Digenic inheritance of deafness caused by 8J allele of myosin-VIIA and mutations in other Usher I genes.
ABSTRACT: Inherited hearing loss in mice has contributed substantially to our understanding of inner-ear function. We identified a new allele at the Myo7a locus, Myo7a(sh1-8J); genomic characterization indicated that Myo7a(sh1-8J) arose from complex deletion encompassing exons 38-40 and 42-46. Homozygous mutant mice had no detectable auditory brainstem response, displayed highly disorganized hair-cell stereocilia and had no detectable MYO7A protein. We generated mice that were digenic heterozygotes for Myo7a(sh1-8J) and one of each Cdh23(v-2J), Ush1g(js) or Pcdh15(av-3J) alleles, or an Ush1c null allele. Significant levels of age-related hearing loss were detected in +/Myo7a(sh1-8J) +/Ush1g(js), +/Myo7a(sh1-8J) +/Cdh23(v-2J) and +/Myo7a(sh1-8J) +/Pcdh15(av-3J) double heterozygous mice compared with age-matched single heterozygous animals, suggesting epistasis between Myo7a and each of the three loci. +/Pcdh15(av-3J) +/Ush1g(js) double heterozygous mice also showed elevated hearing loss, suggesting Pcdh15-Ush1g epistasis. While we readily detected MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23 and PCDH15 using mass spectrometry of purified chick utricle hair bundles, we did not detect USH1G. Consistent with that observation, Ush1g microarray signals were much lower in chick cochlea than those of Myo7a, Ush1c, Cdh23 and Pcdh15 and were not detected in the chick utricle. These experiments confirm the importance of MYO7A for the development and maintenance of bundle function and support the suggestion that MYO7A, USH1G (Sans) and CDH23 form the upper tip-link complex in adult mice, likely in combination with USH1C (harmonin). MYO7A, USH1G and PCDH15 may form another complex in stereocilia. USH1G may be a limiting factor in both complexes.
Project description:Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a dual sensory impairment affecting hearing and vision. USH is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Ten different causal genes have been reported. We studied the molecular bases of the disease in 18 unrelated Algerian patients by targeted-exome sequencing, and identified the causal biallelic mutations in all of them: 16 patients carried the mutations at the homozygous state and 2 at the compound heterozygous state. Nine of the 17 different mutations detected in MYO7A (1 of 5 mutations), CDH23 (4 of 7 mutations), PCDH15 (1 mutation), USH1C (1 mutation), USH1G (1 mutation), and USH2A (1 of 2 mutations), had not been previously reported. The deleterious consequences of a missense mutation of CDH23 (p.Asp1501Asn) and the in-frame single codon deletion in USH1G (p.Ala397del) on the corresponding proteins were predicted from the solved 3D-structures of extracellular cadherin (EC) domains of cadherin-23 and the sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain of USH1G/sans, respectively. In addition, we were able to show that the USH1G mutation is likely to affect the binding interface between the SAM domain and USH1C/harmonin. This should spur the use of 3D-structures, not only of isolated protein domains, but also of protein-protein interaction interfaces, to predict the functional impact of mutations detected in the USH genes.
Project description:Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising retinitis pigmentosa, hearing loss and, in some cases, vestibular dysfunction. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous with three distinctive clinical types (I-III) and nine Usher genes identified. This study is a comprehensive clinical and genetic analysis of 172 Usher patients and evaluates the contribution of digenic inheritance.The genes MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1G, USH2A, GPR98, WHRN, CLRN1 and the candidate gene SLC4A7 were sequenced in 172 UK Usher patients, regardless of clinical type.No subject had definite mutations (nonsense, frameshift or consensus splice site mutations) in two different USH genes. Novel missense variants were classified UV1-4 (unclassified variant): UV4 is 'probably pathogenic', based on control frequency <0.23%, identification in trans to a pathogenic/probably pathogenic mutation and segregation with USH in only one family; and UV3 ('likely pathogenic') as above, but no information on phase. Overall 79% of identified pathogenic/UV4/UV3 variants were truncating and 21% were missense changes. MYO7A accounted for 53.2%, and USH1C for 14.9% of USH1 families (USH1C:c.496+1G>A being the most common USH1 mutation in the cohort). USH2A was responsible for 79.3% of USH2 families and GPR98 for only 6.6%. No mutations were found in USH1G, WHRN or SLC4A7.One or two pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were identified in 86% of cases. No convincing cases of digenic inheritance were found. It is concluded that digenic inheritance does not make a significant contribution to Usher syndrome; the observation of multiple variants in different genes is likely to reflect polymorphic variation, rather than digenic effects.
