nucleosome positioning has an important role in gene regulation. However, dynamic positioning in vivo casts doubt on the reliability of predictions based on DNA sequence characteristics. What role does sequence-dependent positioning play? In this paper, using a curvature profile model, nucleosomes are predicted in the human genome and patterns of nucleosomes near some key sites are investigated. RESULTS: Curvature profiling revealed that in the vicinity of a transcription start site, there is also a nucleosome-free region. Near transcription factor binding sites, curvature profiling showed a trough, indicating nucleosome depletion. The trough of the curvature profile corresponds well to the high binding scores of transcription factors. Moreover, our analysis suggests that nucleosome positioning has a selective protection role. Target sites of miRNAs are occupied by nucleosomes, while single nucleotide polymorphism sites are depleted of nucleosomes. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that DNA sequences play an important role in nucleosome positioning, and the positioning is important not only in gene regulation, but also in genetic variation and miRNA functions.
Project description:Numerous factors have been implicated in regulating gene expression changes, including changes to nucleosome occupancy. Here we followed dynamic changes to nucleosome occupancy, gene expression and DNA binding of the transcription factor Msn2p genome-wide in yeast cells responding to hydrogen peroxide and reveal new relationships between regulators of stress-dependent gene expression in yeast. Gene expression was measured in response to 0.4mM H2O2 in the S288c derivative BY4741 in wild-type cells and cells lacking MSN2 and MSN4. A single replicate of a time course spanning from 4 to 60 minutes after treatment in each cell type. An additional 3 repliactes were collected from cells 30 minutes after treatment.
Project description:Eucaryotic gene expression requires chromatin-remodeling activities. We show by time-course studies that transcriptional induction of the yeast glucose-regulated SUC2 gene is rapid and shows a striking biphasic pattern, the first phase of which is partly mediated by the general stress transcription factors Msn2p/Msn4p. The SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex associates with the promoter in a similar biphasic manner and is essential for both phases of transcription. Two different histone acetyltransferases, Gcn5p and Esa1p, enhance the binding of SWI/SNF to the promoter during early transcription and are required for optimal SUC2 induction. Gcn5p is recruited to SUC2 simultaneously with SWI/SNF, whereas Esa1p associates constitutively with the promoter. This study reveals an unusual transcription pattern of a metabolic gene and suggests a novel strategy by which distinct chromatin remodelers cooperate for the dynamic activation of transcription.
Project description:The eukaryotic genome is packaged as chromatin with nucleosomes comprising its basic structural unit, but the detailed structure of chromatin and its dynamic remodeling in terms of individual nucleosome positions has not been completely defined experimentally for any genome. We used ultra-high-throughput sequencing to map the remodeling of individual nucleosomes throughout the yeast genome before and after a physiological perturbation that causes genome-wide transcriptional changes. Nearly 80% of the genome is covered by positioned nucleosomes occurring in a limited number of stereotypical patterns in relation to transcribed regions and transcription factor binding sites. Chromatin remodeling in response to physiological perturbation was typically associated with the eviction, appearance, or repositioning of one or two nucleosomes in the promoter, rather than broader region-wide changes. Dynamic nucleosome remodeling tends to increase the accessibility of binding sites for transcription factors that mediate transcriptional changes. However, specific nucleosomal rearrangements were also evident at promoters even when there was no apparent transcriptional change, indicating that there is no simple, globally applicable relationship between chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activity. Our study provides a detailed, high-resolution, dynamic map of single-nucleosome remodeling across the yeast genome and its relation to global transcriptional changes.
Project description:Weak organic acids such as sorbate are potent fungistatic agents used in food preservation, but their intracellular targets are poorly understood. We thus searched for potential target genes and signaling components in the yeast genome using contemporary genome-wide functional assays as well as DNA microarray profiling. Phenotypic screening of the EUROSCARF collection revealed the existence of numerous sorbate-sensitive strains. Sorbate hypersensitivity was detected in mutants of the shikimate biosynthesis pathway, strains lacking the PDR12 efflux pump or WAR1, a transcription factor mediating stress induction of PDR12. Using DNA microarrays, we also analyzed the genome-wide response to acute sorbate stress, allowing for the identification of more than 100 genes rapidly induced by weak acid stress. Moreover, a novel War1p- and Msn2p/4p-independent regulon that includes HSP30 was identified. Although induction of the majority of sorbate-induced genes required Msn2p/4p, weak acid tolerance was unaffected by a lack of Msn2p/4p. Ectopic expression of PDR12 from the GAL1-10 promoter fully restored sorbate resistance in a strain lacking War1p, demonstrating that PDR12 is the major target of War1p under sorbic acid stress. Interestingly, comparison of microarray data with results from the phenotypic screening revealed that PDR12 remained as the only gene, which is both stress inducible and required for weak acid resistance. Our results suggest that combining functional assays with transcriptome profiling allows for the identification of key components in large datasets such as those generated by global microarray analysis.
Project description:Transcription has the capacity to mechanically modify DNA topology, DNA structure and nucleosome arrangement. Resulting from ongoing transcription, these modifications in turn may provide instant feedback to the transcription machinery. To substantiate the connection between transcription and DNA dynamics, we charted an ENCODE map of transcription-dependent dynamic supercoiling in human Burkitt's lymphoma cells by using psoralen photobinding to probe DNA topology in vivo. Dynamic supercoils spread ~1.5 kilobases upstream of the start sites of active genes. Low- and high-output promoters handled this torsional stress differently, as shown by using inhibitors of transcription and topoisomerases and by chromatin immunoprecipation of RNA polymerase and topoisomerases I and II. Whereas lower outputs are managed adequately by topoisomerase I, high-output promoters additionally require topoisomerase II. The genome-wide coupling between transcription and DNA topology emphasizes the importance of dynamic supercoiling for gene regulation.