Project description:We report results of DNA analysis with next generation sequencing (NGS) of 21 consecutive Italian patients from 17 unrelated families with clinical diagnosis of Usher syndrome (4 USH1 and 17 USH2) searching for mutations in 11 genes: MYO7A, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1C, USH1G, USH2A, ADGVR1, DFNB31, CLRN1, PDZD7, HARS. Likely causative mutations were found in all patients: 25 pathogenic variants, 18 previously reported and 7 novel, were identified in three genes (USH2A, MYO7A, ADGRV1). All USH1 presented biallelic MYO7A mutations, one USH2 exhibited ADGRV1 mutations, whereas 16 USH2 displayed USH2A mutations. USH1 patients experienced hearing problems very early in life, followed by visual impairment at 1, 4 and 6 years. Visual symptoms were noticed at age 20 in a patient with homozygous novel MYO7A missense mutation c.849G?>?A. USH2 patients' auditory symptoms, instead, arose between 11 months and 14 years, while visual impairment occurred later on. A homozygous c.5933_5940del;5950_5960dup in USH2A was detected in one patient with early deafness. One patient with homozygous deletion from exon 23 to 32 in USH2A suffered early visual symptoms. Therefore, the type of mutation in USH2A and MYO7A genes seems to affect the age at which both auditory and visual impairment occur in patients with USH.
Project description:PURPOSE: Usher syndrome type I (USH1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa, and vestibular areflexia. To date, five USH1 genes have been identified. One of these genes is Usher syndrome 1C (USH1C), which encodes a protein, harmonin, containing PDZ domains. The aim of the present work was the mutation screening of the USH1C gene in a cohort of 33 Usher syndrome patients, to identify the genetic cause of the disease and to determine the relative involvement of this gene in USH1 pathogenesis in the Spanish population. METHODS: Thirty-three patients were screened for mutations in the USH1C gene by direct sequencing. Some had already been screened for mutations in the other known USH1 genes (myosin VIIA [MYO7A], cadherin-related 23 [CDH23], protocadherin-related 15 [PCDH15], and Usher syndrome 1G [USH1G]), but no mutation was found. RESULTS: Two novel mutations were found in the USH1C gene: a non-sense mutation (p.C224X) and a frame-shift mutation (p.D124TfsX7). These mutations were found in a homozygous state in two unrelated USH1 patients. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we detected two novel pathogenic mutations in the USH1C gene. Our results suggest that mutations in USH1C are responsible for 1.5% of USH1 disease in patients of Spanish origin (considering the total cohort of 65 Spanish USH1 patients since 2005), indicating that USH1C is a rare form of USH in this population.
Project description:Background:Usher syndrome (USH) is a recessive inherited disease characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa, and sometimes, vestibular dysfunction. Although the molecular epidemiology of Usher syndrome has been well studied in Europe and United States, there is a lack of studies in other regions like Africa or Central and South America. Methods:We designed a NGS panel that included the 10 USH causative genes (MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1G, CIB2, USH2A, ADGRV1, WHRN, and CLRN1), four USH associated genes (HARS, PDZD7, CEP250, and C2orf71), and the region comprising the deep-intronic c.7595-2144A>G mutation in USH2A. Results:NGS sequencing was performed in 11 USH patients from Cuba. All the cases were solved. We found the responsible mutations in the USH2A, ADGRV1, CDH23, PCDH15, and CLRN1 genes. Four mutations have not been previously reported. Two mutations are recurrent in this study: c.619C>T (p.Arg207?) in CLRN1, previously reported in two unrelated Spanish families of Basque origin, and c.4488G>C (p.Gln1496His) in CDH23, first described in a large Cuban family. Additionally, c.4488G>C has been reported two more times in the literature in two unrelated families of Spanish origin. Conclusion:Although the sample size is very small, it is tempting to speculate that the gene frequencies in Cuba are distinct from other populations mainly due to an "island effect" and genetic drift. The two recurrent mutations appear to be of Spanish origin. Further studies with a larger cohort are needed to elucidate the real genetic landscape of Usher syndrome in the Cuban population.
Project description:Usher syndrome accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deaf-blindness cases. The most severe form of this syndrome, Usher syndrome type I (USH1), is characterized by profound congenital sensorineural deafness, vestibular dysfunction, and retinitis pigmentosa. Six USH1 genes have been identified, MYO7A, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1C, SANS, and CIB2, encoding myosin VIIA, cadherin-23, protocadherin-15, harmonin, scaffold protein containing ankyrin repeats and a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain, and calcium- and integrin-binding member 2, respectively.In the present study, we recruited four Tunisian families with a diagnosis of USH1, together with healthy unrelated controls. Affected members underwent detailed audiologic and ocular examinations. We used the North African Deafness (NADf) chip to search for known North African mutations associated with USH. Then, we selected microsatellite markers covering USH1 known loci to genotype the DNA samples. Finally, we performed DNA sequencing of three known USH1 genes: MYO7A, PCDH15, and USH1C.Four biallelic mutations, all single base changes, were found in the MYO7A, USH1C, and PCDH15 genes. These mutations consist of a previously reported splicing defect c.470+1G>A in MYO7A, three novel variants, including two nonsense (p.Arg3X and p.Arg134X) in USH1C and PCDH15, respectively, and one frameshift (p.Lys615Asnfs*6) in MYO7A.We found a remarkable genetic heterogeneity in the studied families with USH1 with a variety of mutations, among which three were novel. These novel mutations will be included in the NADf mutation screening chip that will allow a higher diagnosis efficiency of this extremely genetically heterogeneous disease. Ultimately, efficient molecular diagnosis of USH in a patient's early childhood is of utmost importance, allowing better educational and therapeutic management.
Project description:Usher syndrome is a rare disorder causing retinitis pigmentosa, together with sensorineural hearing loss. Due to the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of this disease, the best method to screen the causative mutations is by high-throughput sequencing. In this study, we tested a semiconductor chip based sequencing approach with 77 unrelated patients, as a molecular diagnosis routine. In addition, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization techniques were applied to detect large rearrangements, and minigene assays were performed to confirm the mRNA processing aberrations caused by splice-site mutations. The designed panel included all the USH causative genes (MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1G, CIB2, USH2A, ADGRV1, WHRN and CLRN1) as well as four uncertainly associated genes (HARS, PDZD7, CEP250 and C2orf71). The outcome showed an overall mutation detection ratio of 82.8% and allowed the identification of 42 novel putatively pathogenic mutations. Furthermore, we detected two novel nonsense mutations in CEP250 in a patient with a disease mimicking Usher syndrome that associates visual impairment due to cone-rod dystrophy and progressive hearing loss. Therefore, this approach proved reliable results for the molecular diagnosis of the disease and also allowed the consolidation of the CEP250 gene as disease causative for an Usher-like phenotype.
Project description:Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease that associates sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa and, in some cases, vestibular dysfunction. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. To date, 10 genes have been associated with the disease, making its molecular diagnosis based on Sanger sequencing, expensive and time-consuming. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to develop a molecular diagnostics method for Usher syndrome, based on targeted next generation sequencing.A custom HaloPlex panel for Illumina platforms was designed to capture all exons of the 10 known causative Usher syndrome genes (MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1G, CIB2, USH2A, GPR98, DFNB31 and CLRN1), the two Usher syndrome-related genes (HARS and PDZD7) and the two candidate genes VEZT and MYO15A. A cohort of 44 patients suffering from Usher syndrome was selected for this study. This cohort was divided into two groups: a test group of 11 patients with known mutations and another group of 33 patients with unknown mutations.Forty USH patients were successfully sequenced, 8 USH patients from the test group and 32 patients from the group composed of USH patients without genetic diagnosis. We were able to detect biallelic mutations in one USH gene in 22 out of 32 USH patients (68.75%) and to identify 79.7% of the expected mutated alleles. Fifty-three different mutations were detected. These mutations included 21 missense, 8 nonsense, 9 frameshifts, 9 intronic mutations and 6 large rearrangements.Targeted next generation sequencing allowed us to detect both point mutations and large rearrangements in a single experiment, minimizing the economic cost of the study, increasing the detection ratio of the genetic cause of the disease and improving the genetic diagnosis of Usher syndrome patients.
Project description:Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a common lipid disorder characterized by the presence of multiple lipoprotein phenotypes that increase the risk of premature coronary heart disease. In a previous study, we identified an intragenic microsatellite marker within the protocadherin 15 (PCDH15) gene to be associated with high triglycerides (TGs) in Finnish dyslipidemic families. In this study we analyzed all four known nonsynonymous SNPs within PCDH15 in 1,268 individuals from Finnish and Dutch multigenerational families with FCHL. Association analyses of quantitative traits for SNPs were performed using the QTDT test. The nonsynonymous SNP rs10825269 resulted in a P = 0.0006 for the quantitative TG trait. Additional evidence for association was observed with the same SNP for apolipoprotein B levels (apo-B) (P = 0.0001) and total cholesterol (TC) levels (P = 0.001). None of the other three SNPs tested showed a significant association with any lipid-related trait. We investigated the expression of PCDH15 in different human tissues and observed that PCDH15 is expressed in several tissues including liver and pancreas. In addition, we measured the plasma lipid levels in mice with loss-of-function mutations in Pcdh15 (Pcdh15(av-Tg) and Pcdh15(av-3J)) to investigate possible abnormalities in their lipid profile. We observed a significant difference in plasma TG and TC concentrations for the Pcdh15(av-3J) carriers when compared with the wild type (P = 0.013 and P = 0.044, respectively). Our study suggests that PCDH15 is associated with lipid abnormalities.
Project description:Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) is the most severe of the three USH subtypes due to its profound hearing loss, absent vestibular response and retinitis pigmentosa appearing at a prepubescent age. Six causative genes have been identified for USH1, making early diagnosis and therapy possible through DNA testing. Targeted exon sequencing of selected genes using massively parallel DNA sequencing (MPS) technology enables clinicians to systematically tackle previously intractable monogenic disorders and improve molecular diagnosis. Using MPS along with direct sequence analysis, we screened 227 unrelated non-syndromic deaf children and detected recessive mutations in USH1 causative genes in five patients (2.2%): three patients harbored MYO7A mutations and one each carried CDH23 or PCDH15 mutations. As indicated by an earlier genotype-phenotype correlation study of the CDH23 and PCDH15 genes, we considered the latter two patients to have USH1. Based on clinical findings, it was also highly likely that one patient with MYO7A mutations possessed USH1 due to a late onset age of walking. This first report describing the frequency (1.3-2.2%) of USH1 among non-syndromic deaf children highlights the importance of comprehensive genetic testing for early disease diagnosis.